Lab receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Although unable

Lab 1B Assignment

BIOL3212 –
Biochemistry Lab

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TA: John Donlan

Amy Wu


The ALPI gene encodes for a protein called alkaline
phosphatase and is most prominently expressed in cells of the small intestinal
(terminal ilium), with a small amount of expression present in transverse colon
cells. ALPI specifically encodes for the intestinal alkaline phosphatase which
is a digestive enzyme that is necessary for maintaining intestinal homeostasis
and protection from pathogens. It is also involved in the successful
functioning of the gut mucosal defense system and may possibly aid in the removal
of endotoxins. The ALPI gene is located on chromosome 2 and is 4,634 base pairs
in length. Consisting of 11 exons, the gene is located on the positive (+) DNA
strand. Although EcoRI cut sites can be seen when the gene is zoomed out, they
do not fall on the gene and thus there are no EcoRI cut sites present on the
ALPI specifically. The protein itself is expected to be 528 amino acids in
length. Three vertebrate species that were located in the “comparison” track include
the wallaby, panda and killer whale. I was drawn to these three organisms due
to the vast differences in ecological niches that each one occupies. Being from
the Australasian region myself, I was drawn to those organisms that are commonly
found in this environment. Killer whales (Orcas) have long-been studied in New
Zealand and I had the chance to do this in high school during my work with a
marine conservation group.





The Homo
sapiens erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 gene (gene symbol: ERBB2), also
commonly referred to as HER2 encodes for
a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor
tyrosine kinases. Although unable to bind itself to growth factors due to a
lack of ligand-binding domains, this receptor is able to bind to other ligand-bound
EGF receptors which enhance kinase-mediated activation of downstream signaling pathways.

Located on chromosome 17, the ERBB2 gene consists of 31 exons, and is located
on the positive (+) strand of DNA. The protein itself is expected to be 1055
amino acids in length. From the ERBB2 gene expression bar graph, it can be seen
that there is huge variation in terms of the cell types that express the gene. This
is to be expected as kinase pathways are numerous within the body. The highest
median expression is shown to be in the skin (sun exposed, lower leg), however
other significant sites of expression include the breast (mammary tissue), the
bladder, the mucosa of the esophagus. In order to find this gene in the genome
browser, I first searched “HER2” which unfortunately did not provide me with a
RefSeq link, however, did provide me with the alternate name “ERBB2”. Upon
entering this in the search bar, the RefSeq link was able to be retrieved. I
chose to search for this gene as I was researching the effects of its
overexpression over the summer when working at the Zhao Lab at Dana Farber
Cancer Institute. The Zhao Lab is involved heavily in the research of breast
cancer brain metastases, especially in cases of HER2 positive breast cancer. Many
reports illustrate that the overexpression/amplification of ERBB2 result in
cancers, particularly in those of the breast and ovaries.





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