(Ellen Martins, Nikos martins,2002)
Nikos has explained that organization culture can support creativity and innovation in the organization, through creating a new model that can be compered with the theoretical model. He concentrated on relation trust factors in working culture which specific trust relation refers, that trust can demonstrate in both openness and honesty. meanwhile trust relation can be affected on employee support for transitioning and probability of successful transition therefore can affect the creativity and innovation level which priory promoted.
(Miha Škerlavaj a, Ji Hoon Song b, Youngmin Lee,2010
they defined the organization culture in the same context with the literatures which “is set of norms and values regarding the functioning of an organization. They also recommended that should be systematic. They also mentioned that constructs consist of innovativeness are technical made (product and service) innovate culture and innovation. they have empirically tested the influence of innovation in organization culture by structural equation modeling, and they concluded that organization culture has direct effect on innovations and moderating
(Jol Stoffers, Petra Neessen, Pim van Dorp,2015)
They investigated on the type and relation among innovative work behavior and organizational culture in organization culture. They provided a production of packaging machines as their case study conduct and as an example with highly innovative work aspect. And according their conclusion of the questioner demonstrated that there is a significant correlation among market culture (organization culture) and innovative work behavior in the organization, meanwhile concluded that transition of the current market (organization culture) reflects more on family culture.
(E.C.Martins And F.Terblache, p;64-74.,2003)
they aimed to discover the what ties between creativity and innovation in the organizational culture. And they identified the elements of organizational culture as “strategy, support, mechanism, structure and behavior that encourages innovation and open communication. and also mentioned that each one of these elements can affect creativity and innovation and value, norms, and beliefs can play major role in creativity and innovation which either can be supportive or inhibit. creativity or innovation rely on they affect on individual or group behaviors.
in her research paper she attempted to suggest that human recourse management should lead employees jointly innovate and achieve entrepreneurship of business by implementing human resource practices. She also mentioned that any organization should have a culture of creativity and innovation for employees in order to achieve objectives. She believed that human recourse management can provide training courses in order to create capability of innovation culture. also mentioned that enhancing organization by its members (employee) can be oriented into innovation.
(Ersin Eskiler, Summani Ekici,Fikret Soyer,,Ihsan Sari,2016)
they attempted to discover the relation between organizational culture and innovative work behavior and exploring factors that affect innovative work behavior as a result they concluded that there is a relation relation organization culture and innovative work behavior meanwhile organization culture predicts innovative work behavior. They also suggested that in aspect of innovative work behavior employee should be motivated and organization should be organized.
(Dr. Jakobus Smit,2015)
He has explored if there is a relation between organization culture and innovation adoption in organization, as a result he discovered that there is a relation between organization culture and adoption of innovations in organization. And he also referred that the adaptable organization can be stargazed properly and have a positive behavior to innovation.
(Negar Salehi Mobarakeh,2011)
through her research regarding the relation between the organizational culture and creativity of managers and experts, through multiple correlation method she concluded that between component of the organization culture, organizational culture power, and caution to the customer there is a longitudinal relation with creativity. Meanwhile there is no “considerable” linkage between components of the organizational culture and creativity.
(N. A. Ankrah1, D. Proverbs1, A. Antwi1 and Y. Debrah2 ,2002)
They concentrated on importance of organizational culture and they referred that every organization should be capable to evaluate their organization`s culture and how they should develop it. During their study they determined the major dependent project determinants of organizational culture as installation of CPO (Construction Project Organizations).
(Mashal Ahmed & Saima Shafiq 2014)
They considered that organizational culture is the most important construct in management. They also detailed and identified the effectiveness of organization culture on organizational performance and to be known if organization culture can be helpful or harmful in the organization performance. By questioning relying on the responders they concluded that “whole the distance of the culture impact the various aspect of organizational performance.
(Ion Alexandru T?NASE.2015)1
he aimed the importance and characteristics of the organizational culture which is important condition that can be operated in every organization. He also pointed out that importance and characteristics will reflect on organizational culture and helps create organized culture in the organization. He mentioned that valuable culture can structuralize the organization successfully.as well as he referred that understanding, evaluating, managing organizations will lead to accomplishing stability and adaptability.
he has subjected The relationship of organizational culture and innovation in the organization
he referred that in order to innovate and evaluate effective and efficient particular culture to managers should understand the structure and then decide what type of culture should be implement. He also determined the basic elements of organizational culture in organizations in term of implementing innovation and providing model.
