Network layer is the user interface into the network,

Network addressing is key for networking technology
components that can facilitate in identifying a network node and reaching a
device over a network.  An IP address has
2 parts in total, 1 part is used to identify the node/host and the other part
identifies the network. Network addressing uses numeric, symbolic or address
that is assigned to any new device that wishes to seek access to the network. MAC
address stands for “Media Access Control” it is a computer’s hardware number
unique to itself. When connected to a LAN the MAC address becomes the same as
the Ethernet address. When a computer is connected to the internet through a
network, a correspondence table relates the IP address to the MAC address on
the LAN. Mac addressing can transport data between 2 addresses by using network
adapters, packets are sent from one MAC address to another, if a network
adapter receives a packet of data it will compare the addresses and if it is a
match then the packet will be successfully sent.

The OSI model has 7 layers to it, hence why it is called the
“seven Layer model” OSI stands for “Open Systems Interconnection” the 7 layer
model is a network communication protocol. The model should be present in any
network. The seven layers that are present in the OSI 7 layer model are as
follows: Application, this layer represents the programs that you use directly,
Presentation ensures that all computers can understand the same language. They
can convert text to ASCII or EBCIC form and decode/encode binary data to be
transported, the session layer is the user interface into the network, and it
is also responsible for the current connection. In a packet switched network, a
full time connection is existent. Transport is an intermediate layer that takes
advantage of higher layers to communicate to the network layer. The transport
layer hides the complexities of lower level networking communication from
higher levels. The network layer is the layer that is responsible for routing
the data packets across the whole network set up. The data link layer provides
lower level detection and correction of errors in the network for example if
the data packet was to become corrupted the layer would be responsible for
restraining and fixing the data packet. The physical layer is the interface
between the medium and the device, this layer transmits bits and defines how
the data is transmitted through the network and what the control signals are
used and the physical/mechanical properties of the network. The TCP/IP model is
similar to the OSI model in the way that the TCP/IP model uses layers however
there is much less than the OSI model. This model is more in line with modern
network implementations as the modern internet and most communications over the
internet use the IP (internet protocol). However the TCP/IP model is considered
less rigid than the OSI model, this means that the protocols implemented are
grey areas between one area and another.

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 IP stands for
Internet Protocol it is the method of which data is sent between computers over
the internet. Each host (computer) on the internet must have at least one IP
address that is unique to it and identifies it to other computers over the
internet. TCP stands for transmission control protocol, it is the standard that
defines how to establish and maintain network conversations via what
application programs can exchange data, this works with the IP to define how 2
computers send packets of data between each other. TCP and IP are the two basic
rules that define the internet. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol it is one
of the core members of the internet protocol suite. UDP uses simple a
connectionless communication model with a minimum of protocol mechanism. UDP
provides checksums for port numbers and data integrity. An FTP stands for File
Transfer Protocol and this is usually used for exchanging files over the
internet. It uses the TCP/IP protocol to allow for data transfer. FTP uses what
is known as a client server architecture, this is usually secured with SSL/TLS.
FTP enables the sharing of files via remote computers, with the addition of
reliable and efficient data transfer. SMTP stands for simple mail transfer, it
is the standard for email transmission services. User level client mail
applications typically use the SMTP protocol for sending messages to a mail
server for relaying, for retrieving these messages, client applications can use
IMAP or POP3 protocols.

The role that TCP/IP plays in ring networks


There are many threats to computer networks so security
mechanisms must be in place to either stop or deter any threats to the network.
Such threats that may occur will be viruses or spyware, viruses are malicious
programs that found its way to being installed on a computer. Viruses can be
caught by a computer if a user opens a suspicious file that has been sent via
email etc. it can be serious for other computers on the network as the virus
can spread to other computers on the network easily from attaching itself to
harmless files. Viruses can also steal private information such as bank details
and passwords, this would be catastrophic for a company as they could lose
employees details such as addresses, phone numbers etc. This threat can easily
be avoided by installing antivirus software on all the devices on a network.
anti-virus works by detecting malicious files on a computer and seeking to
either block their access to the system or destroy the threat as soon as it
arises, it will then alert the user letting them know what virus was detected
and that it was successfully destroyed. Anti-virus software can also be changed
so that the user can decide whether or not a suspicious file can have access to
the system. Spyware is used by an individual to infiltrate a network and to
collect personal information stored within a network unknown to any users, this
could even be installed by anyone (even an innocent employee), bundled with a
program normally with “free programs” spyware is very difficult to remove off a
computer and can infect a computer with many viruses, this is serious if the
infected computer is connected to a network as the spyware and viruses can be
spread very easily by the transmission of harmless files, it could even bring
down the whole network putting a halt to an individuals or companies workflow.
Spyware can also be easily stopped by installing anti spyware software, this is
essentially a modified copy of anti-virus except instead of looking out for
viruses it looks out for spyware. Unauthorised access can be stopped with
firewalls they can also filter access


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