Learning and Change inOrganisations Learning and development is crucial in every company for growthand improvements. By implementing learning and development this will allow PELto identify, anticipate and subsequently react to change. From my reading of thecase study I have identified that PEL are facing a multitude of challenges thatneed immediate attention to ensure the company continues to grow and improve.Susan Sparrow has been appointed to provide advice and support to chiefexecutive Graheme Evans. After analysing the case study, there are many challengesfacing PEL which need to be addressed immediately.
Management, the admin staffand the production team will need development. In this particular case, it is evident staff are fearful ofnew things and as result the organistaion should introduce Performance Appraisal as (Harrison2009) outlines that performance appraisal has the potentialfor establishing the extent to which performance problems exist, and wheathersome form of development will help overcome the problem. It isevident in this case that the production team need development. As a result ofoutdated technology managers need to introduce new technology. ( Garavan & Hogan& Cahir-O’Donnell 2003 ) outlinehow changes in technology will have significant impacts on training anddevelopment.
(Garavan et al.2003) explainthat technology change impacts the organisation invarious ways including understanding the kind of impact the system has on therole with the organisation, identifying the importance of the nature of new workingpractices required for the system and the timing involved. New technologydevelopments are crucial for this organisation and (Garavanet al.2003)explain how it will determine the reaction of the employeesto the system, accepting that they need training, being aware of the role ofthe “computer department” and its interaction with staff, accepting completecommitment to the systems adoption and usage and its complete efficiency andeffectiveness. Managers should plan training activities aimed at producingmaximum attainment of objectives. New demands in the workplace need to beaddressed by appropriate Training and Development. CAREER DEVELOPMENT –MANAGERS In this particular case,there are no opportuinities for progression.
As a result the organisationshould implement a career management structure. Managers should have the opportunityto move onto senior roles such as becoming middle manager or senior manager. Byusing competency profiles this enables current managers to focus on certainknowledge and skills required for more senior roles. They are a mix ofcorporate competencies, core management competencies and personal competeneciesfor career aspirations. Current managers can also take part in formal developmentmethods such as training courses, management education programmes. In thisorganisation, managers should have the opportunity to take part in jobinconcruity from 6 months to 2 years. Managersshould be informed about what job routes are available, whether job profiles areavailable and gain advice on careerprogression. There is evidence from thiscase that as a result of challenges within the organistaion such asrepercussions, reward/pay being the only motivator, a lack of flexibility andno shared vision amongst the workplace managers need to train in performanceand reward management.
As a result this will increase consumer demand and enables themanufacturing team to perform better. It is evident in the case that the managers are using an autocratic style of management in which employeesdon’t participate in making any decisions in which theres no shared vision and they deal with constant pressure to reachfinancial targets. A key group inthis organisation that I feel is detrimental to the overall success of thebusiness is the managers. As a result mentoring and coaching is the most costeffective development for the managers. Mentoringfocuses on the longer term development of the person. The most widely useddefinition as Kram 1985 (cited in Stewart 1983, p608)describes is “the relationship between a young adult and an older, moreexperienced adult that helps the younger individual learn to navigate in theadult world and the world of work. A mentor supports, guides and counsels theyoung adult as he or she accomplishes this important task” Benefits that existwhere mentoring are reported consist of being persuasive in diverse fields suchas business, nursing, education, Accounting, law engineering and others and as Ghosh 2012(cited in Stewart 2014, p107) decribeswhat’s crucial to mentoring success is the “development of the relationshipbetween mentor and mentee as this is often considered to be more connected to”friendship” .
This is not the same as coaching. However,(Kram 1983) hasidentified serious impacts on the relationship and outcome on individuals afterundertaken research assessing the role of personality traits and mismatches inmentoring. The purpose of Coaching is toguide individuals on their current job in making decisions or carrying out workactivities and according to Whitmore 1996 (cited inGaravan et al., 2010,p.401) describes it as “unlocking a person’s potentialto maximise their performance.