Organizational culture: there are various beliefs on defining the organizational culture and it can be defined in several forms, attempted to define common definitions that constructed on literatures. (Deshpandé and Webster,1989), they defined the organizational culture as “a pattern or shape of shared values and beliefs”. While Schein (1992) defined organizational culture as a style of fundamental presumptions developed by team to be adopted with its issues of external adaption and internal integration.
which (Dincer, 1992) defined Organizational culture as “system of the behaviors, values, beliefs, and habits that direct individuals’ behaviors in an organization”. In the other word (Guclu, 2003) defined organizational culture as values and beliefs that shape individuals’ behaviors in an organization. (Gerald Greenberg, CH:14,2011) defined the organizational culture as it is a cognitive framework including attitudes, values, behavioral norms, and expectations shared by organization members. Whole companies or organizations have their own culture which can sufficient or insufficient and can be affective element that affects organization’s ability to be succeed. and according to literatures organization structure. different level of culture is based on several aspects set of beliefs, values and assumptions”. from these opinions we can define organization culture as the shared norms, values, beliefs, and interpretations of significant events that result from common experiences of members.
· Factors affecting the organizational culture
According to (Gerald Greenberg, CH:14, S:8,2011) Organizational culture can be changed by four major factors which are:
Composition of workforce: bad arrangement among employees
Mergers and acquisitions: when two different company in different culture merge
Strategic cultural change: changing on the organizations strategies
Responding to the Internet: social networks
Creativity: (Gerald Greenberg, CH:14, p:561,2011) has defined the creativity as “The procedure through either by individuals or group can be made original and valuable thoughts. While according to (Maz, Noormaizatul, Noor, and Siti, 2011, p:3) they believed that there are two kinds of perspective regarding the creativity first is that concentrates on the kind of believed procedures and knowledgeable activity used to create new visions or ideas. And the other perspective is that concentrates on the personal characteristics and intellectual abilities of individuals, meantime, they sited that (Arad et al, 1997) thought that still others concentrate on the product with concern to the diverse qualities and consequences of creative efforts. They also cited that (Ford,1995) defined creativity as “some context-particular asses can differentiate from single group, in the period of time one organization and one culture to another will be changed and Assessing creativity should be assessed upon the the level of a person, organization, industry, and profession. Also (E.C.Martins And F.Terblache, p;67-68,2003) they defined the creativity as it is “creation of new, beneficial and valuable ideas for products, services, processes, and procedures through individual or groups in a particular organizational context”. (Ali Taha V, Sirková M, Ferencová M,2016, p:2) they cited that (Westwood and Low, 2003) defined creativity as it is “a matter of intellectual process at the individual level, which includes elements elsewhere individual level(group)”, Creativity has also social measurement, it is affected by social perspective. At the creativity can be comprehendible simply as it procedure can be generated from individual or group in order to achieve certain thing.
figure 1, S:11, creativity process
source: Organizational Culture, Creativity, and Innovation, Greenberg,2011
Innovation: (Maz, Noormaizatul, Noor, and Siti, 2011, p:3) they cited that according the literatures definition of the innovation will be two prospective firstly some of literatures are concentrating on the general and wide-ranging, while others concentrating on particular innovations such as the achievement of an idea for a new product or service. examples of organizational environment are reorganizing, or cost saving, strength communication, new technology for production processes, new organizational structure and new personnel plans
According to (West and Farr 1990), innovation is “considered as new idea
which drives to modification”. As well as purposeful introduction and application within a
role, group or organization of ideas, processes, products or procedures, new to the
relevant unit of adoption, designed to significantly benefit the individual, the group,
organization or wider society. (E.C.Martins And F.Terblache, p;67.,2003)and (kanter,1983)cited that (West and Farr 1990) defined the innovation as it is “intentional introduction and application within a role, group or organization of ideas, processes, products or procedures, new to the related unit of adoption, designed to meaningfully advantaged from individual, group, organization or wider society.(drucker,1985), (West and Farr 1990)and (E.C.Martins And F.Terblache, p;67.,2003) cited that “innovation is regarded as implementation of a new and possibly problem solving idea, practice.also (E.C.Martins And F.Terblache, p;67.,2003) cited that (Tidd, Bessant, & Pavitt, 1997) defined Innovativeness as “is a process of turning opportunities into practical use”.
figure,2, S, 16organizational innovation process
source: Organizational Culture, Creativity, and Innovation, Greenberg,2011
Linking creativity and organizational culture: Ali Taha V, Sirková M, Ferencová M,2016, p:2) there is link between creativity and organizational culture. they are dissimilar phenomena, they have an amount of related (values, norms, standards, symbols, idols.). according to (E.C.Martins And F.Terblache, p;67.,2003) and according of most literatures successful of any organization depend on the capacity to ingest innovation into organizational culture and managing process the organizational culture can affect creativity and innovation in two major ways, first is by socialization process in organization, individuals know what should be done and what act or behaviors are appropriate accordance with collective standards, individuals can predict the about the creativity and innovation as well as conduct procedures can be considered the part of way that organization works, and second one is that major values, prediction, and beliefs become enacted in created procedures of conduct and activities which they will be reflected the structure, policy, practices, and administrative procedures, which those structures are affecting directly the creativity in work environment.
