Occupational health care is preventive health care, which is provided on the basis of the Occupational Health Care Act. The objective of occupational health care is a healthy and safe working environment, a well-functioning working community, prevention of work-related diseases as well as the maintenance of employees’ working ability and functional capacity, and promotion of their health.
The health and safety of the world’s workforce periodically attracts the attention of the national and international media. Industrial disasters, especially those resulting in multiple fatalities, make global headlines. But the reality is that throughout the world, many thousands of people die from their work activities every day, and numerous fatalities are unreported or ignored. Globally, an estimated 2.
3 million workers die every year from occupational accidents and work- related diseases. In addition, many millions of workers suffer non-fatal injuries and illnesses. This represents a colossal social and economic burden for enterprises, communities and countries, not to mention an appalling human and financial problem for workers and their families. Most work-related deaths and non-fatal occupational accidents occur in low- and middle-income countries in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific region. These countries possess most of the world’s working population but additionally, as in other developing countries like Sudan the proportion of workers occupied in risky jobs is higher.
Nevertheless, high-income countries also present a significant number of work-related fatalities; though fatal accidents represent a smaller portion of their death toll so the need for prevention is both obvious and urgent. The great majority of workplace accidents and diseases are preventable, but good intentions have not always been implemented or sustained. Therefore, it is necessary to develop policies that will help the workers in the field of occupational health at the federal and state levels as well as at the level of the establishment Sudan is one of country that respond and develop their national policy2 AMINA ADAM NOOR ABOGARDA-Occupational health was recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Office (ILO) in 1950 as the achievement of the highest physical, psychological and social standards for workers in all sectors of the labor force, as well as for the employment of the worker in accordance with his physical and psychological readiness to achieve harmony between the worker and his work. In May 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a resolution urging member states to formulate their strategy and devise national programs in occupational health to achieve the global strategy “Health for All by the Year 2000” (Document No. 49.12 WHO). In May 1997, Global Health A national occupational health strategy has been developed- The roll of federal ministry of health and labor office regarding safety and health at work place in republic of Sudan.
Historical background of Occupational health Sudan- Occupational health and safety was founded in Sudan in 1948 the services were administered centrally from Khartoum in addition to the three regional sections in Atbara, Port Sudan and Madani until 1993, where the federal government was declared as a formula for the government system in Sudan and the issuance of the twelfth which transferred the executive work of the occupational health to the states. And The work of the Federal Occupational Health is as follows: 1. To formulate general policies for occupational health services at the level of different states.2 – Coordination with international organizations and other bodies such as ministries and relevant institutions such as ministries of labor, agriculture, interior, industry and institutions of the Ministry of Education and scientific research, such as universities and higher technical institutes and scientific research centers in all matters and helps in the development of occupational health.
3- Training: 3-1 Training of doctors and environmental workers and health officers to obtain a postgraduate degree such as a master’s degree in the field of occupational health. 3.2 Training of assistant staff such as nursing technicians, technicians and health observers. 3.3 Training of occupational health supervisors. 4 – Specifying the equipment needed by occupational health services 5. Reference services: 5-1 The study and license of industrial, agricultural and service projects of a national nature or that exceed the limits of one state or those that do not have committees through the Central Health Committee for buildings, factories and workplaces.
5.2 Provide technical assistance to the employees to implement prevention and avoidance3 AMINA ADAM NOOR ABOGARDAof occupational hazards in areas where there are no professional health services or as requested by specialists in states with occupational health services.Historical background of Occupational health Sudan-cont? 1949 – Factory and Workshops Act? Labor Code of 1997? Factories Decree of 1981? Occupational health Act of 1981? Tobacco Act 2005? Occupational Safety Compensation Law 2007? National Pension Fund Law – 2008 .
Occupational Health lows in Sudan 1. 1977 Manufactories rule 2. 1983 Medical Check rule- Social Security Act 3. 1981 occupational Health rule- Industrial Security Act 4. 1997 Labor Act 5.