It is helping them to learn rather than teachingteam” Coaching aims to help individuals in their current role and enable themto develop the skills for their role which results in being more autonomous andeffective in the role. Compared to the definition and role of a mentor, coachesare still seen as a more experienced and more knowledgeable person. Based onthe (2004 CIPD Training and development survey)(citedin Stewart & curaton) coaching had the overall largest increase inorganisations(51%), followed by e-learning(47%)and then mentoring or buddy systems(42%) . As a result managers should adopt acoaching management style. Coaching is extremely effective in supportingindividualised personal development and career coaching which supports peopleon the job and within leadership and personal development In this case it would be effective if managers adopted ablended approach to learn and maximise effectiveness in the workplace.
Ablended approach involves e-learning and (Garavanet al,.2009) describes different types of e-learning includingwebinars(live-learning) that involves live internet-based education. E-learningcan be useful for certain types of training or education that doesn’tnecessarily involve face to face interaction.
And allows organisations to adopta tell style approach in the delivery of the content. E-learning has many benefits for the organistaion and (Garavan et,al,.2009) outlines how it can access large numbers and various locationssimultaneously. Other benefits(Garavan et al,. 2009)outlines are how sessions can be taped and archived, it is a costeffective approach in that it is used in larger numbers and its wide usage. Byusing ablended approach according to Stewart etal,. (2011,p.209) describe how “blended learning refers to the approachwhere new media are combined with traditional face-to-face training as part ofa ‘blended approach’ By keeping an autocratic style of management it will bedifficult for the organisation to achieve what they want.
In this particularcase, it is evident that no one is taking responsibility for the development ofthe managers. Managers have adopted a closed system approach to managementdevelopment. The characteristics of a closed system approach identified by ( Beardwell & Claydon 2007) which is evident in thiscase is how there is no management infrastructure,a lack of responsibility for management development, development focuses on theneeds of the organistaion and not the individual needs and aspirations. Inaddition, in this case a controlling culture is illustrated and there is a lack of flexibility. By adopting an open-system approach ( Beardwell et al,.
2007) describes how thisapproach will overcome many of the problems associated with the closed systemapproach which is identified in this particular case by looking at themanagement development in isolation. It is essentially an integral part of thewider organisational system and (Beardwell etal.2007) outline how this approach views management development as asystem and a process which is composed of identifiable parts or components thatact together in an organised way. It would be an effective way in changingtechnology, the culture of the organisation, the way in which work is done, andthe style of management which is used in this case.
In thisparticular case the organisation want to grow and improve quality etc. As aresult of this managers can rotate roles, combine somementoring and coaching. Jobrotation is the movement around a number of jobs to build experience across jobroles. Creating a Training Plan In thisparticular case, it is essential to conduct a training needs analysis. It iscrucial that the organisation perform a training needs analysis and Stewart & Sidhu (2012, p.
99) describe how thiswill enable “an organisation to identify areas of development(weaknesses) andhow these may lead to business threats which can have a significant impact onperformance, as well as surfacing areas of strengths which can be utilised tosustain business performance. Firstly an organisation need to identify gaps inperformance that need training. However, conducting a training needs analysisis both time consuming and expensive and (Garavan et al,. 2009) describes how an analysisof training needs at this level will provide top management and trainingspecialists with good quality data on training and development. In this case,it is recommended that the organistaion involve senior management, staff andteam managers in conducting a training needs analysis. Developingthe learning content There are errors in conducting a training programme that organistaionsneed to be aware of and Garavan et al,.
(2003, p.202-205)outlines how training may not be aimed at the target audience, there can be awrong medium of presentation, insufficient preparation and poor pacing. Inaddition there may be bad timing of the learning event, poor organistaionallinkage and the organisation may adopt only a tell style. Training methods varyand a didactic stratedgy is decribed by Garavan etal,.1995( 1997 p.
