thing that has a connection
with human being
especially people is
because people are a social creature that cannot live alone and always must
make an interaction with
other. Sapir as quoted by Alwasilah (1990, p: 7) says language is a purely human and
non-instinctive method of
communicating ideas, emotion,
and desire, by
means of a system
of voluntarily produced symbol.
is understood that
language is the
important thing for human
being in making a relationship with others.So, people need
others in their
life to make this life
balanced. In making a
relationship with the other, people use a language for communication.(Communication is a
process by which information exchange between individuals through a common
system of symbol, signs, or behavior). (Alwasilah, 1990, p: 9)..
of communication also
have some purposes.
One of them
purpose in advertisement. Advertising is a medium which functions as a marketing communication
about a product.
communication in order
to promote the product
to the consumers.
In this situation
the speaker is
the producer and
the listener is the consumer, the producer sends information about their
product and the message that the producer wants to send is their own product,
and the costumer is the listener that will receive information
from the producer.
From the message
in advertisement field,
the costumer will know
and understand about
the product from
the slogan or
maybe from the picture of the product. Usually the
advertisers introduce their new
product and services in mass media with jiggles and slogans (1994, p:4).
a short phrase
that is easy
to remember and
is used by
organization, or other
group. Effective slogans are short, easy to
memorable, and easy to repeat. Good slogans help set the product
from its competitors” (Bovee, 1986: 274). Slogans play an important
to attract consumers. By reading the slogans, it is expected that people
will directly know the advertised
In advertisng the advertiser usually violates the cooperative principal to get some different
effects.this tactic most of the time can achieve unexpected outcomes which will
make the advertisement more impressive and successful
Conversational implicature is the phenomenon whereby a
speaker says one thing and thereby conveys (typically, in addition) something
else. Conversational implicature was identified and named by the philosopher
Paul Grice in his paper Logic and
Conversation, originally presented at Harvard in 1969. Much of today’s
linguistic pragmatics has its origins in the insights of that paper, and
concerns itself in some fashion with some aspect of conversational implicature.
To account for the phenomenon of conversational implicature, Grice proposes
that there are certain norms of conversational behavior, norms which are
mutually known and typically adhered to by conversational participants. These
norms prevent conversation from consisting of “a succession of disconnected
remarks,” and, at each stage in a conversation, render certain possible
conversational contributions “unsuitable” (L
In other words,
the participants seem to follow some principles like the following: “Make your
conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it
occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you
are engaged”(Grice, 1989:26). This principle is famous as the Cooperative
abbreviated as CP. Grice summarizes the effect of these norms as a
single overarching principle, which he calls the Cooperative Principle.
This principle has little force without further clarification of what
is in fact required of conversational contributions. Grice specifies this
further in what he calls Maxims of
Conversation, formulated as rules governing allowable conversational moves.
Grice organizes these maxims into four categories: Quality, Quantity, Relation
and Manner. In current usage, these terms are used to designate the specific
maxims Grice proposed. Grice himself, however, gives these specifically as categories of maxims “under one or
another of which will fall certain more specific maxims and submaxims” (p.26),
apparently envisaging the possibility of substantial lists of conversational
rules. The maxims which Grice proposes are listed below, in some cases slightly
reformulated from the original:
Supermaxim: Try to make your contribution one that is true
1. Do not say what you believe to be false.
2. Do not say that for which you lack adequate
1. Make your contribution as informative as is
required (for the current purposes of the exchange).
2. Do not make your contribution more
informative than is required.
1. Avoid obscurity of expression
2. Avoid ambiguity
3. Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity)
4. Be orderly.
It is worth mentioning that the four
maxims are not rules to be followed. Rather, they are more like guidelines for
the effective use of language in a conversation and for successful
communication (see Cruse, 2000, p. 357; Fasold & Connor-Linton, 2006, p.
160; Finch, 2003, p. 157; Fraser, 1990, p. 222; Levinson, 1983, p. 101; Saeed,
2003, p. 204).
Grice (1975, p. 49) argues that
participants in a conversation do not always abide by the maxims; sometimes
they fail to observe a maxim (also see Coulthard, 1985, p. 31). The maxims will
not be observed for various reasons, but only when they are flouted does
conversational implicature occur. There are five ways of non-observance of a
maxim: Violation, flouting, infringing, opting out, and suspending.
Riemer (2010, p. 120) argues that
maxim violation takes place when a speaker deliberately wants to mislead the
listener, i.e. s/he may deliberately choose to lie (see Archer, Aijmer, &
Wichmann, 2012, p. 52).
Grundy (2000, p. 76) states ‘Whenever
a maxim is flouted there must be an implicature to save the utterance from
simply appearing to be a faulty contribution to a conversation’.