2011 Occupational Health Act 6. 2013 Work Environment Act7. 1971 radiation law8-1974Social Insurance Law9-1997Labor lawCoverage of the regulations: Any one over the age of sixteen working in for any type of payment, for an employer and under his supervision and management, whether under a written or unwritten contract, or under training. Excluded: – domestic servants, family members of the employer who live with him and who are defendant on him for livingGeneral Principles of Occupational Health Policy in Sudan: – Protecting the health and safety of all workers by preventing work-related injuries,4 AMINA ADAM NOOR ABOGARDAdiseases and accidents – The policy should be specific to the region and suitable for it in line with the size and nature of its activity. – Compliance with national laws and legislation and guidelines for occupational health. – Ensure that staff are consulted and encouraged to participate effectively in all occupational health management and management arrangements at their facilities.
– Continue to apply and develop occupational health management. – Focusing on the continuous improvement of the protection and health of workers and to achieve the best performance of occupational health. The policy is practical and can be applied.Organization of occupational health services in the Sudan at the federal level:The Occupational Health Department is under the supervision of the Environmental Health and Food Control Department which is under General Directorate of primary Health Care and consists of several specialized departments as follows: – Medical Section – Department of Environment and Environmental Pollution – Inspection and orientation Section – Department of Human Engineering and Work Physiology – Professional Sociology Department Functions of the departments: All occupational health departments work in an integrated manner and in the form of an integrated team aimed at accomplishing the tasks, competencies and objectives of the Occupational Health Administration. This is accomplished by implementing the specific tasks and competencies of each department.
Functions and Responsibilities of Occupational Health and Safety Section1. Drawing up general policies and strategies for occupational health and safety services.2.
Planning and ensuring that the department implements its objectives.3. Participate in the development of guidelines and guidelines that identify risks and occupational diseases in different work environments.4.
Participate in the preparation of laws, regulations and special legislations and update them in coordination with the relevant bodies concerned with safety and occupational health.5. Participate in the preparation of curricula for training workers in different working environments6. Training of workers in various occupational health and safety.7.
Continuing supervision of the work of the states with regard to occupational health and safety8. Conducting surveys, research and studies on occupational health and safety9. Continuous communication, cooperation and coordination with relevant bodies concerned with occupational health and safety.10. Participation in conferences and workshops inside and outside the Sudan.5 AMINA ADAM NOOR ABOGARDAOrganization of occupational health services in the Sudan at the state level:The work of occupational health in the state of Khartoum began in implementation of the thirteenth constitutional decree which allowed the state authorities to exercise their executive functions for health activities including occupational health after it was implemented at the federal level.
The work of occupational health in the state of Khartoum its was centrally in the presidency of the Ministry of Health, State of Khartoum until 1997, where the work moved to the localitiesHierarchy of state Occupational HealthThe Department of Occupational Health Khartoum State follows the General Directorate for Health Promotion which is under General Directorate of primary health car and is divided into the Central Administration and the local occupational health teamsduties A / Training B / Setting plans and programs c / Technical supervision d / Providing work aids E / Consideration of complaints and consultations and / setting guidelines for action / coordination with relevant bodies Chair structure Occupational health teams in the localities: The of Khartoum state is divided into seven localities (Khartoum, Jabal Oliya, Bahri, East Nile, Omdurman, Karri and Ombda). – Its has been redistributed to three major localities: Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman on the basis of the distribution of the density of industrial establishments and the number of workers. In each of the three localities there is a professional health team, administratively and locally, and technically to the Occupational Health Department. The team consists of the following:- 1- Occupational Health Coordinator (Health Officer):-? Represents the Director of the Department of Occupational Health in all matters related to the local occupational health.? Leading, supervising the occupational health team.
? Environmental Coordination with the establishments and the labor office.? Survey and inspection according to the target.? Revenue and its follow-up.
2- Environment worker and Professional health Guidance Officer (Health Officer):? Vocational guidance as per target.? Various environmental measurements.6 AMINA ADAM NOOR ABOGARDA? Any other tasks entrusted to him by the coordinator or administration.3. Occupational health doctor:? Conducts general medical examination? Transferring cases as occupational diseases or injuries to occupational health professionals.4. Occupational health Nurse:? Performs physiological measurements (hearing and inhalational energy).
? Measures weight and height.5. Assistant Medical Eye:? Eye Medical check.
