IntroductionAny organization without human resourcesis incomplete and difficult to imagine also. Human resources is a veryimportant part of an organization and particularly their training anddevelopment is an aspect which organizations have to attend for futuredevelopment. Thus, training and development of human resources is essential andimportant activity for organizational development. Technological changes haveforced organizations to function with new technologies requiring newer skills.
Consequently, there is a need for frequent changes in the attitudes, skills andknowledge content of the workforce.Keeping in tune with the above conceptof training and developing human resources, organizations have establishedHuman Resource Developments (HRDs) to look into the issue of developingemployee competencies and providing their all round growth and development. Othershave strengthened the existing personnel departments by designating seniorexecutives with the above role. Executive development focuses more on the executive’spersonal growth. Thus, executive development consists of all the means thatimprove his/her performance.
Executive development, being a predominantlyeducational process, is a continuous and life-long process. It is not liketraining as a one-shot programme but an on-going continuous programmethroughout the career of an executive or manager. Executive development isbased on the assumption that there always exists a gap between what anexecutive performs and what he/she can. Executive development harnesses thisuntapped potential.
ExecutiveTraining And DevelopmentExecutives are the one who runs the organisation. It ismanagers who plan, organise, direct and control the resources and activities inevery organisation. An organisation is like a vehicle of which managers aredrivers. Without competent managers, other valuable resources such as men,material, machine, money, technology and others remain of not much significancefor the organisation.
Thus, managers are a vital cog in the success of any organisation.That’s why executive Training and Developmenthas become important in every organisations.Change in organisations has become an development with rapidchanges in the total environment.
A manager, therefore, requires to beimparted training to abreast of and cope with on-going changes in his / herorganisation. Otherwise, the manager becomes obsolete.Training andDevelopment for executivesThe manager actually participates in development programmes.It is worth mentioning that no single development programme can be adequatefor all managers. The reason is that each manager has a unique set of physical,intellectual and emotional characteristics.As such, there can be different development programmes touniquely suit to the needs of an executive/ manager.
These developmentprogrammes may be on-the-job or off-the-job programmes organised either by theorganisation itself or by some outside agencies.Stagesof training and development programsTraining should be conducted in a systematic orderso as to derive expected benefits from it. The trainingsystem involves four stages, namely:a. Assessment of training and development programsneeds.b. Designing the training and development programs.c.
Implementation of the training programd. Evaluation of the training program Assessmentof Training and Development program needs· Assessment of Training Needs· Organizational Analysis· Departmental Analysis· Job Analysis· Employee Analysis Designingthe Training and Development Programs· Designing of Training Programs· Instructional objectives· Learning Principles· Teaching Principles· Training Principles· Content designImpleme1ntation of the TrainingPrograms· Implementation of Training Programs· On-the-Job Methods· Off-the-Job Methods · Characteristics of the InstructorConducting the Program Evaluationof the Training program· Evaluations of Training Programs Reactions· Learning Job Behaviour· Organization Ultimate ValueThe main objectives of any programme ofexecutive development are to1. Improve the performance of managers at alllevels.2. Identify the persons in the organisation withthe required potential and prepare them for higher positions in future.3. Ensure availability of required number ofexecutives / managers succession who can take over in case of contingencies asand when these arise in future.
4. Prevent obsolescence of executives byexposing them to the latest concepts and techniques in their respective areasof specialisation.5. Replace elderly executives who have risenfrom the ranks by highly competent and academically qualified professionals.
6. Improve the thought processes and analyticalabilities.7. Provide opportunities to executives tofulfill their career aspirations.
8. Understand the problems of human relationsand improve human relation skills.The principal objective of training is to make surethe availability of a skilled and willing workforce to the organization. Inaddition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational,Functional, and Social.• IndividualObjectives – These objectives are helpful to employees in achievingtheir personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution tothe organization.
