INTRODUCTION to people to improve their skills, modifying behavior,

INTRODUCTION 1.         Training iscommonly identified as giving opportunities to people to improve their skills,modifying behavior, and increasing competence. Mostly, requirement of thetraining is giving complete attentions on students should competent what theyshould know as per that particular subjects.

Training is a longer-term process,which includes the goals of training and describes why certain facts must be known.Training is scientific process and it should be systematically designed andorganization must have correct system to get their maximum output when theydischarge their duties (USA. Department Health and Human Services, 1999).

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 2.        Sri Lanka is a country which had brutal 30 years war since80’s and terminated on 19th May 2009 by the Sri Lankan armed forces. It is observed that various HR and IHL (HumanRights and International Humanitarian Law) allegations were raised from severalparties in the world, including the UNHRC (United Nation Human Rights Council).

Assessingthe improvement of the implementing HR resolution 30/1 on promoting reconciliation,accountability is still being observed by the UNHRC (releifweb,2017). SLN (Sri Lanka Navy) isbeing armed force, effectiveness on HR and IHL training is essential to enhancethe professional  knowledge on naval personnel.Establishing and protecting HR and IHL is utmost important and thatresponsibility lies with the armed forces as well as the Ministry of defence inany countries (Bienert, 2014). Several HR and IHL training are being conductedby the SLN for the officers as well as the sailors regularly. 3.         Professionalism of naval personal canbe categorized under many aspects.

It will be varied from initially as officersand sailors in SLN, and then it will be depended on the particular branch,personal they belong. Apart from that, the significance of the HR and IHL isthe great important for all naval personal as the service men. Naval personalare being engaging with many civilian cases. So it is obvious that,professionalism of service person is also included the knowledge on HR and IHLis great important. Therefore study on effectiveness of HR and IHL training inSLN is paramount important for enhance professionalism of naval personnel.

       SIGNIFICANCE/JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY    4.         Effectivetraining on HR and IHL is great important to prevent HR and IHL violation bythe SLN in conflict scenario in both land and sea. Specially, there should be amechanism to evaluate the knowledge on HR of naval personal who are engagingwith civilian (fishermen, drug dealers, illegal migrants and etc.) 5.

         Even thoughgovernment forces have totally defeated the terrorist in Sri Lanka, but thoroughknowledge on IHL is required to handle future conflicts as military personal.6.         Study was notcarried out to find effectiveness of HR and IHL training in SLN.7.         Effective training should be includedthat knowledge, techniques and skills and it will be affected to minimize the mistakeswhich can be taken place in real scenario (Raja and Kumar, 2016).8.         Continues Trainingon HR and IHL helps to upgrade knowledge of SLN personal and inculcating thesense of co-ordination with the civilians.

RESEARCH PROBLEM  9.         SLN personnelare being under gone several HR and IHL training throughout their navalcarrier. Those training are categorized as Post graduate, Diploma, Advancedcourses, Refresher courses, Instructor courses and etc. All above trainingprogrammes are conducted in institutions and universities, which are not, belongsto the SLN. SLN officers are being frequently participated for HR and IHLconferences mostly abroad and many local seminars. Separate Directorate isfunctioned in SLN as HR and IHL and different training module are being conductedfor the naval personal.

In addition that many important training modules in SLNare not included HR and IHL training, though it is important for the naval personal.Also, it is observed that utilization of naval personal those who havecompleted HR and IHL training are not involved with particular subject. Only 03Legal branch officers are involved in HR and IHL directorate and it is observedthat there are no any single officer  whohave possessed with many training in particular subjects. In addition that sailor’sknowledge on HR and IHL need to be improved a due many cases reporting about HRviolation against the naval personal in post war scenario. LIMITATIONS  10.

      Following will be considered aslimitations. a.                  Perceptionconstraint – Some sailors may not give correct feedback.

 b.                 Time constraint -Time will be a constrain with the academic works at DSCSC. c.                  Sample sizeconstraint – As per the statistics of HR and IHL directorate, so it was verydifficult to cover all the naval personal in this survey. Number of navalpersonal covered in this survey is limited to the sample sizes who are workingin Western Naval Area.  This limits thescope of the project study and the analysis may not represent the wholepopulation.  d.                 Durationconstraint – The time duration for the research is limited to around 10 months.

so it was difficult to analyze the trainings effectiveness at micro level.e.                  Officers of HR and IHL directorate may reluctantto give exact details. f.                  Study will be carried out within SLN and notinvolved the other institutes and universities conducting the HR and IHLprogrammes for naval personal.  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 11.

