New approaches and technologies thatincludes application of blended and indigenous knowledge systems and modernagricultural science are led by thousands of farmers NGOs, academic institutions and some government . The goal is to enhance food security while conservingagrobiodiversity, soil and water resources throughout hundreds of ruralcommunities in the developing world as stated by Altieri (2012). Support from thegovernment, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) , academe, financing institutionsshould be provided to the farmers. Capacity building on knowledge and skills isnecessary to equip the farmers and make them capable of coping with climatechange.
According to Azadi et al (2011) it is important toestablish conditions that increase agroecosystem resilience to stress to combatthe threats of climate change . Increasing agro-ecosystem adaptive capacity isrequired to withstand climatevariability including temperature variations, erratic rainfall, and unexpectedevents. If there are projects toincrease their crop yield, continuous project monitoring and evaluation shouldbe done to ensure that the community is maintaining what they have started.
This is to ensure that there is a follow-up that has been done on theinterventions made. Monitoring and evaluation are needed to develop implementableplans, learn from mistakes and make mid-course corrections. A monitoring andevaluation component must be included as an integral part of any program orproject.PoliticalDimensionIssues like environmentaldestruction and too much consumption dueto population growth has prompted to refocus policy concern on food. Governancecapacity is important to change consumption patterns and address food waste andpromote sustainable practices. (Gofray and Garnett , 2014).
To achieve food security,a stable, sustainable and predictable supply of nutritionally-balanced foodmust be available through equitable access over time horizon .Actions to modify populationgrowth and resource intensive consumption patterns, improve systems ofgovernance, and reduce waste are policy goals . In the study Badgeley and Perfecto (2007) claim that nitrogen fertility methods and organicyield could feed the world, it does not forecast yields for any particular cropor region, nor does it claim that a global organic food system wouldnecessarily increase food security anywhere. Food security depends on policiesand prices as much as on yields. Studies of three kinds: controlled experimentsof two or more management methods, paired-farm comparisons in regions with thesame soils and climate and comparisons on the same farm before and after achange in management practices.
. These studies believe that that there is an achievementof alternative agricultural systems both agronomically and economically. Theseachievements would multiply with additional research on fertility methods ,locally suitable croppingsystems, and pest management for different agricultural regions. In the Food SecurityJournal (2009): The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production andAccess to Food, it was stated that in developing countries, 70% or more of thepopulation lives in rural areas. In that context, agricultural developmentshould provide small-holder farmers and landless people livelihood to give themthe opportunity to stay in their communities.
In many areas of the world, landownership is not available, thus, people who want or need a farm to make aliving have little incentive to improve the land. In the Philippines, landlessness is also a problem in theagricultural system. If farmers are given the opportunity to own their land,they will be responsible stewards of the environment. Land reform programsshould be revisited. Through this, the community will be more engaged in sustainableactivities. Capacity building on knowledge and skills should be provided.Policies and programs on food security should be improved. People empowermentis necessary towards sustainable practices.
In the advent of climate change, the small-holder farmers should beconsidered in policies that will increase food production. Inputs that does notcreate too much environmental impact should be considered together with thetechnology adoption, new varieties and access to markets.”Changes in agricultural policyare essential and could bring changes in marketing and farming and practices within a few years. TheCuban food system for example had a massive reorganization of marketing andfarming methods after the fall of the Soviet Union.
After several years ofcrisis, exacerbated by the US economic blockade, Cuba now has one of the mostprogressive food systems in the world. “A global food system based onagroecological principles is possible and there are urgent reasons to move inthis direction ” as stated by Badgeley and Perfecto (2007). Factors like limited orslow dissemination and implementation has impeded adaptation of ofagro-ecosystem approach.
