Introduction Mindfulness in the past decade has enjoyed a hugesurge in its popularity, whether in popular press or in the psychotherapyliterature (Didonna, 2009a; Shapiro& Carlson, 2009).Mindfulness of the sport performance in the lastperiod has become one of the popularresearch.
By increasing the critical component of peak sport performance ,awareness , (Jackson & Csikszentmihalyi, 1999; Ravizza, 2002), some of theresearches have suggested that mindfulness exercises may help to generate flowor state of the complete focusing on the task or event at hand. (Aherne, Moran,& Lonsdale, 2011; Kee & Wang, 2008). Gnardner and Moore (2012)mentioned that hypothesized that mindfulness – based interventions for sportsare effective for the reason that they help athletes to direct their attentionto the current athletic task, while when minimizing external distractions.Brown and Ryan (2003) mentioned that they found that the increase ofmindfulness psychological will – being by the increase of awareness of one’scurrent experience ( The similarities of mindfulness to otherpsychotherapy – related constructs as an example mindfulness is similar tometallizaion (Bateman & Fonagy, 2004, 2006; Fonagy & Bateman, 2008),the development of the process of understanding one’s own and others behaviorin terms of the individuals’ feelings, thoughts , and the desires to bothconstructs emphasize the temporary, the subjective and the fluid nature of themental states and both of them are thought to influence the effect ofregulation and the cognitive flexibility (Wallin, 2007) Five of the facets of the mindfulness are : thefirst point is that the observing that refers to noticing , sensing to theeexperience which occurred in current time such as the thoughts and emotions.The second element is the describing , which refers to labeling the internalexperience with words.
Lebow, J. (2008). The third point is the acting with theawareness, that involves focusing on persons activities at a certain moment asit opposed the mechanical behaving. The fourth element is the non-judging ofinner experience that refers to the taking of a non – evaluative stance toward the private experience. Thefifth point is the non – reactivity of the inner experience that refers tonoticing thoughts and feelings without showing a reaction toward them ( Baer,et al., 2006).
Thecoordination of the hand – eye is used in many sports activities; especially insports like fencing. It’s a great sport which can improve the hand – eyecoordination (Kogler (2005) he explained that Fencing sport is one of thecomlex sports also he explained that a good fencing performance can be achievedby advance perceptual and cognitive abilities like attention of thecoordination , making of decision andvisuospatial memory. Fencing needs the coordination between the hands, the feet and the eyes. The side congruency of the hand and eyepreference is considered as an essential for efficient hand – eye coordinationwhich contains sighting and aiming. The researches have found that theincidence of the left – eydness was 47% for the group that threw it with byusing their right hand and wrote by their left hand but the rate was 55% forthe group that threw it with their left hand and wrote with their right hand . PoracC. (2016 ). An another research contendthat the hand and eye preference on the opposite sides according to the bodywhich leads to a better coordinated performance especially in some sports suchas boxing and fencing.
These researches argue that the sighting eye iscontrolled mainly by the visual centers in the hemisphere for the same side ofthe head where the uncrossed optic fibers travel to the brain on the same sideof the hear which thought to be as a dominant processers of the visualinformation hand movement which controlled by the hemisphere that controllingthe coordination actions. As an example for that is that if some one is left –headed and right – eyed the right hemisphere alone will direct hand – eyecoordination. As a transfer of the information between the hemispheres is notinvolved for the left _ handed right – eyed action ther (porac, 2016) .Fencingis divided into three major branches depending upon the weapons employed.
Thefencing is divided to three different types of weapons used which are foils,sabers and epees. Just a few of the cognitive studies focused mainly on variousaspects of fencing such as mindfulness , hand – eye coordination (Azemar etal.2007) , and also left handed versus right handed athletes (Harris 2007). Soabout 90% of all human beings used their right hand (right – handed) whichmeans that the left – brain dominates for the motor skills because of the widemajority of people are right – handed , Coon & Mitterer ( 2011, 2008). Nowthe relationship in comparison between the mindfulness and the cognition can beconsidered as an important toped of the research that is only began recently tounravel.
So the aim of this study was to determine the level of mindfulness ;hand eye coordination and strength for fencing player .Also To determinewhether the gender differences in mindfulness were exist within samplesof fencing players. Moreover the currentstudy aimed to address handedness differences in fencing regarding to hand eyecoordination and strength. We hypothesise thatfencing players have a good mindfulness and strength, good hand eye coordination and there is a genderand handedness differences regarding to hand eye coordination, strength andmindfulness , in this study we will attempt to find the relationship between bothof the strength of mindfulness and the hand – eye coordination among the elite fencers. Material andMethodsParticipants Studysample consists of sixteen national fencers (Jordanian national team), agedbetween ( 14 to 23) years 8 males (M =16.87, SD = 3.52 ) and 8 females ( M = 15.12 yr , SD = 2.
03 ) , Research Instruments and Procedure TheArabic version of The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is used toassess mindfulness. It is consisted of a 39 items of higher scores thatindicate the greater levels of mindfulness (Baer, et al., 2006, al wamaleh2015). The five facets were observed described , acted with awareness, alsonon – judging of the inner experienceand non – reactivity to inner experience .
we used a coefficient of an internal consistency sowe can determine the reliability of the Arabic version of the (FFMQ) in accordance with the Cronbach )alpha result. The coefficient of the internal reliability of the Arabic Versionof the (FFMQ) indicated that the stability of the test was acceptable. Thesignificant level that was reached due to the reliability values were (** 0.69).
Handgrip dynameters was used for the measuring of the maximum isometric strengthfor the hand and arm muscles. Because handgrip strength is an important factoror element for the fencing players. Procedure: the dynamometers must be held at the hand that should be tested. The armshould be in the right angles and at the same time the elbow must be by theside of the body. The dynamometer can be adjusted if that is required – as thebase should rest on the first metacarpal while the handle should be rested onthe middle of the four fingers.
When the athlete is ready he should squeezesthe dynamometer with maximum isometric effort then this step will maintain forabout five seconds. During this step no other body movement is permitted. Steadiness TesterHole Type used to assess Hand-eye coordination( Fig 2).
Theathlets mission here is to hold a metal – tipped stylus in a nine progressivelysmaller holes that differ in size as follow ((1.156;1.125;0.5; 0.312; 0.
187; 0,109; 0;093; 0;078; 0.0625) inches taking in consideration not to touch the holes fromthe inside. On the other hand a Silent Impulse Counter Model 58024C was used todetect any errors. ConclusionInthis study, the focus was mindfulness of elite fencers and the handednessdifferences for the eye hand coordination, strength. The researchers suggestedthat the differences of mindfulness of athletes must be further investigated.In addition to that , the influence of variables that was taken inconsideration such as the gender, eye – hand coordination and the strengthexperience must be examined to offer better insight on the relationship betweenthese factors.