6. Statistion:? Record preliminary data for beneficiaries.? Assist in the preparation of monthly and statistical reports.KSMOH Vision: Healthy work environmentMission: By enforcing the 2011 Occupational Health Act, we will protect the worker and the employer at the same time in win situation mannerObjectives: 1. to reducing the morbidity and mortality rates by 90% due to occupational hazards and diseases 2.
To protecting the workers and employers rights and Dispute resolution 3. Implementing a health promotion program to promote the Occupational Health issues 4. Developing and activating policies, lows and information systems to steer the decision making in the health sector 5. Insuring the compliance that provide healthy work place and thus healthier worker and more productivityIn order to change the current situation ministry of health and labor office can face different challengesThe current situation in Sudan-Although Sudan has long history of polices, regulation, low and own national OSH country profiles regarding health and safety in work place still there is poor implementation7 AMINA ADAM NOOR ABOGARDA-Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) SMEs are believed to be responsible for over 50 per cent of the new jobs created globally.
Moreover, in most developing countries like Sudan, they also employ more people than large enterprises do. In the light of this situation, SMEs clearly have the potential to contribute significantly to the social and economic progress of workers and communities, but many of them – especially in Sudan are not achieving their full potential. This is partly because OSH is often less well managed in SMEs, creating working conditions that are less safe and posing greater risks to the health of workers than larger enterprises (Croucher et al.
, 2013). In particular, SMEs have less time to devote to providing OSH training and information due to the economies of scale. Research also confirms a common lack of awareness of the cost implications of occupational accidents and diseases amongst SME owners and managers, as well as a tendency for SMEs to be reactive, rather than adopting proactive preventive strategies towards OSH (Croucher et al., 2013)-Estimating the economic cost of occupational injuries and illnessesIn addition to immeasurable human suffering, fatalities and ill health cause major economic losses for enterprises and societies as a whole, including lost productivity and reduced workcapacity.
It is estimated that around four per cent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP) is lost due to various direct and indirect costs, including compensation, medical expenses, property damage, lost earnings and replacement training .-poor researches on occupational healthThe challenges- A negative attitude towards OSH is in part formed out of ignorance regarding the causes of occupational accidents and diseases and what can be done to prevent them practically- OSH IS A LOW PRIORITY in Sudan- No picture of the real impact of poor OSH conditions in sudan-Under-reporting- Public ignorance-Low resources for OSH improvement and collection of information- Lack of treatment, compensation8 AMINA ADAM NOOR ABOGARDAThe way for word in order to change the current situationTHE FACTORS FOR EFFECTIVENESS OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES in Sudan:-The Governments should put OSH a higher priority in their national agendas-Existing infrastructure of health services.-Trained manpower.-Workers involvement and employers commitment.-Surveillance of the working environment by means of epidemiological studies and testing.
-paying attention to the need for effective national OSH systems and programs its key requirements of the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health-Engage a wider range of stakeholders in promoting OSH and prevention. Thus, educational and research institutions have important roles to play, and both private and public advisory bodies can offer helpful OSH information and advice.- National campaigns are an important way of bringing together such partners in a common purpose with time-bound programmes.-Government departments should working more closely together on OSH concerns-Ministries of labor and ministries of health have to collaborate on the prevention of occupational diseases.- Collaboration of Social security associations, through their employment injury schemes, are also paying greater attention to prevention in their programmes and developing incentives to help reduce occupational accidents and ill health (International Labor Office, 2013d). Professional OSH associations also have an important role to play.- Universities and other tertiary educational and training establishments should including OSH and prevention in their curricula, thus expanding public understanding of the benefits of OSH and of the importance of prevention.
-Introduction of OSH into national school curricula in more effective way.-Providing advice and information through intermediaries like financial institutions has proved very helpful and persuasive for some SMEs. Others have benefitted greatly from supply-chain initiatives, such as when larger enterprises provide OSH training for their SME suppliers. The media has had a major impact on attitudes towards OSH among SMEs, self-employed individuals and others beyond the traditional reach of OSH9 AMINA ADAM NOOR ABOGARDAinspection. In particular, TV campaigns highlighting major accidents and what can be done to prevent them have significantly helped to change OSH attitudes and behavior among such groups.- A cultural shift is needed in many workplaces, especially in those that are more poorly regulated.-Inspection and Counseling