Network addressing is key for networking technologycomponents that can facilitate in identifying a network node and reaching adevice over a network. An IP address has2 parts in total, 1 part is used to identify the node/host and the other partidentifies the network.
Network addressing uses numeric, symbolic or addressthat is assigned to any new device that wishes to seek access to the network. MACaddress stands for “Media Access Control” it is a computer’s hardware numberunique to itself. When connected to a LAN the MAC address becomes the same asthe Ethernet address.
When a computer is connected to the internet through anetwork, a correspondence table relates the IP address to the MAC address onthe LAN. Mac addressing can transport data between 2 addresses by using networkadapters, packets are sent from one MAC address to another, if a networkadapter receives a packet of data it will compare the addresses and if it is amatch then the packet will be successfully sent.The OSI model has 7 layers to it, hence why it is called the”seven Layer model” OSI stands for “Open Systems Interconnection” the 7 layermodel is a network communication protocol. The model should be present in anynetwork. The seven layers that are present in the OSI 7 layer model are asfollows: Application, this layer represents the programs that you use directly,Presentation ensures that all computers can understand the same language.
Theycan convert text to ASCII or EBCIC form and decode/encode binary data to betransported, the session layer is the user interface into the network, and itis also responsible for the current connection. In a packet switched network, afull time connection is existent. Transport is an intermediate layer that takesadvantage of higher layers to communicate to the network layer. The transportlayer hides the complexities of lower level networking communication fromhigher levels. The network layer is the layer that is responsible for routingthe data packets across the whole network set up. The data link layer provideslower level detection and correction of errors in the network for example ifthe data packet was to become corrupted the layer would be responsible forrestraining and fixing the data packet. The physical layer is the interfacebetween the medium and the device, this layer transmits bits and defines howthe data is transmitted through the network and what the control signals areused and the physical/mechanical properties of the network. The TCP/IP model issimilar to the OSI model in the way that the TCP/IP model uses layers howeverthere is much less than the OSI model.
This model is more in line with modernnetwork implementations as the modern internet and most communications over theinternet use the IP (internet protocol). However the TCP/IP model is consideredless rigid than the OSI model, this means that the protocols implemented aregrey areas between one area and another. IP stands forInternet Protocol it is the method of which data is sent between computers overthe internet. Each host (computer) on the internet must have at least one IPaddress that is unique to it and identifies it to other computers over theinternet.
TCP stands for transmission control protocol, it is the standard thatdefines how to establish and maintain network conversations via whatapplication programs can exchange data, this works with the IP to define how 2computers send packets of data between each other. TCP and IP are the two basicrules that define the internet. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol it is oneof the core members of the internet protocol suite. UDP uses simple aconnectionless communication model with a minimum of protocol mechanism.
UDPprovides checksums for port numbers and data integrity. An FTP stands for FileTransfer Protocol and this is usually used for exchanging files over theinternet. It uses the TCP/IP protocol to allow for data transfer.
FTP uses whatis known as a client server architecture, this is usually secured with SSL/TLS.FTP enables the sharing of files via remote computers, with the addition ofreliable and efficient data transfer. SMTP stands for simple mail transfer, itis the standard for email transmission services. User level client mailapplications typically use the SMTP protocol for sending messages to a mailserver for relaying, for retrieving these messages, client applications can useIMAP or POP3 protocols.The role that TCP/IP plays in ring networks There are many threats to computer networks so securitymechanisms must be in place to either stop or deter any threats to the network.
Such threats that may occur will be viruses or spyware, viruses are maliciousprograms that found its way to being installed on a computer. Viruses can becaught by a computer if a user opens a suspicious file that has been sent viaemail etc. it can be serious for other computers on the network as the viruscan spread to other computers on the network easily from attaching itself toharmless files. Viruses can also steal private information such as bank detailsand passwords, this would be catastrophic for a company as they could loseemployees details such as addresses, phone numbers etc.
This threat can easilybe avoided by installing antivirus software on all the devices on a network.anti-virus works by detecting malicious files on a computer and seeking toeither block their access to the system or destroy the threat as soon as itarises, it will then alert the user letting them know what virus was detectedand that it was successfully destroyed. Anti-virus software can also be changedso that the user can decide whether or not a suspicious file can have access tothe system. Spyware is used by an individual to infiltrate a network and tocollect personal information stored within a network unknown to any users, thiscould even be installed by anyone (even an innocent employee), bundled with aprogram normally with “free programs” spyware is very difficult to remove off acomputer and can infect a computer with many viruses, this is serious if theinfected computer is connected to a network as the spyware and viruses can bespread very easily by the transmission of harmless files, it could even bringdown the whole network putting a halt to an individuals or companies workflow.Spyware can also be easily stopped by installing anti spyware software, this isessentially a modified copy of anti-virus except instead of looking out forviruses it looks out for spyware. Unauthorised access can be stopped withfirewalls they can also filter access