“Major reforms must be made in policies, institutions, and research anddevelopment agendas to make sure that agroecological alternatives are massivelyadopted, made equitably and broadly accessible, and multiplied so that theirfull benefit for sustainable food security can be realized. It must berecognized that a major constraint to the spread of agroecology has been thatpowerful economic and institutional interests have backed research anddevelopment for the conventional agro-industrial approach, while research anddevelopment for agroecology and sustainable approaches has in most countriesbeen largely ignored or even ostracized” based on the study of Altieri (2009).Food distribution and notrecognizing food security as a human right are considered challenges. The planof action emanating from the 1996 World Food Security (WFS) “highlighted the need to implement Article11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights andcalled on countries, United Nations Agencies, and intergovernmental agencies tobetter implement and realize the fundamental right of everyone to be free fromhunger “. In 2001, the International Food Security Community focused on theneed to balance: how to engage sufficient political will to secure food as ahuman right while maintaining acommitment to increase production thatwill be required if we are to feed more than 50 percent larger populationwithout further damaging the environment in the future.
Success interms of resiliency and productivity has been achieved by agroecologicallybased systems through the pillars of sustainable management of agriculturalsystems (Koohafkan and Altieri , 2010): Continuous increase in total farm productivity Permanent disaster risk reduction and enhanced resiliency. Promotion of social equity, cultural diversity, and economic viability, Natural resources conservation, ecosystem services and enhancement of biodiversity Reducing dependency on non-renewable resources and optimization of natural cycles Land degradation prevention and the protection of the general environment.The magnitude of thechallenge to food security is to provide action throughout the food system,reducing waste, on moderating demand,improving governance and increase food production. More food should be producedusing sustainable intensification (SI) strategies, (Chappell 2007). Reducing the environmental impact from foodproduction is essential for human well-being and prosperity.Promoting food sovereigntydefined as the “right of everyone to have access to safe, nutritious, andculturally appropriate food in sufficient quantity and quality to sustain ahealthy life with full human dignity is a major emphasis of agroecological systems.
However, given the expectedincrease in the cost of fuel and inputs, the agroecological strategy also aimsat enhancing energy and technological sovereignty. The right for all people to have access tosufficient energy within ecological limits from appropriate sustainable sourcesfor a dignified life is called energy sovereignty while Technologicalsovereignty refers to the capacity to achieve the two other forms ofsovereignty by nurturing the environmental services derived from optimizingagrobiodiversity designs that encourage synergies and efficient use of locallyavailable resources” (Koohafkan and Altieri , 2010)..
The design and implementation and integration and cooperationarrangements that will promote food, energy and water security and thereby, addto the current efforts on governance structures at the municipal, provincial,regional and global levels conducive to sustainable food security development.The Local Government Units (LGUs) has a potential role in promoting foodsecurity. Food security solutions require joint efforts in involving governmentagencies and policy makers, the private sector and industry, civil society andcollaboration within the development community. The challenges of sustainabledevelopment are great and the importance of food, energy and water security in achieving sustainable developmentgoals cannot be overstated. Significant changes in the national, regional andglobal food security systems will be required to meet these challenges.
Sustainable agriculture that uses integrated based approach can be anopportunity to achieve food security given that there is an interplay among thesix (6) dimensions stated: ecological, socio-cultural, institutional, political,technological, and economic. An integrated natural resource management is essentialfor sustainable livelihoods, disaster risk reduction and climate changeadaptation which can expand production potential and lead to food security. Theimpacts of natural disasters in the agricultural industry needs deeper andthorough planning and management to reduce crop losses. RECOMMENDATIONS:Reinforcing and promoting food securityrequires a combination of initiatives that span ecological,economic, socio-cultural, political, institutional, and technological dimensions.
LGUs should identify key strategies and policies foe achieving botheconomic growth and sustainable development. The needed actions include:1. Encouraging greater international andnational cooperation in areas such as technology (aligned with SDG number seventeen:Partnership for the Goals)2.
Capacity building especially to the publicsector to address issues related to food security for sustainable development3. Removing obstacles and providing incentivesto encourage greater food efficiency and the sharing of technologies4. Creating market framework conditions(including continued market reform, consistent regulatory measures, andtargeted policies ) to encourage competitiveness5. Considering the inter-linked nature of ourland and water resources, present government approaches to watershed managementshould be “integrated”. Through this, the challenge to food security will alsobe addressed