      Inthis research the Kirkpatrick Model will be used to measure the effectivenessof HR and IHL training in SLN. The Kirkpatrick Model is world recognized modulefor use to measure the effectiveness of training (Saad et al., 2013). Theconceptual frame work for the study is as follows.            TheKirkpatrick Model                     (Independent variable)  Reaction  Learning                                                 Effectivenessof Training                                                                    (Dependent variable)Behaviour                                                 Results  Figure 1: conceptual Framework                                                                                     HYPOTHESES  12.

       Hypotheses.                Thereis no effectiveness of the HR and IHL training in SLN.  13.       Null hypotheses.        There is an effective of the HR and IHLtraining in SLN.   RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES   14.       The aimof this research is to carryout in-depth study to investigate, how effectivenessof HR and IHL training in SLN.15.

       Following are the objectives of research.a.                  To study the effectiveness of HR and IHL training inSLN. b.                 To study the effects of effective training of HR andIHL in SLN. c.                  To understand the satisfaction level of naval personalregarding HR and IHL training. d.

                 To offer suggestions based on findings of thestudy.  LITERATURE REVIEW16.       As per the Bienert( 2014) ,it is mentionedthat, establishing and protecting HR and IHL is utmost important and thatresponsibility lies with the armed forces as well as the Ministry of defence inany countries. In addition to that asper the study of Bates (2015), it is emphasized that IHL training would beeffective to prevent the IHL violation for military personal. Also as per thereleifweb (2017) indicated that various HR and IHL allegations were raised fromseveral parties in the world, including the UNHRC and presently they are beingassessed the improvement of the implementing HR resolution 30/1 on promotingreconciliation, accountability is still being observed by the UNHRC .Hence asper the all above references indicated that HR and IHL training is greatimportant to the military personal to enhance their professionalism when theyperform duties.17.       So,it is important that to conduct HR and IHL training in effective manner in SLN.

As per the Bates (2015), there are two minimum principle considerations on themilitary training. First principleis training should capable of encouraging proper conduct, and second principleis military ethics training should train soldiers in independent reflection,given the significance of group unity and the command chain. Both principals aresignificance for the military training. In addition to that effective militarytraining should be provided that practical training other than the class room instructions.Also it is mentioned that (Wortel and Bosch, 2011) study shows the significanceof a mentoring or “train the trainers” approach (at least in military ethics),and could offer transferable insights for the design of IHL training. As perthe Karthik (2012) it is indicated that,ultimately trainees should understand the objective of the training and objectivesare great important of the organizational requirements as trainer, trainee,design and evaluator. 18.

       Otherhave indicated that (Punia et al., 2013) measuring effectiveness of training isdifficult task and there are recognized models for measuring the trainingeffectiveness. According to them Kirkpatrick (1976) being the pioneer of foundmethod to evaluate the effectiveness of training. Others have shown (Saad etal., 2013) that Kirkpatrick model is the most accepted model for the measuringtraining effectiveness. It is consisted with four steps to evaluate theeffectiveness such as Reaction, Learning, Beahaviour and Results. In theseReaction criteria the cover evaluates trainees’ affective and attitudinal reactionsto a training programme as same as per the Karthik (2012).

A Kirkpatrick secondcriterion as Learning, which assesses the level of trainee’s, has absorbed knowledgefrom the training programme and it also similar with the criteria with the Karthik(2012). 19.       Alsoas per the report, (USA. Department Health and Human Services, 1999) it isemphasized that effective training can be measure by the Learner variables(age, sex, socioeconomic status, etc.), trainer variables (experience, teachingstyle, etc.), and context variables (class size, classroom instruction versusapprenticeship training, etc.

) also most similar with the Kirkpatrick model.20.       Althoughit is difficult to find out literature regarding the study on effectivetraining on HR and IHL training, but it is rarely found one study Bates (2015)on effective training on IHL. There are many studies easily found to measurethe effectiveness of training in different subjects in different organizationsand those studies can be used to develop/modified the conceptual frame to meassurethe effectiveness of training in military personal. Also there are many ICRCdocuments used to emphasized the significance of the HR and IHL training forthe military personal and it is effected to the enhance the professionalism ofthe naval personal.