In the 1700’s, the (process of people making, selling, and buying things) for tea in (related to Europe) countries and America , a newly introduced drink in the Western area, experiencedgreatly increased success. And, there was a high steady demand for Chinese silk. But China, which was still a pre industrial place, wanted little to nothing that the West had to sell, causing the Westerners, mostly The English, to earn a bad/unhelpful balance of trade. To fix the situation, the foreignersdeveloped a third party trade, exchanging their items in India and other places for morematerials and decentley processed stuff, which found a ready market in Guangzhou. By the earlynineteenth century, raw cotton and opium from India had become the staple British imports intoChina, in spite of the fact that opium was prohibited entry by (related to kings, queens, emperors, etc.) legal statement. The opium traffic was made possible through the big plan/layout/dishonest plan of profit-looking (for) (people who sell things) and a dishonest (in a way that ruins your trust)slow-working government department(s).
In 1839 the Qing government, after ten years of unsuccessful anti-opium (series of actions to reach goals), started obeying extreme prohibitory laws against the opium trade. The (male ruler of a country) sent a (government worker in charge), Lin Zexu (1785- 1850), to Guangzhou to hold back illegal opium traffic. Lin grabbed and took control of illegal stocks of opium owned byChinese dealers and then detained the whole foreign community and taken (to stop illegal activity) and destroyed some 20,000 chests of illegal British opium. The British (got revenge for something bad that was done) with a punishment-based big, important trip, this way starting thefirst (white American)-Chinese war, better known as the Opium War (1839-42). (not ready for something) for war and extremely underestimating the abilities of the enemy, the Chinese wereterriblely defeated, and their image of their own royal power was damaged beyond repair.
TheAgreement (between countries) of Nanjing (1842), signed on board a British warship by twoManchu (related to kings, queens, emperors, etc.) (government workers in charge) and the British(having complete power to do things), was the first of a series of agreements with the Westerntrading nations later called by the Chinese the “unequal agreements between countries.” Underthe Agreement (between countries) of Nanjing, China gave up the island of Hong Kong(Xianggang in pinyin) to the British; permanently stopped the licensed (one company that controls too much) system of trade; opened 5 ports to British residence and foreign trade; limited the tax/import tax on trade to 5 percent; granted British nationals extraterritoriality((permission to not do something) from Chinese laws); and paid a large indemnity. Also, Britainwas to have most-favored-nation treatment, that is, it would get whatever trading givebacks theChinese granted other powers then or later. The Agreement (between countries) of Nanjing setthe extent and/the range and character of an unequal relationship for the resulting century ofwhat the Chinese would call “national embarrassments (in front of many people).” Theagreement (between countries) was followed by other invasions, wars, and agreements between countries that granted new givebacks and added new privileges for the foreigners.