Management Management practices adopted by management today are the

Management is the process of planning
program, controlling program, objectively program and leading program.
According to Follet (1987) defines management as “the art of getting things
done through people”. Definition of indicates as managers achieve
organizational goals by making others to perform any necessary takes. Not by
performing the task themselves. Management also the efforts of the organization
members, of using all other organization source to achieve stated
organizational goals. Regarding that, management is a process which is managers
engage with client or outsider specially public sector in certain interrelated
activities to achieve their desired goals.

Management use all the resources of the
organization to attain their goals which is finance, equipment, information and
last not least is people that most important resources,increase sales not only
to motivate people but also need to increase the advertising budget so using
both human and financial resources. Management involves achieving the
organization’s stated goal means managers try to attain a specific which is
delivery of services as an example report from head of state audit that whether
it’s really operating or not (follet,1987)

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Internal audits play an important role
in the public sector through their evaluation of the effectiveness of risk
management, control and governance processes that will increase accountability
in the public sector (Mebratu, 2012).  The
Prime Minister’s Department has issued a guideline through a letter dated 9
June 2007 stating that the implementation of the internal control system in the
Malaysian public sector is one of the strategies to reduce malpractice, fraud,
corruption and misconduct ( Nadiah, Mohid & Zakiah, 2015).  

According to Robert & Micheal (2003)
Process of hierarchical management occupied practical and academic attention.
But such a focus captures to few of the challenges faced by today’s manager. In
the 21 century, interdepence and the salience of information have resulted in
an environment where organizational and sector boundaries are more conceptual
than actual, and collaborative and managerial responses are required to
complement and in some cases even displace, bureaucratic processes. Cities and
their public managers operate in a complex intergovernmental and
interorganizational  environment.

leaders carry out a host of co-ordinated
functions that lead to excellence, excellence in the organization. the manager
is the officer performing the management and administration functions of the
organization based on established procedures and guidelines. management is
important in an organization and is the main machinery of organizers.

Management practices adopted by
management today are the result of management figures. Ideas, concepts and
methods that have been highlighted by these leaders can help managers manage
their organizations more efficiently, effectively and more competitive. Scientific
management is an approach that emphasizes scientific research to increase
employee competence and increase organizational productivity.

According to Frederick W. Taylor
(1856-1915), this theory examines the relationship between the worker and the
task established to be carried out by the employee and believes that the time
and effort of the employee in the production of a unit is reduced by increasing
the specialization and division of work then the production process will
increase become efficient. In fact, believe that efficient workers will grow to
be efficient and at the same time will help increase production and

Scientific management principles is the
determination of which movement is building scientific methods by determining
the movement and work journey carried out to be more efficient. With this
determination, work can be made faster and with higher or higher rates. Second
is Specialization work: Frederick Taylor has been thinking about the importance
of an expert in every part. For example, a mandate (as a leader) is required to
be responsible for the repairs of the machine, a person in the machine travel
section, a person on the inspection section and others. In that way, workers
can be self-employed in a particular field.

Planned planning and scheduling:
Planning and scheduling of organizational activities are necessary to ensure
the use of human resources and materials at appropriate places and times. Successful
selection and recruitment: Frederick Taylor believes that staff selection and
recruitment must be carefully crafted to ensure the staff they are taking to
perform the task as desired. In this recruitment process, certain tests should
be conducted to test the capabilities and capabilities of that person. A
thorough selection process along with specific training programs can ensure a
high level of performance in the task. Wage incentive which is the wage program
held is to pay wages according to the type of work done. This means that the
wage program provides wage rates by type of work. Bonuses through the stimulus
scheme are also given to employees who can complete the work earlier than the
specified time frame.

When the organization is considered a
social unit, it means that it has some employees who have been given a certain
role to carry out a task. They need to work together and connect with each
other to prepare a task. If they are doing the job without the need for service
and cooperation from other parties, of course, the task is inadequate as
required in terms of time, quality, quantity, and other determinations. An
organization requires employees to unite their efforts to achieve the desired
goals. If there is no unity among the workers, then the organization will not
be able to carry out its activities effectively and perfectly. The state of the
organization will be messing down without any specific direction. Business
combinations should exist within an organization to ensure that the achievement
is listed. Relations among staff can ensure that the organization is moving
perfectly, structured and effective. Coordination through the rules and
procedures can enhance the relationship between one function and another
function and between individuals and other individuals.

