Introduction:Heavy metals are naturally available elements. It is present in the ecosystem with varying concentration. Elevated concentration of heavy metal can lead to toxicity and retard the growth of living organism. Density is the important feature for defining the heavy metal properties and having specific density of more than 5g/cm3. The serious threat of human health are related with an exposure to heavy metals like lead, copper, nickel, cadmium (Järup 2003). . Heavy metals are toxic pollutants, which can accumulate in living tissues causing various diseases and disorders.
The major toxic metal ions hazardous to humans as well as other forms of life are Cr, Fe, Se, V, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Zn etc. Therefore, removal of heavy metals from the wastewater has become important for human and environmental health.As growing population increase the risk of toxic water due to rapid industrialization. When chemical discarding into the water which are highly toxic in nature. Wastewater generate from the textile and chemicals making industries. These industries produce a large amount of effluent containing organic and inorganic pollutants; discard them into nearby river or lakes. This water moves to flowing water and reaches into drinking water and contaminates it.
That polluted water causes toxic effects on aquatic ecosystem and human health (Lichtfouse et al. 2005).Wastewaters from industries contain a mixture of pollutants that vary from heavy metals to dyes which are carcinogenic for humans. Theses effluents stop photosynthetic activity by reducing light penetration into aquatic system.
Their disposal into water causes serious threat to environment. When untreated effluent makes the water bodies colored and create aesthetic problem and if it is untreated cause hazardous effect. So, it is necessary to eliminate from the environment. (Beekaro et al. 2011)A number of methods are available for removal of heavy metals or dyestuff such as filtration,ion-exchange, ozonation, photo catalysis, evaporation.All these method are difficult to treat and every technique has its own limitation except adsorption method. Biosorption is the accumulation and concentration of pollutants from aqueous solution by the use of biological material.
In this instance, biological materials, such as chitin, chitosan, yeasts, fungi, bacteria, algae, biomass having cellulosic material are used as chelating and complexing sorbents in order to concentrate and remove pollutants from the solution. Biosorption is a metabolically passive process that does not require energy. It is property of certain types of inactive/active organisms to bind and concentrate heavy metals in dilute aqueous solutions. It involves solid phase (sorbent) and a liquid phase (solvent) containing the dissolved species to be adsorbed. The materials which are used in this method are called bio sorbents. This technique provides alternatively method for elimination of heavy metal from industrial waste water.
Biosorption method is the best method because it is simpler, cost effective techniques (Sharma 1991). In recent years, researcher focuses on the use of sustainable sorbents that obtain from biological materials(Brahmi et al. 2015;Bosso et al. 2015;Noreen et al. 2016).Biosorption studies are reported in the literature for a long time but there is little or no exploitation in an industries scale (Fomina et al. 2014) Immobilized cell technology has been extensively investigated, and its practical application has been reported in both the food and wastewater-treatment industries.
Immobilization of biosorbent material has been put forward.A variety of matrices have been used for cell immobilization, such as natural polymeric gels (agar, carrageenan, calcium alginate) and synthetic polymers(Dzionek et al.2016). This technique is simple and a stable entrapment is achieved simply by inoculating the fungal cell within culture medium. Now there is focused on the immobilized biomaterial that can be prepared by economical and simple procedureHeavy metalsLEAD: is a heavy metal of bluish-gray color.
It is found in earth crust in small amount. Sources of lead such as fossil fuels burning, mining leads to increase concentration of it in environment. This is followed by the human activities. Lead release from many industries, agricultural field, domestics into nearby water.
It is absorb by adults about 35 to 50%, while children absorption is greater may be more than 50%. The greatest percentage of lead is get into the body of human by liver. This effect on the kidney, also flow into the soft tissues of body (Flora et al.2006)SYMPTOM OF LEAD EXPOSURE: early symptoms of lead exposure are headache, irritability, loss of memory and effect on the CNS.
There are two main exposure of lead such as acute and chronic exposure.Acute exposure: it induces brain damage, kidney damage, and gastrointestinal diseasesChronic exposure: exposure may cause adverse effects on the blood, central nervous system, blood pressure, kidneys, and vitamin D metabolism (Litvak et al. 1998; Apostoli et al.1998; Tchounwou et al.2012).
SACCHARUM MUNJASaccharum is a genus of tall perennial plants and having deep roots and rihozmes. It includes the sugarcanes, as well as several ornamental grasses such as Ravenna grass.Structural texture: Height of S. munja is 6 to 9ft and have stout, jointed , sharp edge or fibrous stalks. It is usually rich in sugarSpecie of Saccharum munja roxb.
and their white flowers are of ornamental value. It is used as a raw material for thatching roofs. It is used for making baskets. Saccharum munja has medicinal importance. It is a medicine used for treatment of eye disease, inflammation (Singh et al.
1998).Saccharum munja commonly known as munja and is a grass found along river banks. The common name of the plant is Kana, sarkanda, Moonja and is distributed from north and North West India to Pakistan. Dry ‘sarkanda’ as such is not ingested by cattle. However, since it is available in large quantities in non-irrigated arid and semi-arid regions which are occasionally subjected to famine and drought, attention was first directed to its possible utilisation as a cattle feed (Vasudevan et al.1984).
The plant is a large tufted grass and is of little account as fodder plant as cattle doesn’t eat them (Roopan et al. 2013). Saccharum munja was believed to have a medicinal value and are employed to treat diseases. Not much of the research was done to evaluate the effect of Saccharum munja.ADVANTAGES REFERENCE:1. Jarup L. 2003. Hazards of heavy metal contamination.
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