a set of practices performed to preserve health. According to
the World Health Organization (WHO),Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health
and prevent the spread of diseases. Health is basically, a feature of
the dairy production process quality. The
EU Food hygiene legislation, which came into effect on 1 January 2006, set out more
clearly the duty of food businesses to produce food safely and to achieve
consistency. It covers the whole food
chain from farm to fork. Key elements of the dairy hygiene legislation are
those relating to the health and cleanliness of the animals for CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION. In all dairy operations, small or large, animal
health care represents a major component, next to genetics, feeding and
management quality.Firstly, because healthy animals can produce milk more
efficiently and healthy calves can grow in a more optimal way. Secondly, because healthy animals will show a better
feed intake pattern throughout lactation as well as a better fertility
performance. Thirdly, because healthy
animals will show less welfare problems throughout their life, hence, improving
herd longevity. Fourthly, because animal health status can have a large impact
on public health and food safety issues.
PRODUCING CLEAN MILK ;
• The need for quality begins
at the farm where milk is produced. If milk is not produced hygienically it can
affect the health of many people. Besides being a health hazard, contamination
of milk can lead to huge economical losses. Clean Milk is defined as
milk drawn from the udder of healthy animals, which is collected in clean dry
milking pails and free from extraneous matters like dust, dirt, flies, hay,
manure etc. Clean milk has a normal
composition, possesses a natural milk flavour with low bacterial count and is
safe for human consumption (Sinha, 2000) .Have a high keeping quality, high commercial value, can be transported
over long distances & is a high quality base product for processing,
resulting in high quality products.
FACTORS AFFECTING CMP ;
– source of protein and calcium.
– most easily perishable and contaminated commodity.
should be stored/chilled immediately after milking.
practice from farm to factory .
OF CMP ;
measures should be taken care for the production of clean milk:
1. Animal Management at farm level.
2.Cleanliness of Milking equipments.
3. Hygienic milking practices.
ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ;
Milk from healthy udder is relatively
free from harmful bacteria.High bacterial count reduces the keeping quality of
milk.Animal management involves the housing, feeding and health .
Animal shed – main source of
contamination.Protects animals against micro-organisms, people, wind, rain,
heat etc.Mud, urine, faeces and feed residues should be regularly removed from
the shed.Shed should have proper drainage, sufficient ventilation and lighting. In very wet areas,
slaked lime can be used for drying. Sufficient
water facility should be available for drinking as well as washing the shed and
animal. It should be provided , with windows admitting
daylight. The stall air should be always fresh, pure, and free from dust and
dirt. Avoid direct air currents and dust source in cow shed and milking byres.
well-roofed, well ventilated, dry and comfortable with adequate elevation .Appropriate
arrangement for disposal of animal waste (manure pit or biogas plant) and left
over feed & fodder.Protection from flies and insect which are potential
sources of contamination.Piggery and poultry farming should be avoided near the
animal premises. It is equally important to clean the cattle shed from
time to time. The milking area of the shed needs special hygienic attention.
The floor of the milk shed should be swept with clean water, and disinfected
with one-percent bleaching powder solution. Brooming the cattle shed and removal of dung and urine
from time to time will control the files which are a major menace and source of
sprays can also be used.It is recommended to clean (sweep) the cattle shed
minimum 30 minutes ahead of actual milking so that the flying dust is allowed
to settle on the ground which prevents its entry in milk vessels. The shed should be fitted with fly-proof wire mesh
wherever possible. Keep the feed materials having off-flavours away from
the milking area since these flavours are known to enter milk.It should be
cleaned after every milking. Livestock
should not have access to the shed during the day. Cleaning of walls,
standings, gutter and other surroundings should be practiced regularly
feed with appropriate quantities of green fodder straw and concentrates having
essential nutrients and minerals is important.Feed ingredients should be stored
in moisture-free conditions. It
is better to use the de-oiled ingredients in cattle feed which will eliminate
the risk of pesticide contamination of milk.Feeds which have been
contaminated with aflatoxins, plant toxins, heavy metals and radioactive metals
should be avoided.Clean and potable water supply should always be available.
Facilities should be provided for a sufficient supply of safe and potable water. Good quality
straw and supply of adequate minerals and vitamins.Feeding should be made one hour
before milking.During milking, non-dusty concentrate can be provided to keep
animals busy.Silage and wet crop residues should not be fed at milking place as
it may impart foul odour to the milk.
ANIMAL HEALTH ;
Pre-requisite for CMP – healthy herd
• Routine examination of cattle for diseases like TB, Brucellosis etc.
• Diseased animals should be kept separate.
• Sanitary precautions to prevent and control diseases should be
• Using inducer drugs should be avoided
• Check for udder wounds and mastitis.
• Vaccination of animals against FMD, Anthrax, etc. should be done regularly
HYGIENIC MILKING ;
Key factors : Hygienic condition of udder.
• Some organism may enter milk during hand milking and machine
milking.In addition, personal hygiene of the worker are important.Hygienic
practices during milking contribute to produce safe and suitable milk. Floor
sweeping just before milking should be avoided
v Free from communicable diseases
v Should wear clean clothes, nails trimmed
v Should neither eat or spit anything
Before milking, milker should clean his
hands with soap, potable water and then wipe with clean cloth or towel.
Washing and cleaning
should be done gently without damaging the orifices and clefts between the
quarters of the udder. There should be three
buckets of water along with separate cloths, Plain water, disinfectant
solution, mild detergent solution for final wash. First wash with plain water
and this will remove dirt particles from the udder. A gentle detergent solution
can be used for removing persistent dirt. Still the dirt persists, wipe it with
a wet cloth, the cloth should be wrung along with the bucket. During severe
winters, lukewarm water is preferred and this will also helps in letting down
of milk.The temperature of the warm water should not be beyond 55°C.Addition of hypochlorite (500ppm i.e. 5 gram
hypochlorite powder in 10 liters of water or half oz per gallon of water) helps
to disinfect the udder and is used as udder wash.