Introduction private, hybrid and community cloud based on the


computing is the process of computing large farms and store resources using
internet. We refer network-centric computing and network-centric content when
we use resources from distant data centers instead of local servers. The two
new computing models are utility computing model in which users pays as they
use the computing resources and the cloud computing model in which is embraced
my major IT companies. The major clouding computing delivery models are
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure-as-a-Service
(Iaas). SaaS, Paas and Iaas are further classified into public, private, hybrid
and community cloud based on the cloud location.

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Computing and Network-Centric Content

            Network-centric computing and
Network-centric contents have many developments like utility computing and Grid
computing. Grid computing is a system in which many physical systems are
arranged together for each domain.

In utility computing,
users can pay for the services they have used. The concept of utility computing
came up due to the creation of virtual versions servers like storage and
operating systems. Main advantages of utility computing are the low operational
cost. This became available to any type of firm as it is a pay for use basic.

Cloud computing is the
next level of the utility computing. It is great for IT operations or
development team to develop, built, deploy and run their application which can
run faster and improve in scalability without having any concerns on location
of underlying infrastructure. With cloud we can have a good back-up in case of
any failures; Applications runs quickly as there is an option of creating
separate instance for cases such as peak loads; Multiple application can be run
in one computer such as VMware; Initialization and maintains cost is low .

Any type of static or
dynamic media irrespective of stored media or the live media is referred to
content. It is assumed that the future internet will be content-centric as the
development of visualized links convert internet to support the quality. With
content-centric users can get back the data from most exact location in a
minimum download time.     

network-intensive, Systems use thin-clients, Infrastructure allows workflow are
the main characteristic of network-centric and content-centric. The advantages
are data sharing with high security, cost reduction as we pay as we use, elasticity
we can use other instances at peak-load.    


(P2P) is decentralized model in which each system/user has same type of
capabilities. Either user can initiate the communication request. P2P allows
users to control many parameters such as number of connections at a time,
connect or avoid any system/user.

Example by Instructor in our class – In a small firm
each department is assigned with a separate domain. Human resources have a
separate domain and the IT department has a separate domain and these two
domain are provided with a switch and are connected to the server through

of Cloud

Deepening on the location of the server, size,
management and user population cloud is classified as:

Private cloud: This is owned by a single
organization. In this type of cloud, the organization doesn’t sell the service
and it is solely used by the organization. Often managed by the organization or
by a third party. Private clouds are expensive and these are not suitable for
small firms.

Instructors mentioned in the class that
we have a Tera byte server we can start own cloud.

Public cloud: This type of cloud is for general
public, basically internet. This type of cloud is not suitable for every
organization. This is a pay per use service.

cloud: This type of cloud is shared by several organizations. It is managed by
organization or a third party service.

Hybrid cloud: Use of two or more different clouds is
called hybrid cloud. Depending on the firm’s purpose they can use a private and
public cloud which is termed as hybrid cloud.

computing delivery models

Based on the service offered by the cloud, it is
classified as:

Software-as-a-Service (Saas): Users can access to
the service on pay per use basic. Applications are provided by the service.
Users do not have any control on the infrastructure of the service; they cannot
manage the operations like storage of the service. Just with the simple
subscription they can use the services such as Gamil, Google docs, Dropbox,

Platform-as-a-Service (Paas): Users can deploy an
application using the programming languages supported by the service in this
type of service. PaaS service users don’t have access to control the
infrastructure of the cloud and they cannot manage any operations like storage,
security in the cloud service. Users only have access to make any changes to
the application which they have deployed in the cloud. This service is not
suitable if the software is changed to improve the performance.

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (Iaas): In this type of
service users can deploy their application and they have access to storage,
install firewall security but users don’t have access to the infrastructure of
the cloud.

Activities necessary to support cloud are:

Ø  Service
management like call centers, billing and accounting, technical support,
backups, etc.

Ø  Security
management like authentication ID, virus or malware protection, incidence
response and firewalls.

Ø  Customer
services like online support like calls and chats, personalization.

Ø  Development
and data management which falls under Integration service.

issues in Cloud

Unauthorized access,
fail in the networks, data corruption are major risks and it is even difficult
to find out the point of cause with the complex system. In the IT organizations
most of the employees such as administrators, developers have access to the all
employees personal data as well as customers personal data. They need the data
to maintain system and to resolve any issues. Customers trust and pay to the
firm and provide their personal information and it is the firms duty to protect
the data.

We already have the
sensitive data in the cloud through most of the cloud service providers. It is
important to have some rules and regulations to protect the data. Though the
cloud service providers provide some security, firms should come up with their
security methods to protect the data in the cloud.

Instructor’s simple example in class –
Even though our doors come with blots and locks, few people block the doors
with chairs and other object to ensure more security. Similarly, though the
cloud service providers provides their security on firm’s data, even firms has
to come up with an extra level of security by their own security methods.


 Vulnerability is the weakness which is used by the attackers for their personal
gain. This vulnerability can be present in software, network, and system or by
the security methods which we use. Most of the organizations believe that they
don’t have to worry about the security of cloud service as could service
providers will take care of them. This can also happen while merging to cloud
service. Organizations have to consider some vulnerability such as session
cookies, use of virtual machines in which physical server run many machines. We
also have to consider the cloud may not be always 100% available during power
outage. Delete data from old cloud service provider. So, we have to choose a
provider who can allow moving on easily when necessary.

Instructor’s important note on some of
the certification which has better future scope –

1)      CompTIA
Security+ certification

2)      Certified
Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) is prior step to CompTIA

I believe, Systems
Security Certified Practitioner (SSCP) certification is stepping stone to CISSP

Challenges faced by cloud computing

is the main challenge faced by cloud. Public cloud can’t protect the personal
information which is related to health domain. In SaaS  the personal data is stored in most vulnerable
way. Though the information is stored by encrypting the data, it has to decrypt
while returning back where the attacks can take place.

challenge is resource management on cloud such as allocating capacity,
balancing the load and administration creation. Standardization is the other
challenge faced by the cloud.

have to realize the complexity of the cloud and come up to face the challenges.
There are many advantages using the cloud if successful in facing challenges.


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