INTRODUCTIONUse of medicines is prominent for the treatment against pathogenic strains of bacteria, viruses, parasites. But this wide application of drugs, chemicals and plant extracts on these pathogens makes them more drug resistant this phenomenon is called as “Selection Pressure”. One of them is Acinetobactor baumannii which is resistant towards carbapenem a subgroup of beta-lactam antibiotic.Acinetobactor baumannii is a short, gram-negative coccobacillus which is aerobic, immotile pathogenic bacteria. Basically, it is an opportunistic pathogen, which causes pneumonia, respiratory and urinary tract infections, resides on hospital surfaces and this became a cause for its out-break in immunocompromised patients. Acinetobactor baumannii has been distinguished as an ESKAPE pathogen (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species), a gathering of pathogenic bacteria with a high rate of drug resistant to are a large number of hospital-derived (nosocomial) diseases. So new antibiotics or antimicrobial drugs or vectors must be used to eliminate these pathogens.
In recent years the use of Nano particles for killing resistant pathogenic strain have been increased. Easy drug delivery, antimicrobial and antibacterial activity, anti-cancerous activity has increased its uses furthermore. AgNPs shows their antimicrobial activity through multifarious mechanisms, AgNPs adhesion to bacterial cells, penetration inside the cells, ROS and free radical generation, and conduction of microbial signal transduction pathways have been identified as the most prominent modes of antibacterial action.From the wide range of Nano-particles one of them is silver NPs which have potent role in antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, due to their small size and large surface area which enables them to produce multivalent interaction and results in arising high synergy.Despite silver, the milk also has some antimicrobial activity and pathogen killing substances which are still unknown that how they function.
So, use of milk proteins as a capping of AgNPs can be a great combination to use against drug resistant Acinetobactor baumannii.Milk contains various protective proteins like lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, N-acetyl-§-glucosaminidase (NAGase), PGRP, Immunoglobulins and lysozyme which have antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activity, immunological properties, and anti-cancerous activity. We hereby intend to study the role of milk proteins capped with silver Nano particles of camel, sheep, goat, cow, buffalo in inhibiting the pathogenic and resistant strain of Acinetobactor baumannii.