INTRODUCTION causing a negative effect on photosynthesis [2]. Therefore

INTRODUCTION

Industries
such as textile, paper, leather plastic to mention a few, plays an important
role in economic development but the disposal of waste waters from these
industries into the environment is of great concern for toxicological reasons 1.
Textile waste waters are highly coloured and consist of different types of
organic compound and toxic substances which are of great threat to human’s
health and aquatic organisms. The dyes from these waste waters are stable to
light and are incapable of being digested by bacteria therefore decreasing
light permeability causing a negative effect on photosynthesis 2.  Therefore the removal of such dyes from
textile waters is of interest due to their impact on receiving waters 1.

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various
methods of removing dyes from textile waste waters have been studied and they include
electro chemical, coagulation, oxidising agents, precipitation, photocatalysis,
flocculation, adsorption etc. 2,3,4,5,. Adsorption is considered
as the most efficient method because it is cheap, easy to carry out and
abundance of adsorbent materials 2. The technique depends on
higher specific surface area, porosity and narrow particle size distribution of
the adsorbent 6. Different kinds of activated carbon have been
used in many studies as adsorbents because of their adsorption capacity; they
are highly porous and have high surface area to volume ratio. For example coir
pith carbon (Kavitha et al 2007), Periwinkle shells (Bello et al 2008), Bamboo
dust, coconut, ground nut shell, rice husk and straw (Kannan et al 2001), scrap
tyres, bituminous wastes and coal (Acevedo et al 2015) etc.

 In this study coal obtained from Morupule mine
was activated using Hydrochloric acid and was used as an adsorbent for removal
of methylene blue from its aqueous solution. Activated coal qualifies to be one
of the materials used as adsorbents because it has good porosity and high
surface area for adsorption. The coal obtained from Morupule mine is mainly
used in thermal power stations for generating electricity and also as reducing
agents, therefore using the coal for waste water treatment will be an added
advantage to the country.

Methylene
blue is one of the dyes used in textile industries for dyeing materials. The
dye has negative impact to human’s life i.e. 
result in eye burns which may lead to permanent injury to human, while
inhalation can result in short period of rapid or difficult breathing (Tan et
al 2008). Ingestion of the dye lead to symptoms like burning sensation,
vomiting, nausea and diarrhoea (Bhattacharyya et al 2005).

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