Requirements for Innovation and Creativity
According to (Dr. N.Shani, P.Divyapriya,2001) the requirements for the creativity and innovation, they categorized requirements into three categories which are : individual, Group, and organization
· Self achievement knowledge
· Personal emerging plan
· Conflict resolution
· Innovation team developing
· Comprehending capacity for innovation
· Comprehending capacity for innovation
· Comprehending cultural factors that encourages innovation
· Developing a strategic approach to innovation
· Identifying assisted approaches with customer and suppliers
The Role of Culture in Organization3
culture can play several significant roles in the organizations which are divided into three points as demonstrated in figure3 including:
a. Culture can make sense to determine members in the organization. Meanwhile can create a flexibility to its members inside the organization in order to make members feel an important part and loyal.
b. Culture can generate a good communication among members which will lead to achieve organization’s missions
c. Culture can filtrate and support criteria of Behavior, also culture can guide members to how to deal with a given situation and how they are required to behave.
Figure3, the role of organizational culture
source: relation between organizational culture
And creativity and innovation p:534,2001
The organizational culture forms
There are several type of the organizational cultures, according to the competing values framework organizational culture can be divided into important sets, (Relation between organizational culture and creativity and innovation, 2001, p: 549-550-551)
a. valuing flexibility and discretion as opposed to stability, order, and control.
b. Valuing internal affairs as opposed to what’s going on in the external environment.
Through combining both dimensions, organization culture can be identified into four main types which are:
a. Hierarchy culture: this type concentrates internally of the organization and emphasizes on the stability and control for instance governmental agencies, McDonald`s, and large corporations.
b. Market culture: this type concentrates external orientation of the organization and stability and control. Market culture organizations, core values emphasize on competitiveness and productivity.
c. Clan culture: this type concentrates internally of the organization and also focus on flexibility and discretion. and objectives are more shared among employees. Example of this type: Nokia, 3M and conglomerate.
d. Adhocracy: this type concentrates on both external environment and internally of the organization and also known that constantly evaluating the prediction in order to survive. Example of this type: Dream work
figure: 4, The Competing Values Framework
The relationship of the creativity and innovation with organizational culture
(E.C.Martins And F.Terblache, p;67.,2003) cited that (Syrett and lammiman, 1997) “the relationship of creativity and innovation with organizational culture any organization can be successful if their culture was perfect and this successful organization have capability to ingest innovation into the organizational culture and management process”. And also the organizational culture elements can affect the creativity and innovation in two ways which are: first perceive what is considered valuable and second how they act in the work environment. (E.C.Martins And F.Terblache, p;67.,2003) cited that (Syrett and lammiman, 1997) addrsed a culture as “supportive of creativity and supports in innovative(critical) ways to overcome from the problems. And also regarding the relationship between the organizational culture and, creativity, and innovation has explained in specific environmental situations, strategic approach, and values. Associated in the (External environment, reaction to critical incidents external and internal of the organization, Manager’s value and beliefs, the structure of the organization, and technology) with organizational culture that encourages creativity and innovation. Also the critical point refers that the employee behavior involving the creativity and innovation can take place in the organization, this behavior affect can be distributed into five factors of organizational culture and each one these can affect in stimulating creativity and innovation.
As well known that organizational culture important for support and institutionalization of creativity within an organization. moreover, also been concluded that there is a significant relationship between the power of organizational culture and creativity of managers within Organizations according studies. The succeed organizational culture can be outcome of creative and innovative within that organization, meantime, encouraging and improving the control of that organizational culture will increase creativity and innovation among members. And organizations objectives can be achieved through the creative and innovative organizational culture. The creative and innovative managers have the major role of culture that determines standards and principles of organizational effectiveness. In this research explained that there is different tolerance of organizational changes because there is different level of organizational culture.
s ined theice garded as implementation of a new and possibly problem solvigization or wider societythrough
3 • ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, CREATIVITY, AND INNOVATION, CHAPTER 14, p:549