• OrganizationalObjectives – Organizational objectives assists the organization with itsprimary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.• FunctionalObjectives – Functional objectives are maintaining the department’scontribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.• SocialObjectives – Social objectives ensures that the organization isethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the societyOfficeof Personnel Management identified 22 leadership competencies that arenecessary for successful executive performance.The22 leadership competencies are referred to as the ECQs and they are groupedinto five categories, namely:Leading Change: creativity andinnovation, external awareness, flexibility, resilience, strategic thinking andvision;Leading People: conflict management,leveraging diversity, developing others, and team building;Results Driven: accountability,customer service, decisiveness, entrepreneurship, problem solving, andtechnical credibility;Business Acumen: financialmanagement, human capital management, and technology management; andBuilding Coalitions: partnering,political savvy, and influencing/negotiating. Inaddition, OPM identified six fundamental competencies that serve as thefoundation for the ECQs including: (1)interpersonal skills; (2)oral communication; (3)integrity/honesty;(4)written communication; (5)continual learning; and (6)public service motivation.
.Types of Training And Development For Executives Onthe job trainingItrefers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers ormanagers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior.Off the job training :· Trainee is separated from the jobenvironment· Take place at training agency or localcollege, training centres· Study materials· Fully concentrate on learning ratherthan performing· Freedom of expressionMethodsof on the Job Training1.COACHING:Itis one to one interaction considered as corrective measure for inadequateperformance.
Helps in identifying weaknesses and focuses on areas which needsimprovement.2.MENTORING:Mentoringfocus on attitude development. Conducted for management-level employees. Mentoringis done by someone inside the companyItis one-to-one interaction.
It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on thearea that needs improvement3.JOB ROTATION:Itis an approach to management development where an individual is moved through aschedule of designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entireoperation. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gainmore insights into the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increasejob satisfaction & skill enhancement through job variation.4.JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUEAdvantages of “On-the –job” Methods:· Generally more cost effective· Less disruptive to the business – i.e.employees are not away from work· Training with equipment they arefamiliar with and people they know can help them· Gain direct experience to a standardapproved by the employer· On the job training is also productive,as the employee is still working as they are learningTypesof Off the Job methods:1.
Vestibule Training:Actualwork conditions are simulated Materials, files and equipments are used.Durationranges from few days to a few weeks. Theory can be related to practice here FewOther Methods1.In-Basket Exercise:Alsoknown as In-tray method of training.
The trainee is presented with a pack ofpapers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is askedto take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on thesewithin a stipulated time. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared withone another. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance.2.
Experiential Exercises :Usuallyshort, structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. Forinstance, rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to dealwiththem,anexperiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation whereemployeeshave to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions.3.Cases :Presentan in depth description of a particular problem an employee mightencounteron the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem, evaluatealternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be mostsatisfactory.Advantages of “Off-the –job” Methods:· Learn from specialists in that area ofwork who can provide more in-depth study· Can more easily deal with groups ofworkers at the same time· Employees respond better when taken awayfrom pressures of working· environment· Workers may be able to obtainqualifications or certificatesDisadvantages of “Off-the –job” Methods:· The trainer should have specialisedskills and knowledge to train· The trainer may not be given much timeto spend with the employee to teach them· properly· The trainer may posses bad habits andpass these on to the traineeExecutiveDevelopment Programme:”ExecutiveDevelopment is an ongoing systematic process that assesses, develops, andenhances one’s ability to carry out top-level roles in the organization.
“EDPis the process of equipping people with the tools, knowledge and opportunitiesthey need to develop themselves and become more effective. This process helpsexecutives to address behavior or issues that are impending their own jobeffectiveness.Importance of Executive Development Program· Executive development is important forthe following reasons: -· Executive development programmes arerequired to train and develop professional managers.
· It helps managers to develop skills toface cut throat competition.· It enables managers to face problemsrelated to technology and institution.· It helps in developing better relationswith the labors.· Executives need training and educationto understand and adjust to changes in socioeconomic changes.· Executive development is required tobroader the outlook of managers.
Approachesto trainingTrainingmethods can generally be divided into two main approaches: directive andnon-directive.Directive trainingThedirective approach involves the Trainer choosing what material to give the learnersand how to give it to them, based on the training needs, aims and objectives. Non-directive trainingIn thenon-directive approach, the Trainer allows the learners to find their routethrough the session, guiding them where and when necessary.
