1911, Beijerinck, a Dutch microbiologist isolated and described the genus Acinetobacter emerged as a significant
nosocomial pathogen. In the nature, Acinetobacter spp are free-living and fairly stable
in the environment and are widely distributed.
They are aerobic nonfermentative and Gram-negative bacilli. Warm climate
and humidity increase outbreak of Acinetobacter
is much more. Its causes many diseases like pneumonia, septicemia, wound
sepsis, urinary tract infection, endocarditis and meningitis are the common
infections and is a known nosocomial
pathogen causing a wide range of clinical diseases including blood stream infections
(BSI). During last decades, multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. have been reported almost
certainly as a consequence of extensive use of potent broad-spectrum
antimicrobial agents in hospitals throughout the world (Towner, 2009). Identification of ESBL
Acinetobacter spp is very important due to its
multidrug resistance activity (Bush, 2010). The production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)
confers resistance at various levels to expanded spectrum cephalosporins, such
as cefotaxime and ceftazidime, and to aztreonam, but not normally to the cephamycins
and carbapenems (Mirsalehian et al., 2010). The emerging antibiotic resistance is a
serious global problem which resulted treatment failures and increased health
care costs. Production of beta-lactamase is the most common cause of bacterial
resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The problem of metallo-beta-lactamase
(MBL) production is increasing with increasing production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in hospitals.
ESBLs and MBLs production is a significant problem in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter.
ESBL or MBL are also associated with a higher mortality and morbidity (Walsh et
al., 2005). Plasmids are made of circular double stranded DNA molecules. Plasmid
profile analysis examines the total bacterial plasmid content. Plasmid mediated
antibiotic resistance is common in Acinetobacter
and plasmid plays an important
role in bacterial multidrug resistance.