IntroductionThe Britain, Austria, and Russia to ensure international peaceBund:

IntroductionThe Congress of Vienna met in September 1814Contained many European nationsImportant decisions were made by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, the strongest statesDiscussed the effects of the Napoleonic wars and the fall of the Holy Roman Empire and established new boundariesGerman states reduced from 230 to 39Create larger stronger unions to resist future aggressionNapoleon seized parts of Italy were returnedStates with separate leaders and laws made up Germany and ItalyBoth became unified 1870-71Depended on Prussia in Germany and Piedmont in ItalyBoth struggled with liberals and nationalistsLiberals: People who favour the reform of traditional beliefs and structures to benefit individual    freedoms; tend to be open mindedNationalists: People with a common bond such as nationality, culture or language, who want the right to govern themselvesLiberalism and nationalism in the early 19th centuryThe ideas of liberalism were developed by John LockeJohn Locke: Believed all men had the right to independence and liberty and that this should be defended by revolution in necessaryMost liberals were middle-class professionalsFrom above they defended against authoritarian rulers and below against disorderly crowds for property rightsBelieved governments should represent responsible, educated people with property or trade interests Seeked change through peaceful meansCompetition was beneficial while tariffs on trade and monopolies were harmfulTrade unions were opposed and guilds that protected small-scale workers and traders were wanted to be bannedLaissez-Faire: A system of trade that was free from government interference (let it be)Adam Smith:Wrote a book about economic liberalism titled The Wealth of NationsProtectionism: The policy of placing high tariffs on imports in order to protect domestic industries from foreign competition; opposite of free tradeNationalism: The belief that one’s own country is superior to other countries, and that its needs and interests should be priorityLimited to only educated middle classThe post-Vienna settlement of Germany and ItalyPrussia played important role in defeating NapoleonQuadruple Alliance: Signed by Prussia, Britain, Austria, and Russia to ensure international peaceBund: ConfederationKlemens von Metternich: Important delegate at the Congress of Vienna, determined to suppress any signs of liberalism and nationalismItaly had no representatives at the Congress of Vienna because it was not a singular country Metternich referred to it as a ‘geographical expression’Most rulers in Italy governed small or poor princedoms with underdeveloped economiesRegionalism and different ideas of nationalismMany parts of Europe did not feel a strong sense of national identityCommunications poorLanguages varied Different traditions and customsMost people were loyal to their region rather than state or countryCentral governments existed but were dislikedNationalism in the Austrian EmpireEuropean statesmen were wary about the growth of nationalism, especially the Austrian EmpireAustrian Empire contained a multitude of ethnic groupsAustrains, Germans, Hungarians, Czechs, Poles and SlavsEthnic groups: Groups of people of the same race or nationality who share a common culture or language Nationalism threatened the countryMetternich wanted to get rid of nationalism in Austria and other parts of EuropeUsed army to maintain control, relied on spies to bring reports of any stirring up of nationalism, and mail was intercepted and checkedAlexander I, Francis I and Friedrich Wilhelm I all opposed nationalism and sign the Holy Alliance with MetternichMetternich called the alliance ‘high-sounding nothing’ in privateCharles X lost the throne to Louis PhilippePhilippe introduced a more liberal constitution Did not satisfy demands for widespread reform but encouraged those who sought changeLed to 1848 revolutionsMetternich was driven out by unrest in AustriaLeaders of German states were forced to establish constitutions when threatened by rebellionThe Frankfurt Parliament tried to bring a national government and a freer more unified Germany but failedItaly also experienced uprisingsNationalism in GermanyA few educated Germans had liberal ideas, inspired by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Georg Hegel and othersSaw the Middle Ages as a time of freedom and unity, wanted to revive the national spirit they believed there used to beLiberals in germanyDid not pursue the political unity for the German statesPeople retained a respect for their existing rulers Princes had alliances with the JunkersEnsured stability, and they governed differentlyMost German states had constitutionsMurder of August von Kotzebue, anti-liberal writer, by mentally ill member of a liberal student association worried MetternichMetternich issued the Carlsbad Decrees To control radical groups through censorshipYoung Germany called for political reformTheir influence worried Metternich and othersMetternich convinced German princes to accept the Six Articles Curbed political meetingsThe economy and the ZollvereinMetternich believed the German rulers and himself were in control politically wiseEconomic developments proved him wrongGerman economy depended on agricultureThe Industrial Revolution changed things majorlyGerman industry developed Textiles, iron, and steelCoal was plentifulPrussia led the changes, built new roads, and invested in railways, reforms in trade and customsPrussia abolished 67 internal customs barriers German became the largest free-trade area in Europe after establishing the ZollvereinAustria did not join the ZollvereinIts politicians failed to appreciate the importance of industrialization Some historians think this was a significant mistakePrussia now has control over GermanyPrussia was the most influential member of the ZollvereinSome states not always willing to be dictated by PrussiaInsisted decisions be unanimous and economic affairs kept from political issuesPrussia received the best rewards, other states got economic expansion Railways were important in unificationGerman states adopted a common currency and uniform trade laws after the customs unionZollverein not meant to be a political development States that joined were anxious to retain independence