Introduction Sapir as quoted by Alwasilah (1990, p: 7)

Introduction   

 

One  important 
thing  that  has  a  connection 
with  human  being 
especially  people  is

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language,
because people are a social creature that cannot live alone and always must
make an  interaction  with 
other. Sapir as quoted by Alwasilah (1990, p: 7) says language is a purely human and
non-instinctive  method  of 
communicating  ideas,  emotion, 
and  desire,  by 
means  of a  system 
of voluntarily  produced  symbol. 
So,  it 
is  understood  that 
language  is  the 
important  thing  for  human
being in making a relationship with others.So, people  need 
others  in  their 
life  to make this  life 
balanced.  In making a
relationship with the other, people use a language for communication.(Communication is a
process by which information exchange between individuals through a common
system of symbol, signs, or behavior). (Alwasilah, 1990, p: 9)..

The  processes 
of  communication  also 
have  some  purposes. 
One  of  them 
is  a

commercial 
purpose  in  advertisement. Advertising is a medium which functions as a marketing communication
about a product.

Advertisement  uses 
communication  in  order 
to promote  the  product 
to  the  consumers. 
In  this  situation 
the  speaker  is 
the  producer  and 
the listener is the consumer, the producer sends information about their
product and the message that the producer wants to send is their own product,
and the costumer is the listener that will receive  information 
from  the  producer. 
From  the  message 
in  advertisement  field, 
the costumer  will  know 
and  understand  about 
the  product  from 
the  slogan  or 
maybe  from  the picture of the product. Usually  the 
advertisers  introduce their new
product and services in mass media with jiggles and slogans (1994, p:4).

Slogan  is 
a  short  phrase 
that  is  easy 
to  remember  and 
is  used  by 
an  advertiser,

organization, or other
group. Effective slogans are short, easy to

understand,
memorable, and easy to repeat. Good slogans help set the product

apart
from its competitors” (Bovee, 1986: 274). Slogans play an important

role
to attract consumers. By reading the slogans, it is expected that people

will directly know the advertised
products.

 

 

Literature review

In advertisng the advertiser usually violates the  cooperative principal to get some different
effects.this tactic most of the time can achieve unexpected outcomes which will
make the advertisement more impressive and successful

 

Conversational implicature is the phenomenon whereby a
speaker says one thing and thereby conveys (typically, in addition) something
else. Conversational implicature was identified and named by the philosopher
Paul Grice in his paper Logic and
Conversation, originally presented at Harvard in 1969. Much of today’s
linguistic pragmatics has its origins in the insights of that paper, and
concerns itself in some fashion with some aspect of conversational implicature.
To account for the phenomenon of conversational implicature, Grice proposes
that there are certain norms of conversational behavior, norms which are
mutually known and typically adhered to by conversational participants. These
norms prevent conversation from consisting of “a succession of disconnected
remarks,” and, at each stage in a conversation, render certain possible
conversational contributions “unsuitable” (L
26).

 In other words,
the participants seem to follow some principles like the following: “Make your
conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it
occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you
are engaged”(Grice, 1989:26). This principle is famous as the Cooperative

Principle,
abbreviated as CP. Grice summarizes the effect of these norms as a
single overarching principle, which he calls the Cooperative Principle.

 

This principle has little force without further clarification of what
is in fact required of conversational contributions. Grice specifies this
further in what he calls Maxims of
Conversation, formulated as rules governing allowable conversational moves.
Grice organizes these maxims into four categories: Quality, Quantity, Relation
and Manner. In current usage, these terms are used to designate the specific
maxims Grice proposed. Grice himself, however, gives these specifically as categories of maxims “under one or
another of which will fall certain more specific maxims and submaxims” (p.26),
apparently envisaging the possibility of substantial lists of conversational
rules. The maxims which Grice proposes are listed below, in some cases slightly
reformulated from the original:

Conversational Maxims

      Quality

Supermaxim: Try to make your contribution one that is true

            1.   Do not say what you believe to be false.

            2.   Do not say that for which you lack adequate
evidence.

     

      Quantity

            1.   Make your contribution as informative as is
required (for the current purposes of the exchange).

            2.   Do not make your contribution more
informative than is required.

 

      Relation

                  Be relevant

 

      Manner

            Supermaxim: Be
perspicuous

            1.   Avoid obscurity of expression

            2.   Avoid ambiguity

            3.   Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity)

            4.   Be orderly.

It is worth mentioning that the four
maxims are not rules to be followed. Rather, they are more like guidelines for
the effective use of language in a conversation and for successful
communication (see Cruse, 2000, p. 357; Fasold & Connor-Linton, 2006, p.
160; Finch, 2003, p. 157; Fraser, 1990, p. 222; Levinson, 1983, p. 101; Saeed,
2003, p. 204).

Grice (1975, p. 49) argues that
participants in a conversation do not always abide by the maxims; sometimes
they fail to observe a maxim (also see Coulthard, 1985, p. 31). The maxims will
not be observed for various reasons, but only when they are flouted does
conversational implicature occur. There are five ways of non-observance of a
maxim: Violation, flouting, infringing, opting out, and suspending.

Violation

Riemer (2010, p. 120) argues that
maxim violation takes place when a speaker deliberately wants to mislead the
listener, i.e. s/he may deliberately choose to lie (see Archer, Aijmer, &
Wichmann, 2012, p. 52).

Flouting

Grundy (2000, p. 76) states ‘Whenever
a maxim is flouted there must be an implicature to save the utterance from
simply appearing to be a faulty contribution to a conversation’.

