INTRODUCTION Being attentive to the recent technology advancements, up todate air travelers are getting more difficult in each means. Apart fromexpecting to receive the best price for cash, passengers conjointly evaluateairport service attributes and airport surroundings.
With the aim to increasethe general level of service, airports centered on modernization investment andterminal facelifts. A brand-new trend in airport business is to “treatpassengers as customers” and to plan the airport surroundings so its atmosphereoffers “a sense of place” (Gee, 2013). First, Kotler (1973) planned that service institutionatmosphere may support service suppliers differentiate themselves from thecompetition. This concept led to the event of recent theories concerning surroundingsof service settings.
According to Baker’s (1987) theory, the retail surroundingis comprised of three groups of stimuli as well as close factors, designfactors and social factors, that powerfully influence customers’ perceptions ofthe provider’s image.Later, Bitner (1992) planned that the “servicescape”framework had a holistic view on the service surroundings, accenting influencesof service surroundings on both staff and customers. The servicescape frameworkincorporates three environmental dimensions: close conditions, spatial plan andpracticality and signs, symbols and articles. In addition, Bitner (1992)distinguished between “lean” servicescapes that are “simple,with few components, few areas and few forms”. Sophisticated or”elaborated” servicescapes. The servicescape framework has beenconsiderably applied in numerous retail or leisure service environments.
Even though Bitner (1992) discovered the airport as an “intricateservicescape”, travelers’ opinions of the airport servicescape are vaguelyincorporated in service quality and traveler fulfilment questionnaires (Chen& Chang 2005; Correia, Wirasanghe & De Barros, 2008; De Barros,Somasundaraswaran & Wirasanghe, 2007). Only few reports approached theinvestigation of the airport surroundings through Bitner’s framework (Fodness& Murray, 2007; Jeon & Kim, 2012; van Oel & Van den Berkhof, 2013).For example, Fodness and Murray (2007) included spatial plan and sign andsymbols dimensions into one issue named effectiveness, failing to capturecontribution of close and aesthetic attributes to the perceptions of airportservice quality. Moreover, Jeon and Kim (2012) applied Baker’s (1987) retailsurroundings variables on the surroundings of an international airport, linkingthem to travelers’ emotional reactions and behavioral intentions. As a result, earlierstudies clearly portrayed that travelers understand the airport as a flexibleservice setting wherever the servicescape components contribute topracticality, comfort and also the attractiveness of the structure. Customer behavior analysis projected that customers reactshowing emotion to aesthetic characteristics of the service surroundings likecolor, materials, décor and elegance, experiencing gratifying emotions (Baker,1987).
The state of satisfaction is commonly related to a reduction inperceived risk and stress (Chaudhuri, 2012). Preceding studies on the airportsurroundings verified that aviation will be a stressful expertise (McIntosh,Swanson, Power, Raeside & Dempster, 1998). This anxiety isn’t solelyassociated with flight however also to poor airport organization and procedures(McIntosh, 1990). Therefore, the adequately designed airport surroundings oughtto have the potential to cut back a traveler’s anxiety and contribute to atraveler’s enjoyment. Additionally, opposite customer emotional reactions wereshown to possess a special effect on word- of-mouth (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner,Walsh & Gremler, 2004) as a logical post-purchase behavior that happenswhen service/product consumption (Richins, 1983). Therefore, it’s veryimportant to examine the link between the emotional responses of enjoyment andanxiety and word- of-mouth within the context of the airport servicescape.
The influence of the physical surroundings on customerbehavior has typically been neglected in service connected analysis, wherevervarious aspects of the service surroundings have usually fallen below a single idea,referred to as “tangibles” (Brady & Cronin, 2001). Measure the impact ofthe service surroundings on customer behavior with a restricted uniform instrumentdoesn’t offer objective restrictions of the surroundings perceptions. Serviceenvironments vary in quality, average time spent and service offered, thatmakes it harder to generalize the results. AIRPORT INDUSTRY Due to the most recent technology achievements andenhancements in international transport, the tourism business has been dynamicquickly, with an evident increase within the international travel segment. As amatter of fact, economical air transport is predominant for the development ofinternational tourism (Duval, 2007). In its 2012 World testimony, the airportCouncil International (2013) named some fascinating trends within the airtransport business.
