More of sleep deprivation. Also sleep loss has been

    More neuroimagingstudies can help indicated the neurological effects of sleep deprivation.Also sleep loss hasbeen shown to affect neural activity (Habeck , 2004) which are known to be responsiblefor emotional empathy.The neurons system isactive when facing someone in an emotional situation and also while helpingthem.This indicates that the neurons system is involved in emotion processiong andregulation, (Carr , 2003), and also emotionalempathy (Jabbi, 2007). In conclusion, allstudies previously explained provide evidence that sleep deprivation decreasesemotional empathy. All result in the different studies indicate that sleep lossimpairs the ability someone else emotions.

Researchers explain those result bythe fact that sleep deprivation affect the prefontal cortex of the brain whichin return is responsible for the regulation, processing and recognition ofemotions. Moreover this relationship between emotional empathy and sleepdeprivation might be explained by the function of the neurons system withemotional empathy.                                                              Conclusion In a different studydone by Gordon and Chen (2014),  tested the effect of sleep deprivation onconflict in romantic relationship. The results revealed that number ofconflicts after a night of sleep deprivation is superior to the number ofconflict after a night of full sleep.

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Another study done by Vander Helm (Van Der Helm, 2010) evaluated 37 healthyvolunteers, dividing them into two groups ,sleeping group and sleep deprivationgroup . The test consisted of showing pictures of people with sad , happy orangry emotions and the volunteers were asked to recognized the emotion onpeople faces. The results revealed that sleep deprivation enable thedistinction of facial emotions more precisely angry and happy emotions.

These results  are validated by other research indicatingnegative effects of sleep deprivation on cognition and emotional processing more precisely emotional empathy.The results showed thatvolunteers affected by sleep deprivation express less direct and indirectemotional empathy than those who had a full night sleep. The results revealed thatone night deprived of sleep enable the ability to share someone else emotions, whichis an indispensable asset in daily social interactions. In her study, Guadani testedthe hypothesis “that a night of total sleep deprivation has a detrimentaleffect on the capacity of the individuals to share other’s emotions”  ( Guadagni,2014) (i.e. emotional empathy).

Graph representing thescores for both direct and indirect emotional empathy for the three differentgroups. (Guadagni, 2014)Figure 2  After testing , theresults showed that the indirect emotional empathy of volunteers in the sleepdeprivation group, were dramatically lower than the volunteers  the day  and sleep groups  As for direct emotional empathy , the resultswere also lower in sleep deprivation group than in day and sleep group.In each groups,volunteers were shown 180 pictures and asked to answer the questions pairedwith each pictures as fast as possible.

 This test use 120 coloured images from theInternational Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Lang and Bradley, 2007) showing people in positive,negative and neutral situations. Each picture was paired with specificquestions that assess direct emotional empathy (i.e.

‘how strong is the emotionyou feel about this person?’) or indirect emotional empathy (i.e. ‘howcalm/aroused does this picture make you feel?’)  ( Guadagni ,2014) The test consist of amodified version of the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) (Dziobek , 2008),   used to determine direct and indirectemotional empathy.In her study sherecruited 22 healthy females and 15 healthy males with no record ofneurological or psychiatric disorders. The 37 volunteers were divided intothree groups, “the sleep deprivation group (n=13), the sleep group (n = 12)and the day group (n = 12)”. All volunteers in thethree different groups were tested two times. For the sleep deprivation groupthey were tested at night 9 pm and at 8pm. For the sleep group they were testedat 6pm and 10 am and finally for the day group they were tested at 10 am and 6pm.

 In 2014, a researcher named Veronica Guadani usedthe emotional empathy test created by Dziobek (2008) to test the hypothesisthat “sleep deprivation results in a reduced emotional empathic response” (Guadani,2014).Emotional empathy hasbeen divided into two components by Dziobek into direct and indirect empathy. Directemotional empathy component is the evaluation of someone emotions while observingsomeone else in distress (e.g. I worry that this person might get hurt).Indirectemotional empathy component is the evaluation of physiological manifestationsof someone while observing someone else in distress (e.g.

my heart is beating hard)(Dziobek, 2008).                                                             Body Recently, the effects of sleep deprivation on emotional processing andemotional empathy have received more research interest, due to the correlationbetween neurological and psychiatric disorders with sleep deprivation. Thissuggests a relationship between sleep and the normal functioning of the brain.Empathy is the ability to understand and share someone else feelings,thoughts and emotions, it is crucial in interpersonal relationships(Shamay-Tsoory, 2011) and usually appearswhen facing someone in distress.

Sleep deprivation have showed to have animportant effect on tasks controlled by the prefrontal cortex, PFC (Couyoumdjian,2010).The PFC is involved in emotion regulation (Ochsner, 2013),processingof emotional information (Kahn, 2013),recognition and categorization of human emotions, (Minkel, 2010)and emotional empathy (Killgore, 2008).All those tasks are used on daily basis and any dysfunction can lead to many conflicts.Altogether,studies have showed that sleep deprivation has a negative impact on emotionprocessing (Kahn , 2013) and on more complexemotion , such as empathy.Sleep is essential forhuman mental and physical health. It is regulated by our internal clock, thecircadian rhythms.

The circadian rhythm is a daily 24 hours cycle thatdetermines human sleeping patterns. It is regulated by the hypothalamus in thebrain but can also be affected by the environment more precisely by light anddarkness. Any changes in light/ darkness cycle can dramatically cause abnormalitiesin our circadian rhythms and irregular circadian rhythms causes sleep deprivation (NIGS, 2017).                                                              IntroductionSleep deprivationappears to affect human physical health and emotional state, both indispensablefor human wellbeing. More precisely sleep deprivation is known to affect theprefrontal cortex which is responsible for recognition and processing ofemotions in particular emotional empathy. Emotional empathy is the ability tounderstand and share someone else feeling and is crucial in our dailyinteractions with others.

Sleep loss is also one of the cause of many inpsychiatric and neurological disorders. By understanding the relationshipbetween sleep deprivation and emotional intelligence can help prevent manydisorders.                                                            Abstract