Human Development ReportName: HuitaeHanHomeroom: 9LHumanities Teacher: CormacDelahuntyMathematics Teacher: CliffPackmanResearch question: Isthe composite index positively correlated to the UN HDI? Section 1: IntroductionHuman development index:Human developmentindex (HDI) was created by a Pakistani economist, Mahub ul Haq, in 1990 forUnited Nation Development Program (UNDP) to measure the countries’ development. HDI is ameasurement of a country’s overall achievement based on the health of people,level of educational attainment and standard of living (“Definition of Human Development Index”).
There are 4 major areas of examination to calculate HDI; life expectancy at birth(indicator of health), expected years of schooling (indicator of education),mean years of schooling (indicator of education), and Gross National Income(GNI) per capita (indicator of standard of living) (“Human DevelopmentIndex – HDI”). Chosencountries and explanation:The sample 10countries, which examines the developments in this report, are Angola, Nepal,Mexico, Zambia, Kenya, Italy, Argentina, Philippine, Uganda, and Iraq. Thesecountries are the chosen samples because these countries are spread indifferent places around the world, have different cultures, and have different levelsof developments. Chosenindicators and explanation: Chosen Indicator Indicator type Definition Expected importance Expected correlation Child mortality rate (per 1,000 born) Health Child mortality rate is defined as the probability of child’s death between birth and before reaching an age of five per 1,000 births (“Mortality rates for children.”).
Most important indicator Positive – Very strong Population below poverty line (%) Standard of living Population below poverty line is defined as the percentage of population below the poverty (“Population below poverty line”). The international poverty line is set at $1.25 to $1.9 per day (Hikel). Fourth most important indicator Positive – Weak Adult literacy rate (%) Education Adult literacy rate is defined as the percentage of people, who are able to read and write, among people aged 15 and over in total population (“Literacy rate”). Third most important indicator Positive – Moderate Electrification (%) Standard of living Electrification is defined as the percentage of total population of people in a specific area, who can stable access to electricity (Hanania).
Second most important indicator Positive – Strong Thisreport examines the sample 10 countries base on these four indicators. Thecountry considered as a MEDC, if the country has the lower level of child mortalityrate and the population below poverty line. This is because lower rate of childmortality means the people in the country are healthier and the lowerpopulation poverty line means the people in the country are living in a betterquality of life.
Also, if the country has the higher level of literacy rate andthe electrification, the country considered as a MEDC. This is because thehigher rate of literacy means people in the country are well-educated and highvalue of electrification for total population means people in the country areliving in a better quality of life, too. You don’t need to hypothesizeall 4 indicators. Hypothesisesfor two indicators:Childmortality rate – The LEDCs (less economically developed country) will havethe bigger number of child mortality rate than MEDCs (more economically developedcountry).
This is because children in LEDCs are harder to access the medicalservice than the children in MEDCs due to the number of hospitals and doctors,who can save children from illness and injuries, are not enough. Moreover, eventhere is enough number of hospitals and doctors, LEDCs people are harder to payfor treatment than MEDCs people because LEDCs people have less income than MEDCspeople. Electrification- The more developed countries willhave the higher percentage of electrification than less developed countriesbecause more developed countries have enough money to build power plants which can produce electricity,while less developed countries don’t have enough money to build power plants.
Also, more citizens in more developed countries than the less developedcountries can use electricity because people in MEDC can buy electricity touse. The higher percentage of electrification means that have the ability tobuy electricity and use in many ways, such as households, which indicates thehigher level of standard of living. Section 2: Method of data collectionTable 1: Thetable above shows the rank and the value of HDI and the chosen four indicatorsof 10 sample countries. The informationwas collected from 3 different websites. Source: hdr.undp.org; www.cia.
gov;www.gapminder.org Section 3: Data presentation and analysisRelationshipbetween child mortality rate (per 1,000 born) and the HDI Figure 1: The figure above is a graph and a table that shows the PPMCC(Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient) between child mortality rateand the HDI for the 10 sample countries. Figure 1 above showsItaly, a country that has the highest HDI from sample 10 countries, has thelowest value of child mortality rate. On the other hand, Angola, country thathas the lowest HDI from sample 10 countries, has the highest value of childmortality rate. This indicates the number of HDI increases, the child mortalityrate decreases. Consequently, figure 1 shows LEDCs has a mostly higher numberof child mortality than MEDCs. The graph used thecurved trend line rather than a straight line because the slope of the trendline gets steeper when the trend line goes left.
