INTRODUCTION attributes to the perceptions of airport service quality.



Being attentive to the recent technology advancements, up to
date air travelers are getting more difficult in each means. Apart from
expecting to receive the best price for cash, passengers conjointly evaluate
airport service attributes and airport surroundings. With the aim to increase
the general level of service, airports centered on modernization investment and
terminal facelifts. A brand-new trend in airport business is to “treat
passengers as customers” and to plan the airport surroundings so its atmosphere
offers “a sense of place” (Gee, 2013).

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First, Kotler (1973) planned that service institution
atmosphere may support service suppliers differentiate themselves from the
competition. This concept led to the event of recent theories concerning surroundings
of service settings. According to Baker’s (1987) theory, the retail surrounding
is comprised of three groups of stimuli as well as close factors, design
factors and social factors, that powerfully influence customers’ perceptions of
the provider’s image.

Later, Bitner (1992) planned that the “servicescape”
framework had a holistic view on the service surroundings, accenting influences
of service surroundings on both staff and customers. The servicescape framework
incorporates three environmental dimensions: close conditions, spatial plan and
practicality and signs, symbols and articles. In addition, Bitner (1992)
distinguished between “lean” servicescapes that are “simple,
with few components, few areas and few forms”. Sophisticated or
“elaborated” servicescapes. The servicescape framework has been
considerably applied in numerous retail or leisure service environments.


Even though Bitner (1992) discovered the airport as an “intricate
servicescape”, travelers’ opinions of the airport servicescape are vaguely
incorporated in service quality and traveler fulfilment questionnaires (Chen
& Chang 2005; Correia, Wirasanghe & De Barros, 2008; De Barros,
Somasundaraswaran & Wirasanghe, 2007). Only few reports approached the
investigation of the airport surroundings through Bitner’s framework (Fodness
& Murray, 2007; Jeon & Kim, 2012; van Oel & Van den Berkhof, 2013).
For example, Fodness and Murray (2007) included spatial plan and sign and
symbols dimensions into one issue named effectiveness, failing to capture
contribution of close and aesthetic attributes to the perceptions of airport
service quality. Moreover, Jeon and Kim (2012) applied Baker’s (1987) retail
surroundings variables on the surroundings of an international airport, linking
them to travelers’ emotional reactions and behavioral intentions. As a result, earlier
studies clearly portrayed that travelers understand the airport as a flexible
service setting wherever the servicescape components contribute to
practicality, comfort and also the attractiveness of the structure.


Customer behavior analysis projected that customers react
showing emotion to aesthetic characteristics of the service surroundings like
color, materials, décor and elegance, experiencing gratifying emotions (Baker,
1987). The state of satisfaction is commonly related to a reduction in
perceived risk and stress (Chaudhuri, 2012). Preceding studies on the airport
surroundings verified that aviation will be a stressful expertise (McIntosh,
Swanson, Power, Raeside & Dempster, 1998). This anxiety isn’t solely
associated with flight however also to poor airport organization and procedures
(McIntosh, 1990). Therefore, the adequately designed airport surroundings ought
to have the potential to cut back a traveler’s anxiety and contribute to a
traveler’s enjoyment. Additionally, opposite customer emotional reactions were
shown to possess a special effect on word- of-mouth (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner,
Walsh & Gremler, 2004) as a logical post-purchase behavior that happens
when service/product consumption (Richins, 1983). Therefore, it’s very
important to examine the link between the emotional responses of enjoyment and
anxiety and word- of-mouth within the context of the airport servicescape.


The influence of the physical surroundings on customer
behavior has typically been neglected in service connected analysis, wherever
various aspects of the service surroundings have usually fallen below a single idea,
referred to as “tangibles” (Brady & Cronin, 2001). Measure the impact of
the service surroundings on customer behavior with a restricted uniform instrument
doesn’t offer objective restrictions of the surroundings perceptions. Service
environments vary in quality, average time spent and service offered, that
makes it harder to generalize the results.




























