Mangifera pajang, which is commonly known as bambangan by the natives, is a type of local fruit which belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae (Bakar & Fry, 2013). It is also belonging to the same genus as mango (Mangifera indica). Bambangan is cultivated by seed propagation and it can only be found in Borneo Island, which comprises of Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan (Indonesia) (Preedy et al., 2011). Bambangan fruit is composed of flesh, kernel and peel.
The bambangan flesh (60-65% of total weight) can be consumed raw as fruits or made into pickles, whereas the kernel (15-20% of total weight) and peel (10-15% of total weight) are usually discarded, which indirectly producing agricultural wastes (Bakar & Fry, 2013). Therefore, this study will utilise the bambangan by-product, the kernels, to find out their potentials as the novel sources of cocoa butter alternatives. Palm oil mid-fraction (POMF) is produced by double-fractionation of palm oil (Sonwai et al., 2012). POMF is characterised by having a very high level of symmetrical di-saturated triglycerides, predominantly the 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP) triglycerides. The high POP level of POMF gives it a very steep solid fat content (SFC)/temperature curve, which means that it has a sharp melting profile (MPOB, 2011). Therefore, MPOB recommended that POMF can be utilised in confectionery products.
In addition, the price of POMF is also very cheap and it is widely available. The edible vegetable fats extracted from the cocoa beans are called cocoa butter (CB), which is usually pale-yellow in colour. After harvesting cocoa pods from the cocoa plants, cocoa seeds are extracted from the cocoa pods. The cocoa seeds will then be undergone several processes, which include fermentation, drying, roasting, breaking and winnowing, as well as grinding to produce cocoa liquor (also known as cocoa mass).
After that, the cocoa liquor will be pressed to extract cocoa butter and the remaining pressed cake will become cocoa powder by further grinding it (Muijnck, 2005). Cocoa butter is widely used in producing chocolate and confectionary products, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products due to its special characteristics such as the triglyceride compositions and melting and crystallisation behaviours. The major triglycerides present in cocoa butter are 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS), 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS) and 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP). These triglycerides are responsible for the melting profiles as well as the polymorphic crystallization structure of cocoa butter (Jahurul et al., 2014a). There are several studies which revealed that blends of mango seed fat (MSF) and palm stearin (PS) or palm oil mid-fraction (POMF) can be used to produce cocoa butter alternatives due to their certain characteristics which are similar to that of commercial cocoa butter (Jahurul et al., 2014b; Jahurul et al.
, 2014c). The purpose of blending MSF and POMF together to produce a cocoa butter alternative might be due to the lacking of POP in MSF. This can be compensated by mixing MSF and POMF, which is high in POP content. Since bambangan belongs to the same genus as mango, this study will use bambangan kernel fat to produce different blends with POMF and determine the thermal properties, triglyceride contents and crystal morphology of the fat blends. 1.1 Problem Statement Nowadays, cocoa butter is in high demand due to higher consumption of chocolate of the world population (Akhter et al., 2016).
However, the worldwide cultivation of cocoa plant has been decreasing and hence the production of cocoa butter is also decreasing day after day. This high demand but low supply of cocoa butter relationship causes the price of cocoa butter to surge higher. Therefore, the food industry is now looking for cocoa butter alternatives which are produced from sources that can be obtained locally.
In addition, the agricultural waste from bambangan by-products such as the kernels and peels might bring pollution to the environment.