Apparently, the rise in traveler transport in 2012 was 4.2%in distinction to the previous year. The quickest growing market was theAsia-Pacific market, whereas the EU market seasoned depreciation and also theNorth-American market remained fairly stable. because the range of travelersincrease annually, airport revenues are growing. In line with Samadi’s (2012)report, the whole airport business revenue for 2012 was around$1.0 billion,whereas profit magnified to $266.9 million.Nevertheless, virtually 30 minutes of that revenue share wasgenerated within the Asia-Pacific market (International Civil AviationOrganization, 2012).
However, five out of ten of the busiest airports withinthe world treat the North Yankee continent (e.g. Hartsfield Jackson AtlantaInternational airport, Chicago O’Hare International airport, Los AngelesInternational airport, Dallas/ Fort Worth International airfield and DenverInternational Airport) (Airport Council International-North America, 2012). AIRPORT DESIGN ANDTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES When building a brand-new air terminal facility, it’s vitalto execute a design that’s each economical and cost-efficient (Odoni Neufville,1992). Odoni and de Neufville (1992) first argued that the standard designtechniques designed on theoretical formulas were outdated as a result of theyare not capturing distinctive issues that occur throughout buildingconstruction. As a result, airports fail to enable traveler and baggage trafficwithin the quickest and most effective manner attainable (Odoni Neufville,1992). Several airports are change from the “public utility” approachtowards a businesslike management strategy, executing commercially thrivingoperations that improve their performance (Graham, 2005). Such initiativesabsolutely have an effect on airport design, gearing it further concerningexperiential design, related to a practical orientation.
As a result, the leading principle of contemporary terminaldesign is flexibility (Chambers, 2007; Shuchi, 2012). Shuchi (2012) remarks flexibilityas an important issue for the thriving design of a particularly unpredictablesurrounding, like an airport. Compared to traditionally incorrect statementmethods, flexibility permits for easier forthcoming extensions of airports, correspondingwith the ceaseless growth of traffic (Chambers, 2007). Except for facilitatingthe longer-term design method, the versatile design approach provides anadditional convenient and pleasant traveling expertise (Shuchi, 2012).
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT The impact of the physical surroundings on individuals inservice settings was shown to be a stimulating topic amongst students (Baker,1987; Bitner, 1990; angular distance & Jang, 2010; Hul, Dube, & Chebat,1997; Reimer & Kuehn, 2005; Ryu, 2010; Ryu & Jang, 2007; Turley &Milliman, 2000; Wakefield & Blodgett, 1996; Wall & Berry, 2007). Earlyanalysis within the retail expertise domain presented the concept of servicesetting within the physical surroundings as a vital facet of the customerexpertise (Kotler, 1973). Kotler (1973) expected that the atmosphere of theservice setting could become a crucial discriminator amongst service suppliersthat may influence the customer’s purchase method. sadly, service- relatedstudies often integrated numerous aspects of the physical surroundings into asolitary service quality dimension, “tangibles” (Brady & Cronin, 2001).Before continuing to the empirical proof of the impact that the physicalenvironment has on customer behavior, relevant theories and frameworks that specifythe physical surrounding and its dimensions are going to be introduced. THEORETICAL CONCEPTSOF PHYSICAL ENVIRONEMT The theoretical conception planned by Baker (1987) took anadditional step within the classification of retail surroundings qualities bypresenting social components that adhere with physical surrounding. In linewith Baker’s (1987) analysis, the retail surroundings consist of three groupsof stimuli:1.
Ambient factors;2. Functional/Aesthetic factors;3. Social factors. Ambient factors embrace contextual conditions like airquality, scent, noise, music and cleanliness.
These issues may also be clarifiedbecause the factors that don’t seem to be object of customers’ immediate consciousness.Contrary to ambient factors, design factors see visible stimuli that are withinthe sphere of customers’ consciousness, like type of architecture, shape,material types and colors. In addition, social factors embody variety,appearance and also the conduct of consumers and service personnel within thesurroundings. Thus, Baker (1987) thought about the place of business as aservice surroundings wherever physical attributes area unit indivisible fromthe human issue.
