One for the next few decades. Due to the

One of the examples of  containment in Latin America was the Rio pact
of 1947. It provided that “an armed attack by any State shall be
considered as an attack against all the American States and, consequently, each
one of the said Contracting Parties undertakes to assist in meeting the
attack.” Signed in 1949, it created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO). During the Cold War, such policies seeking to limit Soviet influence,
but consequently it involved the United States and its allies to get into proxy
wars such as the Korean War and
Vietnam War.

Since the use of force against
communism carried the risk of starting a nuclear war, the American government
adopted a policy of containment. The idea of opposing the spread of communism
with containment was to combat Soviet aggression wherever it occurred with
force but without the use of
nuclear weapons. The containment
policy was developed by U.S. diplomat
George Kennan in 1947.
Kennan characterized the
Soviet Union as “an
aggressive, anti-Western power that necessitated containment”. This characterization
shaped US foreign policy for the next few decades. Due to the hostility on both
sides and each countries’ search for security, a tense worldwide contest
developed between the two nations ad their governments vied for global

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The United States enacted the
Marshall Plan in 1948.
Through this plan, Western Europe –including Germany–received $13 billion USD
as financial aid for reconstruction. A similar program was used to restore the
Japanese economy. The U.S. actively sought allies, which it subsidized with
diplomatic support along with military and economic foreign aid. Most nations
of the world aligned with either the Western or Eastern camp, however after
1960 the understanding between the Soviets and China weakened as the Communist
movement became divided.

For more than 40 years, Capitalism
and Communism were engaged in a global conflict, each striving to gain an advantage
over the other in the much anticipated nuclear war. Both sides invested large
amounts of resources building up their nuclear arsenal and carrying out
intensive espionage operations. Three major foreign policies shaped the
circumstances of the cold war.              

The grand alliance completely
fell apart after the WW2 ended and soon the countries turned against each
other, especially U.S. and the Soviet Union, in their attempts to make their
government model, a more widespread one.
Throughout the second half of the
20th Century the Foreign policies of both the countries were defined by the
Cold War. They mainly focused on getting ahead in the competition between each
other in terms of global affairs, military build ups, technology and nuclear

In Potsdam, the grand alliance
had made an agreement on the division of Germany. All of Germany was divided
into zones of influence: French, British, American and Soviet zones. Berlin,
the capital, was also split into these very zones. In terms of reparations, the
Soviet Union pressed for the most reparations because they had the highest loss
in terms of casualties and financial expenditure. In case of atomic bombs,
America had already tested the atomic bomb and that made a massive difference
to the way they negotiated. Finally, in Poland, the Red army (the communist
army) had occupied much of Eastern Europe. These factors, completely changed
the working relationship between U.S. and the Soviet Union.

The final conference, the Potsdam
conference from 17 July to 2nd August, 1945,
had some new faces. Harry S. Truman represented U.S. after the death of FDR and
Clement Attlee was elected the new Prime Minister of Britain. There were very
serious divisions in this conference, especially because the war was now coming
to an end- they didn’t have a powerful enemy they were all opposed to so there
wasn’t much holding them together. Also, Truman, unlike FDR, had a very
different attitude towards Stalin. Four major topics came up for discussion
during Potsdam, that included Territory, German reparations, the atomic bomb
and Poland.

Many agreements made by FDR in
Yalta, backfired for the United States. U.S. had successfully deployed the
Atomic bomb and so, they didn’t require assistance of the Soviet Union (as was
requested by FDR), but the Soviet Union held up their end of the bargain,
because of which they got notable influence over Asia. Also, in 1949, unlike
what was agreed by FDR and Churchill, Stalin invaded all of Poland. Poland was
communist, and completely under the eastern sphere of influence.

He said during this conference:
“If I give him everything he will word me for a world of democracy and
peace.” With this new trust, FDR requested the Soviet Union to join U.S.
in the fight against Japan. Stalin negotiated and got a deal that in return,
the Soviet would have their influence in Asia recognized in particular in areas
such as Manchuria. FRD agreed. Many Americans weren’t happy with this decision
because they felt they were giving away Asia to the Soviet Union. The big
three, all agreed that they were going to force Germany to surrender: they
would split Germany into zones, areas they controlled; they would demilitarize
Germany; remove traces of the Nazi party and Nazi leaders; and Germany would
pay reparations- part of which included forced labour. The Soviet Union also
made the commitment to join the United Nations, an organization which was in
the process of being created. It was also decided that Nazi war criminals would
be chased and tried after the war. The division of Poland (unresolved from the
Tehran Conference) was still there. They made an initial agreement that an area
of Poland would be under the Soviet Union. The rest of Poland would have free
election and these would potentially be completely independent.


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