Nowadays, will only use her mobile phone when she

Nowadays, in 21th-century era, the development of technology
offers newer and faster way to get things done. All aspects in life such as
education, business, and daily activities require people to use the digital
media. It changes the need from paper-based to paperless, book to e-book, and from
physical connection to virtual communication. The use of internet becomes the
primary need in this globalization era. However, this new phenomena should be
accompanied by new comprehension and communication understanding such as new
regulations that able to secure the digital media and technology use in society
especially in educational scope.

       People in this
era can’t separate education and technology use because they believe that the future
generation should own advance digital skills that combined with ethical technology
understanding to support their attitudes towards the digital literacy growth.

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       In Indonesia,
based on a statistics survey by PEWRC (2015) resulted that from the range of
age 18-29 years old, citizen of Indonesia 78% have their own smart phone.
While, 69% result in the range of 30-49 year old. It means that the citizen of
Indonesia considered as have moderate to high digital and technology awareness.
They are able to adopt the information that is transferred from internet based
media through their gadgets mainly from their mobile phones.    

       As the result, Indonesian
people encounter a rapid growth of the needs related to internet, information,
and communication technology (ICT) use from their gadget. There are some
advantages from this growth such as the ease of accessing the information that
encourage the learning activities. In other side, it also brings some problems
such as the easy access to negative content, negligence, the
incorrect or acceptable way of communicating on the Internet, and gadget addiction. Therefore, the
user of gadget and digital technology must be provided with an ethical
understanding and responsibility awareness for using it.

       One different perspective arises in
Nisa’s family. Nisa is an 8th grade student (14 years old) in MTs Darussalam,
Sidoarjo. Her parent banned her from using mobile phone while she is at home.
That rule has started since she was on the 7th grade of her Junior High School
period. Even though all her friend already becoming gadget-freak and internet
addict, she is still obeys her parents’ rule. She will only use her mobile
phone when she go somewhere outside her house in order to keep in contact with
her family. Something more amazing is her score in school regarding the digital
literacy and technology use is considered best 10. She is considered have high
digital literacy skill and able to use ICT to support her learning activities
at school. She is able to do her work more effective and efficient with the school computer even though she has limited
time and minimum exposure to computer, gadget, or internet at home.         
       This research context is to find
the deeper explanation about the phenomena that happen in Nisa’s family. It
also tries to answers the upcoming challenge for parents for improving children’s
quality through digital literacy education. Objectives of this research are depicting
the natural description about the socio-cultural phenomena of parent’s rule and
role in children’s digital literacy and academic development.Digital literacy is associated with
the term of modern media information and technologies. Similarly, the modern
technology represent the digital devices such as gadget that usually used for communication
through digital means such as short message text, pictures, videos, online game,
and virtual communication among people. Martin (2005) defined digital literacy as
the behavior, cognition, and competence of a person to precisely use digital device
facilities to access, analyze, and construct new knowledge from the resource, recreate
the media, and carry on communication between others in any context of social
situations. Dudeney (2013) defined digital literacy as both individual and
social abilities which should be effectively construe, arrange, and share to
create meaning in the development of digital communication channels. Similarly,
Gilster (1997) who initiated the term “Digital Literacy” emphasized it as the skill to understand and use knowledge
in any form and wide aspect of sources when it is presented via digital devices.
In line with those definitions, Cornell
University (2009) explained
it as the capability to discover, assess, use, share, and make more value
using ICT and Internet.        Easiness offered by 21th-century era
gives us advantages such as the free use of data, information and knowledge,
but actually the threat by the data exploitation, false rumor (hoax), information
misused are also exist. More problems can be occurring from shared contents through
gadget such as harshness, cyber bullying, online predator, and moral-ethic
paradigm change.       To minimize the
problems, attract people determination in keeping good attitude when using
digital media needs to be taught. They have to know about what, why, and how
the digital information can be wisely used. In this case, knowledge has
important role in building people’s attitude and behavior determination. Because
of that reason, the early education about digital literacy should be conducted
to give guidance and knowledge understanding to the learners. In Indonesia’s
curriculum, Digital literacy and ICT education is taught within IT general
knowledge. Similar with that purpose, another initiative emerges such as the
idea of “Parenting” education. The idea considered relevant with the
21th century digital literacy challenge since it mainly experienced by the
children and teenager in their social and academic activities. Matt (2012) states
that several initiatives materials related to ICT education for citizen of Indonesia
are possible. First is “ICT Watch” which can be used to build citizen
awareness in using the internet and digital device. Common program of this
initiative is “Internet Sehat”. It promotes safe and productive
online teaching and learning practices using the internet by involving people
around the children and teens education such as parents and teachers. Second is
“School On-Line” which propose for schools
with limited facilities such as lack an internet connection. It enables the
teacher to teach students about ICT use.        Wan (2013)
stated that there are three dimension of digital literacy such as technical,
cognitive, and socio-emotional aspects that should be obtained through the ICT
learning material. Technical dimension need to show the way to interact and
negotiate with digital technology devices. Cognitive show the way how to make, assess,
and regain useful digital knowledge. Socio-emotional should inform how to be
responsible ICT (digital technology) user that able to be wisely socialized,
learn, and collaborate in such social-media literacy.

       However, digital literacy education should
focusing more in parenting education with adults as the role model, and should
fulfill the three aspect of children and teens life. The collaboration between
parent and teachers is the key of success for building the generation with high
digital literacy ability without forgetting the social norms of Indonesia.   In
this study, the researcher served as the observer for depicting the natural
description about the cultural phenomena of digital literacy practices through ethnography
method. Ethnography studies people in their real environment through subject observation
and direct interview as the method (Brian, 2014). Ethnography accounts in this study
are descriptive and interpretive. It considered descriptive because it
elaborates the detail and interpretive because researcher specify the meaning
of the observation and avoid extensive statistical explanation.

       Nisa was the main sources of the
data. She is an 8th grade student of MTs Darussalam-Sidoarjo. The additional
sources were Mr. Luqman and Mrs. Sa’adah as her parent, and Mrs. Aliyah as her
English teacher. The researcher chooses Nisa’s family because the researcher
found that her family habit which is not allowing Nisa to use mobile phone at
home is interesting. Nisa herself has obeying the rule from the beginning,
since she is in Junior High School. Nisa’s family considered as Islamic one,
she has grown up in the country side where religion and customs becoming the
important issue. The researcher wants to dig more and give
more detail yet depth explanation of participants’ social and academic life regarding
to the purpose of this study. This
makes this research considers as qualitative research
project.

       As
the qualitative one, interview and observation are the data collection
techniques. Targeted interviews is used to provide data collection by particularly
ask the certain question but the answer might be elaborate more since it also
an open-ended questions. The observation is used in order to get the real picture of the
participants’ activities. For observing the daily practices of the activity,
the researcher used camera, recorder, and field notes. Field notes were used as
an attempt to give clear description about each event during the observation
process in the field. A field note is a written account of what the researcher
heard, saw, and experienced during the process of data collection (Bogdan and
Biklen, 1998).

       All the data collected
through interview and observation were organized systematically, analyzed
descriptively, and concluded
based on the real situation on the field. The data were classified and sorted out based
on each topic such as the Nisa’s perception towards her parents’ rule, parent’s
role in the development of her digital literacy, and also her English teacher
perception toward the parent’s rule and Nisa’s academic development. 

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