As Bitner (1990) further agreed, each physical proof andsocial proof of the shop surroundings and should have impact on the perceivedperformance. SERVICESCAPEFRAMEWORK The most manipulated conception in service surroundingsanalysis, “servicescape” context, highlights that physical environments in anyservice industry intensely influence each worker and customer. The term”servicescape” is employed to see the surroundings wherever the servicedelivery process takes place (Bitner, 1992). Related to the “naturalenvironment” Bitner (1992) outlined “servicescape” as “built or artificial environment”.
The servicescape framework recommends three groups of physical proof factors:1. Ambient conditions (air quality, temperature,music, noise, odor, etc.);2. Spatial layout and functionality (buildinglayout, furniture or equipment arrangement);3. Signs, symbols and artifacts (signage, décor,artifacts).
These three scopes have become typically accepted guidelinesfor the flourishing design of elaborate servicescapes like hotels, restaurants,hospitals, airports, schools, etc. Nonetheless, in her abstract framework,Bitner (1992) didn’t directly include the social facet of the physicalsurroundings. In line with the framework, each worker and customer understandsobjective physical factors that initiate their internal perception, emotionaland physiological responses. Building on the stimulus-organism-response schemefrom environmental psychology that people react to environmental stimuli in twocontradictory responses, approach and rejection (Mehrabian & Russell,1974), Bitner (1992) recommended that individual internal responses to theservice surroundings result in either positive (approach) or negative(avoidance) behavior. Moreover, service customers’ internal responses to theservice surroundings have the ability to form their judgments of the company’slook and expected service quality. additionally, Zeithaml et al. (1993) agreedthat tangible cues are usually responsible for the expected level of qualitywithin the pre-consumption part. TRAVEL ANXIETY ANDENJOYMENY Reisinger and Mavondo (2005) outlined anxiety as “asubjective feeling that happens as a result of being exposed to actual or impendingrisk”.
Additionally, anxiety is alleged as a sense of being disturbed,stressed, apprehensive, nervous, scared, uncomfortable, vulnerable, orterrified (McIntyre & Roggenbuck 1998). Different authors have delineatedanxiety as a sense of discomfort and frustration (Hullett & Witte, 2001).The key source of anxiety could be a worry of negative consequences of anybehavior (Gudykunst & Hammer, 1988). In client behavior analysis, anxietyis related to the worry of unknown significances that follow a sale (Dowling& Staelin 1994).
For this reason, customers assess the danger of purchasebehavior and potential consequences. the target of the service supplier is toproduce the maximum amount data as possible concerning the potential purchasethat might end in reduced client anxiety (Reisinger & Mavondo, 2005). inaddition, psychology analysis proposed that the physical surroundings couldgenerate negative outcomes (Evans & McCoy, 1998; Stokols, 1992). As aconsequence, some attributes of physical surroundings might be predictors ofanxiety. McIntosh et al.
(1996) examined anxieties and fears relatedto traveling. Similarly, philosopher and Feinsod (1982) detected that travelenjoyment and travel anxiety area unit reciprocally exclusive. moreover, theyclaimed that transportation suppliers have to be compelled to minimize thepsychological and physical stress travelers endure so as to cut back anxietyand improve travel enjoyment. Travel could cause anxiety from many sources.First, relocation could be a well-known cause of psychological stress (Lucas,1987). Second, transfers, delays, crowdedness, physical accessibility andnavigation area unit a number of the foremost causes of hysteria related totrain travel (Cheng, 2010). notwithstanding, the mode of transportation couldcause each psychological and physical stress (McIntosh, 1990). The waiting timefor the transportation vehicle is a further supply of hysteria (Stradling,Carreno, Rye & Noble, 2007).
Finally, the worry of the unknown consequencesof travel outcome could cause anxiety. Even though it’s one among the safest modes oftransportation, aviation is perceived by travelers because the most dangerous(McIntosh et al., 1998). The anxiety with aviation isn’t solely restricted tothe flight section of the trip (e.g. being in enclosed areas, concern ofheights) however also to “delays, airport congestion, airline and securityprocedures produce anxiety” (McIntosh et al.
, 1998, p. 198). However,solely a little variety of previous studies targeted on examining the”ground segment” of air-travel anxiety generators (Hill, 1996). Additionally,the aviation business, travel agents and airport management seldomself-addressed potential ways that to cut back the anxiety related to airports(Gorman & Smith, 1992). The results of dessert apple et al.’s (1998) studyindicate that flight delays were the foremost oft rated supply of hysteria.
