Manyresearchs showed that HIV is caused by many reasons but it is transmitted bythree main routes : sexual contact, significant exposure to infected bodyfluids and from mother to child during pregnancy.Firstof all, HIV can be transmitted from person to person through sexual contact.
Itoccurs when the blood, semen, vaginal or anal sex of a person who is infectedthis disease with the body of a personwho is not infected . The possibility of sexually transmitted infections ishigh if HIV infected people do not have safe sex measures. In particular, sexworkers have increased HIV rates rapidly. Rough sex can be a factor associatedwith an increased risk of transmission when the condom rarely ruptures, vaginalor rectal trauma can occur and may be at risk of infection. more sex.
Thesecond most common form of HIV transmission is body fluids. HIV can also bespread by sharing needles and other injecting equipment, especially bloodsharing between people who are not infected with HIV and those who are infectedwith HIV. In addition, blood transfusion may be through sharing needles duringdrug injection. HIV is transmitted in about 93% of blood transfusions usinginfected blood. HIV is not only a problem in Vietnam but also in the world asAfrica. In 2007, between 12% and 17% of cases in this area were due to the useof medical syringes. World Health Organization estimates that the risk frominjecting drug use in Vietnam and Africa is 1.
2%.Anothercause of HIV infection is that it can be transmitted from mother to childduring pregnancy, during childbirth or through breast milk, leading to the babybecoming infected with HIV. However, the risk of perinatal transmission can besignificantly reduced if the mother and child are given antiretroviral medication.
The World Health Organization recommends that mothers ,who are living with HIV,should go to hospital and check and then they need to use drug . Mothers andtheir children are being treated with antiretroviral drugs while breastfeedingcontinues provide safe formula. HIV infection during pregnancy is alsoassociated with miscarriage.
2.3. How does HIV/AIDSinfluence people ?First of all, one of the most importantways that HIV / AIDS affects household and individuals . It make them loss ofincome and economic security because they loss of money for treatment and householdearnings decline. Family resources erode quickly while exposure to economicrisk is exacerbated by the stress of illness as first adults and then childrenbecome caregivers for sick family members. In responding to the needs ofchildren who have lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS, extended familiesbecome further impoverished and indebted.
In Viet Nam, per capita consumptionexpenditure is low, with 59% allocated to food. A 1999 survey conducted by Hanoi Research and TrainingCenter for Community Development reports the following qualitative householdwealth indicators described by respondents from among the poorest household inViet Nam: Most households have noreserves to pay for a sudden increase in health care expenditures or to weathera sudden loss in income. As the result, AIDS can cause poor household todissolve and push non-poor households into poverty. Moreover, HIV/AIDS lead to stigma anddiscrimination that are serious problems for People who are living with HIV andpeople at higher risk of HIV.
In 2011, around 1,642 PLHIV surveyed andaccording toStigma Index study said that theirright to live free of discrimination had been violated. People with HIV and keypopulation leaders at consultation meetings for the Investment Case were alsovocal about the challenges they face. Not only is being HIV-positivestigmatized, but so are risk behaviours. If people’sHIV status or risk behaviours areknown, they may not only be ostracized by their friends and families, but alsodenied educational and employment opportunities. The understandable fear ofdisclosure and stigma and discrimination is a major barrier to accessingservices, including harm-reduction services, but in particular regular testingand early initiation of treatment. Perceptions about a general lack of confidentialityand fear of stigma and discrimination make many people at high risk of HIVinfection very afraid to learn their HIV status. As a result the uptake oftesting is still low , and people being diagnosed are still starting treatmentvery late.
Poor linkages among various HIV services aggravate this problem. (VietNam Network of People Living with HIV (VNP+). Viet Nam Stigma Index. 2012) 2.4. What are thetreatment for HIV ?Treatment also includes preventiveand active treatment of opportunistic infections .
there are some method totreat and prevent HIV . Firstly, people must be carefully and safely in sexualcontact. Besides we can reduce transmission from mother to children by use of acombination of antiviral medications during pregnancy ad after birth in theinfant and potentially includes bottle feeding rather than breastfeeding. Lastly,people who are infected with HIV can use vaccine to reduce and improve thisdisease.
The most effective vaccine trial to date was published in 2009 andfound a partial reduction in the risk of transmission