589) something that that “provides the ‘nuts and bolts’information e.g lectures or classes. There are theories and linkage ofinformation and content. Whereas, an inductive stratedgy is learning through discovery,using methods such as exercises, projects, brainstorming and workshop-typeactivities and working through problems. For this organisation it is advisable that they combine both on the joband off the job training using a blended approach. According to Glaister&Holden&Griggs(2013 p166-169) (cited in stewart et al,. 2014) By using role plays this allows trainees toenact a role they may have to play at work, for example interviewing a customeror negotiating an agreement.
The organisation may also employ other trainees oractors to play the role of significant others to enchance credibility. Groupdynamics enable managers to carry out a simulated exercise and then behaviouris examined, for example group descision making, intergroup conflict,intragroup communication. It is essential that the organistaion looks at the sequenceand timing of their training plan. It should be in a logical order and as Garavan et al,.
( 2003 p.122) describes how it should “proceed fromthe practical or concrete to the more abstract or theoretical” Evaluation Bye evaluating training the organisation can assess peoplesreaction levels and wheather they are content with the training. In addition, Garavan etal,. (2003,p.
491) describes that for the organistaion it “determineswheather or not the programme has achieved its agreed objectives. It can alsoprovide you with information to assess the overall cost-effectiveness and returnon investment. Evaluation also supports the transfer the learning back into thework enviornemnt” The Kirkpatrick Model By measuring four dimensions of outcome; reaction ,learning,behaviour and results this model is used frequently in organistaions. In relationto learning (Garavan, Hogan et al,.(1993 p.
494/5) outlinelearning criteria measures “whether participants have observed the concepts orcontent of the training. The concern is with measuring actual learning achievedwithin the event” By observing behaviour organisations should look at whether thetrainee has learned the relevant concepts. This criteria will be concerned withany changes initiated by the learning events in terms of job behaviour and performance.
Results will then measure the business impact of the programme. Organisationsshould monior work output, and perform performanceAppraisal reports. There can be many potential benefits of organisationallearning. In this particular case the organisation is resistant to change. The Organisation should perform a multistageprocess in which (Harper & Row et al,.1951)cited in ( Lewin 1951) uses unfreezingwhich is a process by which people become aware of the need for change. Changeshould illustrate a movement from the old way of doing things to a new way.Finally the organisation should use the process of refreezing which makes newbehaviours relatively permanent and resistant to change.
The organisation cancreate new vision and stratedies or introduce a new company direction. The organisationneeds to considerwhat changes are needed to achieve these goals such as thestructure of the organisation and new skill sets for managers and staff,introducing new technology. In thiscase, there is no organisational structure and as a result resistance to changeleads to cultural change. Change has an impact on culture and Chatman & Cha cited in (Mullins 2005,p.898-Chapter 22)suggests that the following tools for leaders to develop, manage, and changeculture are recruitmentand selection, social tools and training and reward systems.
In this case in particular the organisation needsto look at change agents both internally and externally. Consultants may bebrought in from OD,HR,Training and development. In addition according to( Smither et al,.
1996) outlines the effect of managers being appointed to launchan OD effort or intervention in which their level in the organisation may givethem credibility. Other examples include appointing leaders as change agentsand utilising informal change agents such as supporters,popular people andnetworkers. In this case, the organisation can being in external change agentswhich according to (Smither et al,.1996) tend to be from consulting firms orspecialist OD firms. When looking at thepotential benefits these agents can bring to this organisation Smither et al.( 1996,p.
67) outlines that external change agents have thecredibility as an expert, there’s no negative history with organisational members.In addition, they can be an objective outsider and have a wide experience oforganisations and OD. By using internalagents they already have the credibilityas being an insider and ( Smither et al,.1996) outlines how theyknow the people, the norms and the culture of the organisation. In addition,they have already established personal relationships with organisation members,they know the organistaions technology and they are continuously available to organisationalmembers. The organisation will needto consider wheather they are going to change performance management.
Inaddition, the process of recruitment and selection will change as the businesshas now evolved in both organisational structure and new company objectives.Study policies will allow further education. BibliographyStewart,J. and Rigg, C., 2011. Learning and talentdevelopment.
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