Due to the most recent technology achievements and
enhancements in international transport, the tourism business has been dynamic
quickly, with an evident increase within the international travel segment. As a
matter of fact, economical air transport is predominant for the development of
international tourism (Duval, 2007). In its 2012 World testimony, the airport
Council International (2013) named some fascinating trends within the air
transport business. Apparently, the rise in traveler transport in 2012 was 4.2%
in distinction to the previous year. The quickest growing market was the
Asia-Pacific market, whereas the EU market seasoned depreciation and also the
North-American market remained fairly stable. because the range of travelers
increase annually, airport revenues are growing. In line with Samadi’s (2012)
report, the whole airport business revenue for 2012 was around$1.0 billion,
whereas profit magnified to $266.9 million.

Nevertheless, virtually 30 minutes of that revenue share was
generated within the Asia-Pacific market (International Civil Aviation
Organization, 2012). However, five out of ten of the busiest airports within
the world treat the North Yankee continent (e.g. Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta
International airport, Chicago O’Hare International airport, Los Angeles
International airport, Dallas/ Fort Worth International airfield and Denver
International Airport) (Airport Council International-North America, 2012).




When building a brand-new air terminal facility, it’s vital
to execute a design that’s each economical and cost-efficient (Odoni Neufville,
1992). Odoni and de Neufville (1992) first argued that the standard design
techniques designed on theoretical formulas were outdated as a result of they
are not capturing distinctive issues that occur throughout building
construction. As a result, airports fail to enable traveler and baggage traffic
within the quickest and most effective manner attainable (Odoni Neufville,
1992). Several airports are change from the “public utility” approach
towards a businesslike management strategy, executing commercially thriving
operations that improve their performance (Graham, 2005). Such initiatives
absolutely have an effect on airport design, gearing it further concerning
experiential design, related to a practical orientation.


As a result, the leading principle of contemporary terminal
design is flexibility (Chambers, 2007; Shuchi, 2012). Shuchi (2012) remarks flexibility
as an important issue for the thriving design of a particularly unpredictable
surrounding, like an airport. Compared to traditionally incorrect statement
methods, flexibility permits for easier forthcoming extensions of airports, corresponding
with the ceaseless growth of traffic (Chambers, 2007). Except for facilitating
the longer-term design method, the versatile design approach provides an
additional convenient and pleasant traveling expertise (Shuchi, 2012).









The impact of the physical surroundings on individuals in
service settings was shown to be a stimulating topic amongst students (Baker,
1987; Bitner, 1990; angular distance & Jang, 2010; Hul, Dube, & Chebat,
1997; Reimer & Kuehn, 2005; Ryu, 2010; Ryu & Jang, 2007; Turley &
Milliman, 2000; Wakefield & Blodgett, 1996; Wall & Berry, 2007). Early
analysis within the retail expertise domain presented the concept of service
setting within the physical surroundings as a vital facet of the customer
expertise (Kotler, 1973). Kotler (1973) expected that the atmosphere of the
service setting could become a crucial discriminator amongst service suppliers
that may influence the customer’s purchase method. sadly, service- related
studies often integrated numerous aspects of the physical surroundings into a
solitary service quality dimension, “tangibles” (Brady & Cronin, 2001).
Before continuing to the empirical proof of the impact that the physical
environment has on customer behavior, relevant theories and frameworks that specify
the physical surrounding and its dimensions are going to be introduced.




The theoretical conception planned by Baker (1987) took an
additional step within the classification of retail surroundings qualities by
presenting social components that adhere with physical surrounding. In line
with Baker’s (1987) analysis, the retail surroundings consist of three groups
of stimuli:

Ambient factors;

Functional/Aesthetic factors;

Social factors.


Ambient factors embrace contextual conditions like air
quality, scent, noise, music and cleanliness. These issues may also be clarified
because the factors that don’t seem to be object of customers’ immediate consciousness.
Contrary to ambient factors, design factors see visible stimuli that are within
the sphere of customers’ consciousness, like type of architecture, shape,
material types and colors. In addition, social factors embody variety,
appearance and also the conduct of consumers and service personnel within the
surroundings. Thus, Baker (1987) thought about the place of business as a
service surroundings wherever physical attributes area unit indivisible from
the human issue. As Bitner (1990) further agreed, each physical proof and
social proof of the shop surroundings and should have impact on the perceived