Opting out

Grice (1975, p. 49) remarks that a
speaker may opt out of observing a maxim and clearly indicate that he is
unwillingness to cooperate in a way that a maxim requires.

Infringing

the speaker has a lack of ability to
express his intention (Thomas, 1995, p. 74).

Suspending

Suspending a maxim is the
non-observance of a maxim because there is no expectation on the part of any
participant that the maxim will be fulfilled

 

 

 

Statement of the problem

 

In this paper what the writer wants to explain and to
analyze are about:

 

To examine the  how grice propose the cooperative principal and how it developed
in sologan of advertisement.

 

 

It will also look into  the  what are the functions
of the violating the cooperative principle in slogan of advertisement.

 

 

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:

 

This
research is intended to identify four types of Grice cooperative principal four
types of Grice’s cooperative principle and 
intentional violation of the cooperative principle from a pragmatic
prespective.

 

 

Research questions

 

How grice propose the cooperative principal and how it
developed in sologan of advertisement.

 

 What are the
functions of the violating the cooperative principle in slogan of
advertisement.

 

 

Theoretical framework

 

To
analyze the data in this research, the writer uses Grice’s Implicature that
relates to Grice’s Cooperative Principles.Grice develops the concept of
implicature, that is essentially a theory about how people use language or
mentioned as the cooperative principle. The cooperative principle stated about
“make your conversational contribution as required” (Yule, 1996:37).

 

 Research Methodology

 

This part presents the 
research design, data collection instrument, data collection procedure,
and data analysis producedure.

 

1Research design

 

In  this 
research,  the  writer 
uses  the  qualitative 
method. Descriptive qualitative is
the type of research that analyzes the data by using explanations or discussion
questions .  the 
writer  tries  to  analysis 
the  English  slogan, 
of  advertisement  using 
English    newspapers 
or  magazines.

 

Samples of different slogan of advertisement are collected
in order to analyze different types of maxims.

 

Also shows the failure of observing the maxism

 

.2 data collection instrument

 

The  writer 
uses  herself  as  a  main 
research  instrument  through 
reading,  identifying,

and classifying the data needed from English newspaper and
magazines.according to creswell (1994), the research is regarded as the
primary  instrument for the data
collection and analysis.Also, independently no one else  except the researcher who would finish this
research.

 

3Data collection procedure

 

The writer uses the English
slogan as the object of the research. The data are collected

from magazines and newspaper. the writer uses documentation method. According to
Arikunto (2006;231) this is the kind of method, in which the data are collected
from newspaper, magazine.

 

 

 

4 Data analysis procedure

The  collected 
data  of  slogans  of  advertising 
from  the  English 
newspapers  and magazines are
analyzed qualitatively based on related theory.

  

1.the analyst looks for the slogans in the newspaper
and magazine.

 

2. the analyst finds selected slogans from newspaper
and magazine

 

3.the analyst analyzes the four maxism  and 
violation of the cooperative principle from newspaper and magazine.

 

 

Analysis and discussion

The violations of cooperative principle

 

 The violation
of quality maxim

 

BRING THE GYM INTO YOUR HOME

 

 

 

This
is an advertisement of Latifi Sporting
Goods and Equipments. The  slogan is BRING THE GYM INTO YOUR HOME . This ad violates the maxim of quality. In the real
world, it is impossible to bring a gym to your home. It is however possible to
assign a part of your home to the gym, but it is not possible to bring the
entire gym as it is into the home, where people live. This statement is false,
and when we believe something is false, it is violation of the maxim of quality
to express such a false statement. That is why we claim that the ad violates
the maxim of quality.

 

 

 The violation
of quatity maxim

Revolutionary the new iPad

This is an advertisement of apple product iPad .the
slogan of this product is revolutionary  
the new IPad  only four words are
used in this advertisement. There is no clue given to make the reader
understand why the new iPad is revolutionary and what is really revolutionary.
The  information about the feature of
this product is very limited and less than required so this advertisement
violate the maxium of quantity.to know why it is revolutionary and what is
revolutionary the reader have to use it by themselves.by giving limited
information the advertiser is persuading the reader to use the product to find
more about what they want to know.

 

 

The violation of Relation maxim

ONE MOVE CAN INSPIRE A MILLION KIDs

This is an advertisement of Coca-Cola. The sslogan of
this product is ‘ONE MOVE CAN INSPIRE A MILLION KIDS’.  when the reader get the first sight of the
advertisement they may wonder what the relationship between coca-cola and one
move can inspire a millon kids exemplifies violation of the relation maxim as
there is no relation between the product and the statement; there is no
relation between Coca-Cola and take move.

 

The violation of Manner maxim

It,s a pretty big deal

This is an advertisement of ford product. The slogan
of this product is It’s a pretty big deal. That this ambiguity is mostly a
manipulation of the maxim ought to be called flouting this is because the
audience reading this sentence is not confused at all about the multiple
messages coming across. It  flouting
maxim of manner in order to purposely be ambiguous,all for the sake of
promoting the product.this advertising company has a specific and reasonable
motive for flouting the maxium of manner . This motive involves wanting the
product to come across as a “good deal” in the economic sense,in the
environmental sense, and in the larger sense of being cutting-edge technology.

 

 

Signifance of the study

 

 

For the student, this research is expected to be
significant as additional

reference in conducting related research.

 

This
research is expected to be useful for the students especially the

students
of business school, to understand the slogan because

they
can learn to arrange good slogans of the products or the

advertisement.

 

This
research can be used for the other researcher to get more details

information
especially in slogan.

 

x

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