Many in about 93% of blood transfusions using infected

researchs showed that HIV is caused by many reasons but it is transmitted by
three main routes : sexual contact, significant exposure to infected body
fluids and from mother to child during pregnancy.

of all, HIV can be transmitted from person to person through sexual contact. It
occurs when the blood, semen, vaginal or anal sex of a person who is infected
this disease  with the body of a person
who is not infected . The possibility of sexually transmitted infections is
high if HIV infected people do not have safe sex measures. In particular, sex
workers have increased HIV rates rapidly. Rough sex can be a factor associated
with an increased risk of transmission when the condom rarely ruptures, vaginal
or rectal trauma can occur and may be at risk of infection. more sex.

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second most common form of HIV transmission is body fluids. HIV can also be
spread by sharing needles and other injecting equipment, especially blood
sharing between people who are not infected with HIV and those who are infected
with HIV. In addition, blood transfusion may be through sharing needles during
drug injection. HIV is transmitted in about 93% of blood transfusions using
infected blood. HIV is not only a problem in Vietnam but also in the world as
Africa. In 2007, between 12% and 17% of cases in this area were due to the use
of medical syringes. World Health Organization estimates that the risk from
injecting drug use in Vietnam and Africa is 1.2%.

cause of HIV infection is that it can be transmitted from mother to child
during pregnancy, during childbirth or through breast milk, leading to the baby
becoming infected with HIV. However, the risk of perinatal transmission can be
significantly reduced if the mother and child are given antiretroviral medication.
The World Health Organization recommends that mothers ,who are living with HIV,
should go to hospital and check and then they need to use drug . Mothers and
their children are being treated with antiretroviral drugs while breastfeeding
continues provide safe formula. HIV infection during pregnancy is also
associated with miscarriage.


2.3. How does HIV/AIDS
influence people ?

First of all, one of the most important
ways that HIV / AIDS affects household and individuals . It make them loss of
income and economic security because they loss of money for treatment and household
earnings decline. Family resources erode quickly while exposure to economic
risk is exacerbated by the stress of illness as first adults and then children
become caregivers for sick family members. In responding to the needs of
children who have lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS, extended families
become further impoverished and indebted. In Viet Nam, per capita consumption
expenditure is low, with 59% allocated to food. A 1999 survey conducted by Hanoi Research and Training
Center for Community Development reports the following qualitative household
wealth indicators described by respondents from among the poorest household in
Viet Nam:  Most households have no
reserves to pay for a sudden increase in health care expenditures or to weather
a sudden loss in income. As the result, AIDS can cause poor household to
dissolve and push non-poor households into poverty.

Moreover, HIV/AIDS lead to stigma and
discrimination that are serious problems for People who are living with HIV and
people at higher risk of HIV. In 2011, around 1,642 PLHIV surveyed and
according to

Stigma Index study said that their
right to live free of discrimination had been violated. People with HIV and key
population leaders at consultation meetings for the Investment Case were also
vocal about the challenges they face. Not only is being HIV-positive
stigmatized, but so are risk behaviours. If people’s

HIV status or risk behaviours are
known, they may not only be ostracized by their friends and families, but also
denied educational and employment opportunities. The understandable fear of
disclosure and stigma and discrimination is a major barrier to accessing
services, including harm-reduction services, but in particular regular testing
and early initiation of treatment. Perceptions about a general lack of confidentiality
and fear of stigma and discrimination make many people at high risk of HIV
infection very afraid to learn their HIV status. As a result the uptake of
testing is still low , and people being diagnosed are still starting treatment
very late. Poor linkages among various HIV services aggravate this problem. (Viet
Nam Network of People Living with HIV (VNP+). Viet Nam Stigma Index. 2012)

2.4. What are the
treatment for HIV ?

Treatment also includes preventive
and active treatment of opportunistic infections . there are some method to
treat and prevent HIV . Firstly, people must be carefully and safely in sexual
contact. Besides we can reduce transmission from mother to children by use of a
combination of antiviral medications during pregnancy ad after birth in the
infant and potentially includes bottle feeding rather than breastfeeding. Lastly,
people who are infected with HIV can use vaccine to reduce and improve this
disease. The most effective vaccine trial to date was published in 2009 and
found a partial reduction in the risk of transmission 


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