The most manipulated conception in service surroundings
analysis, “servicescape” context, highlights that physical environments in any
service industry intensely influence each worker and customer. The term
“servicescape” is employed to see the surroundings wherever the service
delivery process takes place (Bitner, 1992). Related to the “natural
environment” Bitner (1992) outlined “servicescape” as “built or artificial environment”.
The servicescape framework recommends three groups of physical proof factors:

Ambient conditions (air quality, temperature,
music, noise, odor, etc.);

Spatial layout and functionality (building
layout, furniture or equipment arrangement);

Signs, symbols and artifacts (signage, décor,


These three scopes have become typically accepted guidelines
for the flourishing design of elaborate servicescapes like hotels, restaurants,
hospitals, airports, schools, etc. Nonetheless, in her abstract framework,
Bitner (1992) didn’t directly include the social facet of the physical
surroundings. In line with the framework, each worker and customer understands
objective physical factors that initiate their internal perception, emotional
and physiological responses. Building on the stimulus-organism-response scheme
from environmental psychology that people react to environmental stimuli in two
contradictory responses, approach and rejection (Mehrabian & Russell,
1974), Bitner (1992) recommended that individual internal responses to the
service surroundings result in either positive (approach) or negative
(avoidance) behavior. Moreover, service customers’ internal responses to the
service surroundings have the ability to form their judgments of the company’s
look and expected service quality. additionally, Zeithaml et al. (1993) agreed
that tangible cues are usually responsible for the expected level of quality
within the pre-consumption part.




Reisinger and Mavondo (2005) outlined anxiety as “a
subjective feeling that happens as a result of being exposed to actual or impending
risk”. Additionally, anxiety is alleged as a sense of being disturbed,
stressed, apprehensive, nervous, scared, uncomfortable, vulnerable, or
terrified (McIntyre & Roggenbuck 1998). Different authors have delineated
anxiety as a sense of discomfort and frustration (Hullett & Witte, 2001).
The key source of anxiety could be a worry of negative consequences of any
behavior (Gudykunst & Hammer, 1988). In client behavior analysis, anxiety
is related to the worry of unknown significances that follow a sale (Dowling
& Staelin 1994). For this reason, customers assess the danger of purchase
behavior and potential consequences. the target of the service supplier is to
produce the maximum amount data as possible concerning the potential purchase
that might end in reduced client anxiety (Reisinger & Mavondo, 2005). in
addition, psychology analysis proposed that the physical surroundings could
generate negative outcomes (Evans & McCoy, 1998; Stokols, 1992). As a
consequence, some attributes of physical surroundings might be predictors of


McIntosh et al. (1996) examined anxieties and fears related
to traveling. Similarly, philosopher and Feinsod (1982) detected that travel
enjoyment and travel anxiety area unit reciprocally exclusive. moreover, they
claimed that transportation suppliers have to be compelled to minimize the
psychological and physical stress travelers endure so as to cut back anxiety
and improve travel enjoyment. Travel could cause anxiety from many sources.
First, relocation could be a well-known cause of psychological stress (Lucas,
1987). Second, transfers, delays, crowdedness, physical accessibility and
navigation area unit a number of the foremost causes of hysteria related to
train travel (Cheng, 2010). notwithstanding, the mode of transportation could
cause each psychological and physical stress (McIntosh, 1990). The waiting time
for the transportation vehicle is a further supply of hysteria (Stradling,
Carreno, Rye & Noble, 2007). Finally, the worry of the unknown consequences
of travel outcome could cause anxiety.


Even though it’s one among the safest modes of
transportation, aviation is perceived by travelers because the most dangerous
(McIntosh et al., 1998). The anxiety with aviation isn’t solely restricted to
the flight section of the trip (e.g. being in enclosed areas, concern of
heights) however also to “delays, airport congestion, airline and security
procedures produce anxiety” (McIntosh et al., 1998, p. 198). However,
solely a little variety of previous studies targeted on examining the
“ground segment” of air-travel anxiety generators (Hill, 1996). Additionally,
the aviation business, travel agents and airport management seldom
self-addressed potential ways that to cut back the anxiety related to airports
(Gorman & Smith, 1992). The results of dessert apple et al.’s (1998) study
indicate that flight delays were the foremost oft rated supply of hysteria.
This result’s vital considering that even “take off’ and “landing” segments of
flight were less oft mentioned as potential sources of hysteria. However, some
travelers would possibly expertise anxiety towards the unknown airfield
surroundings (Fewings, 2001). Within state of affairs confusing building design
and unclear assemblage wouldn’t facilitate to cut back travel anxiety however
may really increase it. Similarly, it’s reportable that counting on the
effectiveness of way-finding connected attributes, passengers could have either
a trying or gratifying airfield expertise (Cave, Blackler, Popovic, Kraal,


