Introduction: a student of physics pathway, the construction and

 Introduction:In therecent decades, the construction sector faced many changes. One of thesechanges is improving the quality and property of constructional materials. Inthe case of concrete, which is the second highly used product in the currentinfrastructural sector, this aim could be achieved by using the nanoparticlesthat are being used widely in the current scientific developments (Ashani 2015).Researches of Nano-scientists shown that the developments in the Nanotechnological fields in the construction engineering area gives increasedopportunities to get the high-quality infrastructure.

The construction of improved,durable buildings by using reliable substances is the main indexes of engineersobligations. As a student of physics pathway, the construction and the use ofNano-particles in order to refine the performance of a concrete is of interestand relevance.This paper will analyse possible innovations on the structure of concreteby applying nanotechnology aims. It will look at some environmental issues ofconventional concrete materials. It will then evaluate nanotechnology as anassistant by using the criteria of performance, health, cost and environmentalimpact. This paper will show that nanotechnology may help to overcome somelimitations and give competitive advantages despite itsdrawbacks at the case of availability, survey quantity and some health diseases.   Section 2  Research Questions1)   What is the scale of using the nanoparticles inthe concrete materials?2)   What changes could nanotechnology have in theperformance of concrete?3)   Is the usage of nanotechnology in cement-basedmaterials cost effective?4)   Do nanoparticles in concrete have harmfuleffects on human health?5)   Would an application of nanoparticles inconcrete have positive environmental effects?6)   Would the usage of nanotechnology incement-based materials have negative effects?  Section 3 Outline1.

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What is the scale of using the nanoparticles in the concrete materials?1.1. Theimportance of concrete materials in the construction industry1.2.Production of nano materials1.3.Development of nano concrete2.   What changes could nanotechnology have in theperformance of concrete?2.

1. Improvementsin strength and durability:2.1.1. Nano silica2.

1.2. Carbon nanotube2.2.

Applicationof Polycarboxylates (Water reducer)2.3. Shortenedtime consuming3. Is usageof nanotechnology in cement-based materials cost effective?3.

1. Carbon nanotube as a replacer of steel3.2. Fewer numberof components are required4.

   Do nanoparticles in concrete has harmfuleffects on human health?4.1. Because oftheir size4.1.1. Penetrateinto the lungs and bloodstream4.1.2.

Penetratethe human skin4.2. The additionof Titanium oxide (cacncer) 5.   Would an application of nanoparticles inconcrete have positive environmental effects?5.

1. Self-cleaningproperties5.2. Reducing theCO2 emissions by 25%6.

   Would the usage of nanotechnology incement-based materials have negative effects on rural communities?6.1. Price andavailability6.2. The lowliteracy level6.

3. Smallproduction volumes and high cost  Section 4 Annotated sources:First Annotated source Aggarwal, Paratibha, Rahul Pratap Singh, andYogesh Aggarwal. 2015. “Use of nano-silica in cement based materials—Areview.

” Cogent Engineering 2.1.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311916.

2015.1078018 This article was printed in a peer reviewed academic journal and is aimedspecifically at researches in the area of cementitious material at the atomiclevel. The lead author is a professor in Civil Engineering Department ofNational institute of Technology in India; Rahul Pratap Singhis pursuing his PhD in CivilEngineeringDepartment of National Institute of Technology in India; and Yogesh Aggarwal isworking as an assistant professor in Civil Engineering Department of NationalInstitute of Technology in India. All authors have highly specializededucation in concrete industry. The article was published in2015 and so the contents are current.The research assimilates the mechanical, freshand durability properties of conventional cement and nano-concrete; examines the properties of eachnano material that can be used and gives the probable properties by comparingwith conventional concrete.

Authors of paper also give areview of potential gains on using nanosilica in concrete and believe that inthe near future nanotechnology will have a great impact to concrete and towhole construction industry. This article has a very useful section on themicrostructural analysis and will be used to support the section of my essaydealing with the criteria of performance and durability.    Second AnnotatedsourceSobolev, Konstantin.

2016. “Moderndevelopments related to nanotechnology and nanoengineering of concrete.” Frontiersof Structural and Civil Engineering 10.2: 131-141.DOI 10.1007/s11709-016-0343-0  This source is an international peer reviewedjournal and was written by a reliable authority in the sphere.

The paperreports on modern developments related to nanotechnology of cement andconcrete. The lead author, Konstantin Sobolev is a professor in the Departmentof Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Winconsin-Milwaukee inUSA. Concretematerials, Nanotechnology and Admixtures are his basic areas of research and hehas over 150 other publications. The article was published in2016 and so the contents are current.Konstantin gives a summary information aboutapplication of nanotechnology in cement-based materials on the report with thesame tittle. He also provides a review of recent evolve in instrumentation anddesign of advanced nano-composite concrete materials, including self-cleaningand water resistant concrete.

The limitation of this article would be the factthat it has in turn been cited only in 7 other publications as was publishedrecently. However,this source was very useful in supporting the introduction part of researchreport with background information since its investigation details has writtenin easily accessible language. The section of the article discussing about photocatalyticconcrete was helpful highlighting the environmental criteria of thenano-composite.   Third Annotated source Raki, Laila, et al. 2010. “Cement andconcrete nanoscience and nanotechnology.” Materials 3.

2: 918-942.doi:10.3390/ma3020918 This article is from a peer reviewed academicjournal that was written by a qualified authority in the field. The lead author,Laila Raki is a Research Officer of National Research Council in Canada. The main topic of his research isabout cement and Concrete Nanoscience andNanotechnology.

The article was published in 2010 and socontents are current.This source surveys the workby many researchers, where nanotechnology potentially offers the opportunity tounderstand the behaviour of concrete. The distinction of this study is that it is more concentrated on mechanicalproperties of Carbon nanotubes and Calcium Silicate Hydrate, which are one ofthe nanoparticles that influence the mechanical properties as well as financialand environmental. This paper and the previous one would be the best complementof each other to describe the impact of nanotechnology in constructionindustry. The publication of this article has been citedby 261 authors and showing the influence of this source in the literature ofthis subject.The article has very useful section on theimproving the ecological and cost properties of concrete materials. In particular,the content on page 933, which give information about environmental and economicbenefits will very valuable to the main body paragraphs of my report.