Each country is likened to a large
organization where the government should provide sufficient physical facilities
for government machinery and staff to manage the country effectively. The
Government of Malaysia has provided good physical buildings and facilities in
the public sector for that purpose. Taylor’s belief that man is rational and
will make an economic choice based on the level of financial reward has led to
a payment system plan where the type of effort given is closely linked to the
rate of rewards offered.  According Henri
Fayol (1841-1925) was given the title of “Father of Thought Management
“First, Fayol has distinguished between technical skills and management
skills. Second, he has identified specific management functions and the three,
he has recommended fourteen management principles. Technical Skills and
Management Skills Fayol divides management into six groups Techniques:
Manufacturing and manufacturing, Commercial: Purchasing, sales and exchange
(marketing), Finance: Optimal capital utilization, Security: Protecting
property and man, Accounting: Costs, balance sheet, statistics, , Manage:
Planning, preparation, directing, coordination, and control.

Management is a broad field,
encompassing social science fields such as sociology, anthropology, political
science, economics, as well as psychology. In fact, these skills can be gained
through the experience experienced by the management during the course of the
task. Scientific management emerged as a result of the need to further enhance
efficiency and productivity through the use of human and physical resources and
the management of scientific theories is still in use today in today’s sector
included the best approach in management.

Amitai Etzoni (1975) asserted that –
“social units (human groupings) deliberately constructed and reconstructed to
seek specific goals. Corporations, armies, schools, hospitals, churches, and
prisons are included: tribes, classes, ethnic groups, friendship groups and
families are excluded. Organizational are characterized by: (1) divisions of
labor, power, and communication responsibilities, divisions which are not
random or traditionally patterned, but deliberately planned to enhance the
realization of specific goals: (2) the presence of one or more power centers
which control the concerted efforts of the organization and direct them toward
its goals; these power centers must review continuously the organization’s
performance and re-pattern its structure, where necessary, to increase,4
Etzioni’s definition of organiza its efficiency; substitution of personnel, as
an example uncapable person will remove from their job.  The organization can also recombine its
personnel through transfer and promotion.

This can be seen in the management of
organizations that adopt the scientific management theory carried out good
feedback from employees as an example of division of tasks according to their
respective field of expertise which can avoid duplication of tasks. In general
scientific management theory known as application of the method and technique
of science to organization. The approach adopted in the organization also leads
to the achievement of objectives namely, formally allocating people &
resources, Individuals are happier if In that way, workers can be self-employed
in a particular field which is clearly with specified job in organization, know
which is they fit in working in organization and clearly responsibility in
their position, clearly specifies operating procedures & mechanisms in
formal manual, Indicates
procedures in decision-making showing where & how decisions are made within
organization, the location of authority; and last not least is  channels of communication, interpretation
& participation (Follet, 1987).

Critized of scientific management theory
is that focused only individual performance than group performance because our
scenario in global world was shown that group performance is needed to be succeeded.
Beside that, F.W Taylor was right in the sense that he could understand the
fact that a true environment for application of scientific management pursue
for same goal, as labour management harmonious relationship can avoid conflict
( Mizanur Rahman,2015). Reich (2007) stipulated that clearly that scientific
management theory was support autocracy that workers are bound to do as order
by their bosses or leader, they cannot voice out against policy worker, they
was felt burden with job, and working environment and nature of work. As
mentioned by Robertson (1923), the separation of planning from implementation
had clearly created a platform for discrimination as it restricted workers from
violating suggestion or opinion to improve planning process and the result was
very dangerous which is resentment.

As stated by Marshall (1919), scientific
management theory also critized by authoritarianism, although planning
department was established for efficiency, actually this department was proved
cumbersome: planning department took all the decision and foreman and workmen
had to implement them without any saying. Scientific management exist if mental
revolution that is labor management harmonious relationship exist. They
instruct foreman and workers and they are bound to implement the instruction. This
shown that stakeholders or authority people or who are organizational leaders
also see this scenario pointing to workers only according to the orders of the
superiors without objection. This causes the noise of dissatisfaction from the
subordinate workers to be heard.

Standardization has another pitfall that
is to be a prominent industrial leader. creativeness is necessary (Marshall).
Mizanur Rahman (2015) mentioned that managers are created leaders rather than
inborn leaders, so we can call managers as leaders. a managers efficiency cannot
be judged through merely précising standards, rather by how managers can react
to situational changes: how their decision making impact on the planning and
operation on the free of changed situation. so in this case standardization is
a bad yardstick.  Marshall (1919) said
that although it is claimed that replacing need of human handicraft by
automatic and semi automatic machines is a advanced system; from human point of
view, it actually make the work of human easy at the same time expense and also
price of killing labor skill. effect of this make an increased of unemployed
and workers fell they are exploited as they are not given due share, in
increasing profit which is due to their increased productivity.









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