IntroductionMankind tends to consider the ocean as a convenientand limitless sink for waste. The waste disposal of different types ofhazardous and deleterious substances has grown very rapidly.
With the passageof time, the ocean disposal of municipal sewage has taken place, primarily intorivers and then estuaries that eventually emptied its mass into the ocean. Manycountries continue to use the ocean as an ongoing depository for wastesgenerated within their borders. When municipal solid wastes are included in thetotal amount of pollution generated by humans it will eventually find their wayinto the ocean, termed as “ocean dumping”. Fate of Alkyl phenol ethoxylates in marine animalsAlkyl phenol ethoxylates have a broad range of usagein the market of surfactants; these surfactants used in both at industrial anddomestic level.
APEs could be used indetergents, wetting agents, emulsifier, foaming agent and solublizer.it haveabsolute application in executional processes like pulp and paper makings.These chemical compounds can be easily detectable in the discharges ofmunicipal sewage and in waste water treatment tributaries. The breakdown ofsuch compound introduce clan of smaller compounds which have a shorter chainsof alkylphonols and these compounds are more withstanding to the environment.The emerging concern regarding these chemicals are their resilience and theirmimicry nature towards the natural hormones. They tend to block the naturalsystem of hormones and causes a large variety of disturbance in marine animal’slife. These surfactants have a largeproportion in the discharges of municipal sewage which is sufficient to effectthe marine life present in the oceans.
They could termed as endocrinaldisruptors for the wildlife present in oceans because they block the pathway ofestrogen hormones. The high concentration could be a result in decreasedincidence of reproduction leading to decreased amount of marine biota. Ying, G. G. etal.
(2002). Sodium hypochlorite_____Disinfectant OR Genotoxicant?Sodium hypochlorite also known as disinfectant hasits proportion in municipal sewage. It is also used in power stations forcooling the systems which are in operations. The recent studies shows thatthere might be possible chance of the harmful effects of this chemical on themarine biotic life.
It have a potential of producing in vivo genotoxicity tomarine animals.studies shows that the embryo–larvae of P. dumerilii have thesame behavior as the oyster in pacific ocean and are sensitive to contaminationof these chemicals(Hutchinson.,etal1998)It is also used as a disinfectant to sanitize themunicipal waste water before sending it into the coastal and other water body.
Leonard, A. (1991).There is an appraisal that Canada has 400 wastewater treatment plants of municipal sewage which are ejecting effluents ofthese chemical to aquatic system and several power consuming equipment’s usechlorination to intercept the befouling.
(Moore.,et al. 1997)These disinfectant disrupt the function of normaldevelopment of marine animals such as marinepolychaete (Platynereis dumerilii) and poor or improper development of fetus ofmarine mammals and also other genotoxic effects (Wurgler.,etal 1992).