Thedirective ones are:?demonstrationand instruction?games?icebreakers?presentations?handouts.Thenon-directive ones are:?brainstorming?casestudies?discussion?roleplay?teambuilding.Today’strend in executive training and developmentFortoday’s executives, the ability to develop a successful business strategy is nolonger enough.
As we emerge from the recession into an ever morehyper-competitive business environment, the most successful organizations willbe the ones with leaders who can create a compelling vision—and who can conveythat vision to customers and employees. A wide range of executives and humanresource leaders, including presidents, senior vice presidents, chief learningofficers, and heads of executive and leadership development, reported that theability to create a vision— and convey it to others—is now the single mostimportant capability needed in the emerging generation of leaders.”Theseskills have, for the first time in recent years, surpassed critical thinking inimportance, according to the HR leaders from more than 130 large andmedium-size organizations worldwide. But there is a problem. “The HRleaders in the study reported that this same capability is the one most lackingin the next generation of leadership talent, followed by the lack ofcritical-thinking skills. Clearly, they are worried about the ability of thenew generationtostep up into top positions. And there may be another disconnect. While the HRleaders in the study said their top priority in the next two to three years isdeveloping capabilities needed to achieve vision and execute strategy, theystill tend to focus developmental efforts in other areas.
“The twodevelopmental activities their next generation of leaders are most likely toparticipate in, they said, are developmental job assignments and actionlearning. However, those types of activities alone are rarely enough to giveemerging leaders the ability to create and carry out a larger vision. Manycurrent executives acknowledge they have not yet prepared their successors,often because it is difficult to understand candidates withexpertise in the necessary specialties. out agreed-upon goals and strategies.Several techniques have proved to be effective, particularly when used incombination. Among them:Coachingand MentoringEveryorganization has current and retired leaders who over the course of theircareers have articulated a strong vision—and seem to have an exceptionalability to convey it to others. Such leaders should be recruited to be coachesand mentors to both the current and the upcoming generation of leaders who needto develop in this area.
“These should not be typical coaching andmentoring programs, which tend to cover a wide range of subjects, but should betightly focused. All those involved—executives, human resource leaders, mentorsand coaches, and those in the development program—should agree on specificgoals and meet regularly to discuss progress. Imagine Steve Jobs as a mentor,conveying by his words and actions what it means to have a vision that canchange how people see their world. Example is a powerful teacher.TrainingExecutivetraining programs should be expanded to specifically include inspiring andengaging others.
“These capabilities can be built into business scenariosand simulations. Another proven approach is storytelling, followed by practice.Visionary leaders— including, perhaps, the organization’s CEO—can be brought into talk about how they developed their own visions and how they inspired others.Participants could then have breakout sessions, in which they are assigned tocreate a vision for a product or, for example, a division or department. Casestudies of visionary leaders and organizations can supplement such trainingprograms. ConclusionTraining and development programs play a vital rolein every organization. These programs improve Executive Performance atworkplace, it updates Executive Knowledge and enhances their personal Skillsand it helps in avoiding Managerial Obsolescence. These training programs help the managers in succession planning,employee retention and motivation.
It creates Efficient and Effectiveexecutives in an Organization. The need for training & development is determinedby the executive performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training &Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. Training enhancesthe overall performance of an organization in various ways. The major areaswhere employees are normally trained in an organization are Soft- skillDevelopment, Personality Development, Interpersonal Relationship, Problemsolving techniques, Managerial and Supervisory Training Program, qualityimprovement programs, technical processes, quality circle programs, Timemanagement skills, employee efficiency development programs, violenceprevention programs, regulatory compliances, goal setting and implementation ofprograms, workplace safety management, workplace communication, and so on.Training enables the executives to develop their skills within the organizationand hence naturally helps to increase the organization’s market value, earningpower of the employees and job security of the employees. Training moulds theexecutives attitude and helps them to achieve a better cooperation within theorganization.