Nanotechnology haul into the cell and by using an

has an important role in the medical field. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles
(mNPs) have become essential tools in molecular diagnosis, in vivo imaging and
treatment of disease, and the major aim being the production of a more theranostic
approach. Since they are small in size, the nanoparticles can cross most of the
barriers like the blood brain barrier, the blood vessels, thus providing
effortless access to most tissues. The nanoparticle uptake must be maximum to treat
any disease. A new method like association of mNPs with peptides which
penetrate the cells to allow the excellent translocation of haul into the cell
and by using an external magnetic field to facilitate its delivery is under
study. There can be many inventions in the use of magnetic particles since
their physical and magnetic properties, surface coatings can be changed as per
one’s desires. The uniqueness in their use is that, for mechanotherapy, the
particle diameters are of the same length as the biological cells that need to
be cross-examined. Most important is that, there is not much loss of their magnetization
even at the nanoscale. They can be synthesized with their diameter being only a
few nanometers, but can still achieve satisfactory uniformity in dimensions
within a batch. At this size, each particle has only a single magnetic domain
and super paramagnetic properties, as compared to the larger magnetic
particles, which have multiple ferromagnetic domains and permanent magnetic
properties. The external magnetic field exerts a force which ranges from 10-12
to 10-9 newtons on the particle, which are the common levels experienced by the
cells in the body. For mechanotherapeutic studies, particles made up from iron
oxide have more often usage than other magnetic materials like cobalt or nickel
since they are easier to synthesize from iron salts by the co-precipitation
method. Batches of pre-synthesized iron oxide micro- or nanoparticles are
commercially available, from the manufacturers with reactive functional groups
on the surface as required for the purpose to be used for. It is now possible
to attach a ligand by using chemical methods after deciding the surface
functional group, enabling it to bind to the appropriate receptor on the cell
surface. But, a more uncomplicated method is by using the hydrophobic
interactions to adsorb the matrix proteins from the solution. Proteins like
collagen or fibronectin have their original conformation intact when adsorbed,
and so cells bind through their receptors’ that recognize the protein’s ligand
domains which are still intact. A major concern, is the biological
compatibility of the materials used, so iron oxide is more favorable to use
than cobalt or nickel as iron homeostasis is controlled by the cell to flush
excessive iron. 


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