Grice (1975, p. 49) remarks that a
speaker may opt out of observing a maxim and clearly indicate that he is
unwillingness to cooperate in a way that a maxim requires.
the speaker has a lack of ability to
express his intention (Thomas, 1995, p. 74).
Suspending a maxim is the
non-observance of a maxim because there is no expectation on the part of any
participant that the maxim will be fulfilled
Statement of the problem
In this paper what the writer wants to explain and to
analyze are about:
To examine the how grice propose the cooperative principal and how it developed
in sologan of advertisement.
It will also look into the what are the functions
of the violating the cooperative principle in slogan of advertisement.
research is intended to identify four types of Grice cooperative principal four
types of Grice’s cooperative principle and
intentional violation of the cooperative principle from a pragmatic
How grice propose the cooperative principal and how it
developed in sologan of advertisement.
What are the
functions of the violating the cooperative principle in slogan of
analyze the data in this research, the writer uses Grice’s Implicature that
relates to Grice’s Cooperative Principles.Grice develops the concept of
implicature, that is essentially a theory about how people use language or
mentioned as the cooperative principle. The cooperative principle stated about
“make your conversational contribution as required” (Yule, 1996:37).
This part presents the
research design, data collection instrument, data collection procedure,
and data analysis producedure.
research, the writer
uses the qualitative
method. Descriptive qualitative is
the type of research that analyzes the data by using explanations or discussion
questions . the
writer tries to analysis
the English slogan,
of advertisement using
Samples of different slogan of advertisement are collected
in order to analyze different types of maxims.
Also shows the failure of observing the maxism
.2 data collection instrument
uses herself as a main
research instrument through
and classifying the data needed from English newspaper and
magazines.according to creswell (1994), the research is regarded as the
primary instrument for the data
collection and analysis.Also, independently no one else except the researcher who would finish this
3Data collection procedure
The writer uses the English
slogan as the object of the research. The data are collected
from magazines and newspaper. the writer uses documentation method. According to
Arikunto (2006;231) this is the kind of method, in which the data are collected
from newspaper, magazine.
4 Data analysis procedure
data of slogans of advertising
from the English
newspapers and magazines are
analyzed qualitatively based on related theory.
1.the analyst looks for the slogans in the newspaper
2. the analyst finds selected slogans from newspaper
3.the analyst analyzes the four maxism and
violation of the cooperative principle from newspaper and magazine.
Analysis and discussion
The violations of cooperative principle
of quality maxim
BRING THE GYM INTO YOUR HOME
is an advertisement of Latifi Sporting
Goods and Equipments. The slogan is BRING THE GYM INTO YOUR HOME . This ad violates the maxim of quality. In the real
world, it is impossible to bring a gym to your home. It is however possible to
assign a part of your home to the gym, but it is not possible to bring the
entire gym as it is into the home, where people live. This statement is false,
and when we believe something is false, it is violation of the maxim of quality
to express such a false statement. That is why we claim that the ad violates
the maxim of quality.
of quatity maxim
Revolutionary the new iPad
This is an advertisement of apple product iPad .the
slogan of this product is revolutionary
the new IPad only four words are
used in this advertisement. There is no clue given to make the reader
understand why the new iPad is revolutionary and what is really revolutionary.
The information about the feature of
this product is very limited and less than required so this advertisement
violate the maxium of quantity.to know why it is revolutionary and what is
revolutionary the reader have to use it by themselves.by giving limited
information the advertiser is persuading the reader to use the product to find
more about what they want to know.
The violation of Relation maxim
ONE MOVE CAN INSPIRE A MILLION KIDs
This is an advertisement of Coca-Cola. The sslogan of
this product is ‘ONE MOVE CAN INSPIRE A MILLION KIDS’. when the reader get the first sight of the
advertisement they may wonder what the relationship between coca-cola and one
move can inspire a millon kids exemplifies violation of the relation maxim as
there is no relation between the product and the statement; there is no
relation between Coca-Cola and take move.
The violation of Manner maxim
It,s a pretty big deal
This is an advertisement of ford product. The slogan
of this product is It’s a pretty big deal. That this ambiguity is mostly a
manipulation of the maxim ought to be called flouting this is because the
audience reading this sentence is not confused at all about the multiple
messages coming across. It flouting
maxim of manner in order to purposely be ambiguous,all for the sake of
promoting the product.this advertising company has a specific and reasonable
motive for flouting the maxium of manner . This motive involves wanting the
product to come across as a “good deal” in the economic sense,in the
environmental sense, and in the larger sense of being cutting-edge technology.
Signifance of the study
For the student, this research is expected to be
significant as additional
reference in conducting related research.
research is expected to be useful for the students especially the
of business school, to understand the slogan because
can learn to arrange good slogans of the products or the
research can be used for the other researcher to get more details
especially in slogan.