This result’s vital considering that even “take off’ and “landing” segments offlight were less oft mentioned as potential sources of hysteria. However, sometravelers would possibly expertise anxiety towards the unknown airfieldsurroundings (Fewings, 2001). Within state of affairs confusing building designand unclear assemblage wouldn’t facilitate to cut back travel anxiety howevermay really increase it. Similarly, it’s reportable that counting on theeffectiveness of way-finding connected attributes, passengers could have eithera trying or gratifying airfield expertise (Cave, Blackler, Popovic, Kraal,2013). A number of e-commerce studies have shown a associationbetween enjoyment and a positive looking expertise (Chen & Dubinski, 2003;Sun & Zhang, 2006). Expressed as AN emotional appraisal of the shopping formethod, looking enjoyment presents the extent of enjoyment within the lookingexpertise itself, except for the analysis of the looking outcome within the styleof a product (Cai & Xu, 2006).
not like anxiety, the spirit of enjoymenthas a sway on magnified purchase intention and, therefore, is helpful for thecorporate (Davis, Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1992; Huang, 2003). to boot, enjoymentis related to a discount in perceived risk (Chaudhuri, 2012) And an improvementin perceived quality (Chen & Dubinski, 2003; Mattila & Wirtz, 2001). Building on Mehrabian and Russel’s model (1974) Donovan andRossiter (1984) connected physical surroundings perceptions and emotionalstates, suggesting that pleasant perception of the place of businesssurroundings results in looking enjoyment. any analysis planned that customersreact showing emotion to aesthetic characteristics of the service surroundings,like color, materials, décor and elegance, perceiving these attributes as “theextras that contribute to a customer’s sense of enjoyment in experiencing aservice” (Baker, 1987, p. 81). in addition, variety of studies confirmed thatnumerous close cues in commission surroundings, like scent (Spangenberg,Crowley & Henderson; 1996) or music (Dube & Morin, 2001) have a sway onthe intensity of client enjoyment. Such results counsel that surrloundings alcues are essential for the emotional outcomes within the service environment.
moreover, a pleasant surrounding will doubtless attract folks and build themwilling to pay more cash and time (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982). Consideringthat the aviation business assures passengers that it’s the quickest means thatof transport, passengers could typically be aggravated once experiencing drawn-outwaits at terminal departure lounges (Han et. al, 2012; Rowley & Slack,1999). Therefore, creating apleasant surroundings wherever travelers fancy disbursementtime is especially relevant for the airport setting. WORD-OF-MOUTH Word-of-mouth (WOM) will be explained as an oral report thatconverses consumers’ level of fulfilment or discontent among their associates(Arndt, 1967; Blodgett et al., 1993; Söderlund, 1998).
Additionally, Richins(1983) recognized word-of-mouth as a rational post-purchase conduct thathappens when service or product consumption. For example, a client whoperceived service extremely positively is more willing to exchange a pleasingexpertise to prospect customers (Westbrook, 1987). Within the modern world ofnet media and communication, word-of-mouth has reached its improvement as astyle of online endorsement, better referred to as electronic word-of-mouth(eWOM) (Cheung & Thadani, 2012). Hennig-Thurau et al. (2004, p.
39)outlined eWOM as a “statement created by potential, actual, or former customersa few product or company, that is created out there to a large number ofindividuals and establishments via the web.” Contrary to oral WOM, eWOMovercomes boundaries of social familiarity and geographical proximity,providing a virtual setting wherever the message will be sent not solely tofriends and family, however to any interested client (Cheung & Thadani,2012). Previous analysis on WOM within the tourism and hospitalitycontext showed that traveler expectation will increase when reviewing positiverecommendations (Diaz, Martin, Iglesias, Vazquez & Ruiz, 2000). On theopposite hand, traveler destinations and service suppliers could expertisedifficulties to fulfill such expectations. Similarly, negative WOM tends to severelyharm a destination’s image. however, few studies have promoted the influence ofdesign attributes on client behavior within the servicescape (e.g.
, Bellizzi& Hite, 1992; Bitner, 1992; Crowley, 1993; Iyer, 1989; Smith & Burns,1996). Therefore, it’s expected that WOM could be a noteworthy client behaviorwithin the airport servicescape.