INTRODUCTION; Hygiene isa set of practices performed to preserve health.
According tothe World Health Organization (WHO),Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain healthand prevent the spread of diseases. Health is basically, a feature ofthe dairy production process quality. TheEU Food hygiene legislation, which came into effect on 1 January 2006, set out moreclearly the duty of food businesses to produce food safely and to achieveconsistency.
It covers the whole foodchain from farm to fork. Key elements of the dairy hygiene legislation arethose relating to the health and cleanliness of the animals for CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION. In all dairy operations, small or large, animalhealth care represents a major component, next to genetics, feeding andmanagement quality.Firstly, because healthy animals can produce milk moreefficiently and healthy calves can grow in a more optimal way.
Secondly, because healthy animals will show a betterfeed intake pattern throughout lactation as well as a better fertilityperformance. Thirdly, because healthyanimals will show less welfare problems throughout their life, hence, improvingherd longevity. Fourthly, because animal health status can have a large impacton public health and food safety issues. NEED FORPRODUCING CLEAN MILK ;• The need for quality beginsat the farm where milk is produced. If milk is not produced hygienically it canaffect the health of many people. Besides being a health hazard, contaminationof milk can lead to huge economical losses. Clean Milk is defined asmilk drawn from the udder of healthy animals, which is collected in clean drymilking pails and free from extraneous matters like dust, dirt, flies, hay,manure etc. Clean milk has a normalcomposition, possesses a natural milk flavour with low bacterial count and issafe for human consumption (Sinha, 2000) .
Have a high keeping quality, high commercial value, can be transportedover long distances & is a high quality base product for processing,resulting in high quality products. FACTORS AFFECTING CMP ;• Milk– source of protein and calcium.• Milk– most easily perishable and contaminated commodity.• Milkshould be stored/chilled immediately after milking.• Hygienicpractice from farm to factory . MEASURESOF CMP ;The followingmeasures should be taken care for the production of clean milk: 1.
Animal Management at farm level. 2.Cleanliness of Milking equipments. 3.
Hygienic milking practices.ANIMAL MANAGEMENT ;Milk from healthy udder is relativelyfree from harmful bacteria.High bacterial count reduces the keeping quality ofmilk.Animal management involves the housing, feeding and health .HOUSING ;Animal shed – main source ofcontamination.Protects animals against micro-organisms, people, wind, rain,heat etc.Mud, urine, faeces and feed residues should be regularly removed fromthe shed.Shed should have proper drainage, sufficient ventilation and lighting.
In very wet areas,slaked lime can be used for drying. Sufficientwater facility should be available for drinking as well as washing the shed andanimal. It should be provided , with windows admittingdaylight. The stall air should be always fresh, pure, and free from dust anddirt. Avoid direct air currents and dust source in cow shed and milking byres.Shed :well-roofed, well ventilated, dry and comfortable with adequate elevation .Appropriatearrangement for disposal of animal waste (manure pit or biogas plant) and leftover feed & fodder.Protection from flies and insect which are potentialsources of contamination.
Piggery and poultry farming should be avoided near theanimal premises. It is equally important to clean the cattle shed fromtime to time. The milking area of the shed needs special hygienic attention.
The floor of the milk shed should be swept with clean water, and disinfectedwith one-percent bleaching powder solution. Brooming the cattle shed and removal of dung and urinefrom time to time will control the files which are a major menace and source ofinfection. Chemicalsprays can also be used.It is recommended to clean (sweep) the cattle shedminimum 30 minutes ahead of actual milking so that the flying dust is allowedto settle on the ground which prevents its entry in milk vessels. The shed should be fitted with fly-proof wire meshwherever possible. Keep the feed materials having off-flavours away fromthe milking area since these flavours are known to enter milk.It should becleaned after every milking.
Livestockshould not have access to the shed during the day. Cleaning of walls,standings, gutter and other surroundings should be practiced regularly.FEEDING;Balancedfeed with appropriate quantities of green fodder straw and concentrates havingessential nutrients and minerals is important.Feed ingredients should be storedin moisture-free conditions. Itis better to use the de-oiled ingredients in cattle feed which will eliminatethe risk of pesticide contamination of milk.Feeds which have beencontaminated with aflatoxins, plant toxins, heavy metals and radioactive metalsshould be avoided.Clean and potable water supply should always be available.
Facilities should be provided for a sufficient supply of safe and potable water. Good qualitystraw and supply of adequate minerals and vitamins.Feeding should be made one hourbefore milking.During milking, non-dusty concentrate can be provided to keepanimals busy.
Silage and wet crop residues should not be fed at milking place asit may impart foul odour to the milk.ANIMAL HEALTH ;Pre-requisite for CMP – healthy herd• Routine examination of cattle for diseases like TB, Brucellosis etc.• Diseased animals should be kept separate.• Sanitary precautions to prevent and control diseases should beadopted• Using inducer drugs should be avoided• Check for udder wounds and mastitis.• Vaccination of animals against FMD, Anthrax, etc. should be done regularly HYGIENIC MILKING ;Key factors : Hygienic condition of udder.• Some organism may enter milk during hand milking and machinemilking.
In addition, personal hygiene of the worker are important.Hygienicpractices during milking contribute to produce safe and suitable milk. Floorsweeping just before milking should be avoidedMilker’s Hygienev Free from communicable diseasesv Should wear clean clothes, nails trimmedv Should neither eat or spit anything Before milking, milker should clean hishands with soap, potable water and then wipe with clean cloth or towel.UDDER WASHING; Washing and cleaningshould be done gently without damaging the orifices and clefts between thequarters of the udder. There should be threebuckets of water along with separate cloths, Plain water, disinfectantsolution, mild detergent solution for final wash. First wash with plain waterand this will remove dirt particles from the udder. A gentle detergent solutioncan be used for removing persistent dirt. Still the dirt persists, wipe it witha wet cloth, the cloth should be wrung along with the bucket.
During severewinters, lukewarm water is preferred and this will also helps in letting downof milk.The temperature of the warm water should not be beyond 55°C.Addition of hypochlorite (500ppm i.e.
5 gramhypochlorite powder in 10 liters of water or half oz per gallon of water) helpsto disinfect the udder and is used as udder wash.