Nowadays, in 21th-century era, the development of technologyoffers newer and faster way to get things done. All aspects in life such aseducation, business, and daily activities require people to use the digitalmedia.
It changes the need from paper-based to paperless, book to e-book, and fromphysical connection to virtual communication. The use of internet becomes theprimary need in this globalization era. However, this new phenomena should beaccompanied by new comprehension and communication understanding such as newregulations that able to secure the digital media and technology use in societyespecially in educational scope. People in thisera can’t separate education and technology use because they believe that the futuregeneration should own advance digital skills that combined with ethical technologyunderstanding to support their attitudes towards the digital literacy growth. In Indonesia,based on a statistics survey by PEWRC (2015) resulted that from the range ofage 18-29 years old, citizen of Indonesia 78% have their own smart phone.While, 69% result in the range of 30-49 year old. It means that the citizen ofIndonesia considered as have moderate to high digital and technology awareness.They are able to adopt the information that is transferred from internet basedmedia through their gadgets mainly from their mobile phones.
As the result, Indonesianpeople encounter a rapid growth of the needs related to internet, information,and communication technology (ICT) use from their gadget. There are someadvantages from this growth such as the ease of accessing the information thatencourage the learning activities. In other side, it also brings some problemssuch as the easy access to negative content, negligence, theincorrect or acceptable way of communicating on the Internet, and gadget addiction. Therefore, theuser of gadget and digital technology must be provided with an ethicalunderstanding and responsibility awareness for using it. One different perspective arises inNisa’s family. Nisa is an 8th grade student (14 years old) in MTs Darussalam,Sidoarjo. Her parent banned her from using mobile phone while she is at home.That rule has started since she was on the 7th grade of her Junior High Schoolperiod.
Even though all her friend already becoming gadget-freak and internetaddict, she is still obeys her parents’ rule. She will only use her mobilephone when she go somewhere outside her house in order to keep in contact withher family. Something more amazing is her score in school regarding the digitalliteracy and technology use is considered best 10. She is considered have highdigital literacy skill and able to use ICT to support her learning activitiesat school. She is able to do her work more effective and efficient with the school computer even though she has limitedtime and minimum exposure to computer, gadget, or internet at home. This research context is to findthe deeper explanation about the phenomena that happen in Nisa’s family. Italso tries to answers the upcoming challenge for parents for improving children’squality through digital literacy education.
Objectives of this research are depictingthe natural description about the socio-cultural phenomena of parent’s rule androle in children’s digital literacy and academic development.Digital literacy is associated withthe term of modern media information and technologies. Similarly, the moderntechnology represent the digital devices such as gadget that usually used for communicationthrough digital means such as short message text, pictures, videos, online game,and virtual communication among people. Martin (2005) defined digital literacy asthe behavior, cognition, and competence of a person to precisely use digital devicefacilities to access, analyze, and construct new knowledge from the resource, recreatethe media, and carry on communication between others in any context of socialsituations. Dudeney (2013) defined digital literacy as both individual andsocial abilities which should be effectively construe, arrange, and share tocreate meaning in the development of digital communication channels. Similarly,Gilster (1997) who initiated the term “Digital Literacy” emphasized it as the skill to understand and use knowledgein any form and wide aspect of sources when it is presented via digital devices.In line with those definitions, CornellUniversity (2009) explainedit as the capability to discover, assess, use, share, and make more valueusing ICT and Internet. Easiness offered by 21th-century eragives us advantages such as the free use of data, information and knowledge,but actually the threat by the data exploitation, false rumor (hoax), informationmisused are also exist.
More problems can be occurring from shared contents throughgadget such as harshness, cyber bullying, online predator, and moral-ethicparadigm change. To minimize theproblems, attract people determination in keeping good attitude when usingdigital media needs to be taught. They have to know about what, why, and howthe digital information can be wisely used.
In this case, knowledge hasimportant role in building people’s attitude and behavior determination. Becauseof that reason, the early education about digital literacy should be conductedto give guidance and knowledge understanding to the learners. In Indonesia’scurriculum, Digital literacy and ICT education is taught within IT generalknowledge.
Similar with that purpose, another initiative emerges such as theidea of “Parenting” education. The idea considered relevant with the21th century digital literacy challenge since it mainly experienced by thechildren and teenager in their social and academic activities. Matt (2012) statesthat several initiatives materials related to ICT education for citizen of Indonesiaare possible. First is “ICT Watch” which can be used to build citizenawareness in using the internet and digital device. Common program of thisinitiative is “Internet Sehat”. It promotes safe and productiveonline teaching and learning practices using the internet by involving peoplearound the children and teens education such as parents and teachers. Second is”School On-Line” which propose for schoolswith limited facilities such as lack an internet connection.
It enables theteacher to teach students about ICT use. Wan (2013)stated that there are three dimension of digital literacy such as technical,cognitive, and socio-emotional aspects that should be obtained through the ICTlearning material. Technical dimension need to show the way to interact andnegotiate with digital technology devices. Cognitive show the way how to make, assess,and regain useful digital knowledge. Socio-emotional should inform how to beresponsible ICT (digital technology) user that able to be wisely socialized,learn, and collaborate in such social-media literacy. However, digital literacy education shouldfocusing more in parenting education with adults as the role model, and shouldfulfill the three aspect of children and teens life. The collaboration betweenparent and teachers is the key of success for building the generation with highdigital literacy ability without forgetting the social norms of Indonesia. Inthis study, the researcher served as the observer for depicting the naturaldescription about the cultural phenomena of digital literacy practices through ethnographymethod.
Ethnography studies people in their real environment through subject observationand direct interview as the method (Brian, 2014). Ethnography accounts in this studyare descriptive and interpretive. It considered descriptive because itelaborates the detail and interpretive because researcher specify the meaningof the observation and avoid extensive statistical explanation. Nisa was the main sources of thedata. She is an 8th grade student of MTs Darussalam-Sidoarjo. The additionalsources were Mr.
Luqman and Mrs. Sa’adah as her parent, and Mrs. Aliyah as herEnglish teacher.
The researcher chooses Nisa’s family because the researcherfound that her family habit which is not allowing Nisa to use mobile phone athome is interesting. Nisa herself has obeying the rule from the beginning,since she is in Junior High School. Nisa’s family considered as Islamic one,she has grown up in the country side where religion and customs becoming theimportant issue. The researcher wants to dig more and givemore detail yet depth explanation of participants’ social and academic life regardingto the purpose of this study.
Thismakes this research considers as qualitative researchproject. Asthe qualitative one, interview and observation are the data collectiontechniques. Targeted interviews is used to provide data collection by particularlyask the certain question but the answer might be elaborate more since it alsoan open-ended questions. The observation is used in order to get the real picture of theparticipants’ activities.
For observing the daily practices of the activity,the researcher used camera, recorder, and field notes. Field notes were used asan attempt to give clear description about each event during the observationprocess in the field. A field note is a written account of what the researcherheard, saw, and experienced during the process of data collection (Bogdan andBiklen, 1998). All the data collectedthrough interview and observation were organized systematically, analyzeddescriptively, and concludedbased on the real situation on the field. The data were classified and sorted out basedon each topic such as the Nisa’s perception towards her parents’ rule, parent’srole in the development of her digital literacy, and also her English teacherperception toward the parent’s rule and Nisa’s academic development.