A number of e-commerce studies have shown a association
between enjoyment and a positive looking expertise (Chen & Dubinski, 2003;
Sun & Zhang, 2006). Expressed as AN emotional appraisal of the shopping for
method, looking enjoyment presents the extent of enjoyment within the looking
expertise itself, except for the analysis of the looking outcome within the style
of a product (Cai & Xu, 2006). not like anxiety, the spirit of enjoyment
has a sway on magnified purchase intention and, therefore, is helpful for the
corporate (Davis, Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1992; Huang, 2003). to boot, enjoyment
is related to a discount in perceived risk (Chaudhuri, 2012) And an improvement
in perceived quality (Chen & Dubinski, 2003; Mattila & Wirtz, 2001).


Building on Mehrabian and Russel’s model (1974) Donovan and
Rossiter (1984) connected physical surroundings perceptions and emotional
states, suggesting that pleasant perception of the place of business
surroundings results in looking enjoyment. any analysis planned that customers
react showing emotion to aesthetic characteristics of the service surroundings,
like color, materials, décor and elegance, perceiving these attributes as “the
extras that contribute to a customer’s sense of enjoyment in experiencing a
service” (Baker, 1987, p. 81). in addition, variety of studies confirmed that
numerous close cues in commission surroundings, like scent (Spangenberg,
Crowley & Henderson; 1996) or music (Dube & Morin, 2001) have a sway on
the intensity of client enjoyment. Such results counsel that surrloundings al
cues are essential for the emotional outcomes within the service environment.
moreover, a pleasant surrounding will doubtless attract folks and build them
willing to pay more cash and time (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982). Considering
that the aviation business assures passengers that it’s the quickest means that
of transport, passengers could typically be aggravated once experiencing drawn-out
waits at terminal departure lounges (Han et. al, 2012; Rowley & Slack,
1999). Therefore, creating a

pleasant surroundings wherever travelers fancy disbursement
time is especially relevant for the airport setting.




Word-of-mouth (WOM) will be explained as an oral report that
converses consumers’ level of fulfilment or discontent among their associates
(Arndt, 1967; Blodgett et al., 1993; Söderlund, 1998). Additionally, Richins
(1983) recognized word-of-mouth as a rational post-purchase conduct that
happens when service or product consumption. For example, a client who
perceived service extremely positively is more willing to exchange a pleasing
expertise to prospect customers (Westbrook, 1987). Within the modern world of
net media and communication, word-of-mouth has reached its improvement as a
style of online endorsement, better referred to as electronic word-of-mouth
(eWOM) (Cheung & Thadani, 2012). Hennig-Thurau et al. (2004, p. 39)
outlined eWOM as a “statement created by potential, actual, or former customers
a few product or company, that is created out there to a large number of
individuals and establishments via the web.” Contrary to oral WOM, eWOM
overcomes boundaries of social familiarity and geographical proximity,
providing a virtual setting wherever the message will be sent not solely to
friends and family, however to any interested client (Cheung & Thadani,


Previous analysis on WOM within the tourism and hospitality
context showed that traveler expectation will increase when reviewing positive
recommendations (Diaz, Martin, Iglesias, Vazquez & Ruiz, 2000). On the
opposite hand, traveler destinations and service suppliers could expertise
difficulties to fulfill such expectations. Similarly, negative WOM tends to severely
harm a destination’s image. however, few studies have promoted the influence of
design attributes on client behavior within the servicescape (e.g., Bellizzi
& Hite, 1992; Bitner, 1992; Crowley, 1993; Iyer, 1989; Smith & Burns,
1996). Therefore, it’s expected that WOM could be a noteworthy client behavior
within the airport servicescape.









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