However, the slope gets moreflat, meaning a curve line can explain the trends better than a straight line. The graph aboveshows that the square number of PPMCC is approximately 0.844, meaning PPMCC is ±Ö(0.844), which is approximately±0.919. However, the trend line is going down meaning the PPMCC value should beapproximately -0.919, which indicates the data has a very strong negativerelationship between two variables.
Table 2: The table above shows the SRCC (Spearman rank correlationcoefficient) between child mortality rate and the HDI for the 10 samplecountries. Table2 above shows the SRCC between child mortality rate and the HDI for the 10sample countries is approximately 0.903 out of 1, meaning the ranks of childmortality rate and the rank of HDI is very similar.
This indicates the SRCCbetween child mortality rate and HDI is very strong positively. Figure1 shows that the country, which has the higher value of child mortality rate, mostlyhas the higher level of developments. Table 2 proved that the data is reliableby comparing the rank of data with rank of HDI. Therefore, this statementcongruence with the first hypothesis above. Relationshipbetween electrification and the HDI Figure 2: The figure above is a graph and a table that shows thePPMCC between electrification and the HDI for the 10 sample countries. The figure 2 aboveshows there is no exact linear trend line which can perfectly explain the trendof the data, because the graph has the PPMCC value, which is almost 0, meaningreally weak trend. However, if there were no outliers on the left side of thegraph, the graph might have a strong positive PPMCC value, because the dots arealmost in a straight line which is rising. Table 3: The table above shows the SRCC between electrification andthe HDI for the 10 sample countries Table3 above shows the SRCC between electrification and the HDI for the 10 samplecountries is about 0.
879 out of 1. Not as much as the SRCC between childmortality rate and HDI for 10 sample countries, but SRCC of 0.879 is a veryhigh value, meaning the electrification and the HDI is almost same in rank. Thisindicates the correlation between electrification and HDI is strongly positive,but not as much as the correlation between child mortality rate and the HDI. Figure 2 shows that, if the value ofelectrification gets over a certain point, the value of HDI dramaticallyincreases.
Table 3 has proved the data is reliable by comparing the differencebetween electrification and HDI in rank. This statement indicates some part ofthe second hypothesis because the data shows that the countries are a havingsimilar value of HDI before the electrification reach 80%. However, the dataactually shows that most of the countries who have the higher value of HDI gothigher percentage of electrification.
Section 4: ConclusionTable 4: The table above shows the UN HDI rankings, values ofcomposite HDI and the composite HDI rankings of ten sample countries. Thecomposite HDI was calculated by using the formula; (rank first) x 4 + (rank second) x 3 + (rankthird) x 2 + (rank fourth) x 1. Table 5: The table above shows the SRCC between the composite HDIand the UN HDI. Table5 shows the collected data directly answer ‘yes’ to the research question.This is because 7 out of 10countries don’t have any difference in the rank between the composite HDI andUN HDI, and rest of the data only have a minimal difference; 1, 3, and 4. Consequently,the SRCC between the composite HDI and the UN HDI is approximately 0.
842, meaningthe composite HDI has a very strong positive correlation with UN HDI. Section 5: EvaluationThis report hadcollected reliable data because all the data used was collected in popularsources, meaning less likely to have mistakes. Also, this report collected allthe data about four indicators for 10 sample countries, which was able to seethe trend of the data clearly, meaning collected enough data. To get moreaccurate and fair sets of data, this report collected data, which was collectedin the same year. However, lots of data were collected in different years, sothis made a problem of collecting data from the internet. A disadvantage ofusing internet source is some people may have bribed the data collector of thewebsite and change the data to make more benefit them, which can make datainvalid. This method was the best way to collect data, because using anothermethod, such as books, may have older data, meaning inaccurate. Therefore, nexttime, this report will check the data with at least one other websites toincrease accuracy and complement the disadvantages that the method has.
Section 6: IDU reflectionHere are some questions to help youreflect on your work. You should also refer to the IDU criteria D rubric.1. Reflect on your own understandingof Mathematics/Humanities interconnectedness.
2. Describe the way you useMathematics and Humanities in your inquiry process.3. Evaluate the benefits andlimitation of Mathematics and Humanities knowledge used in this project.
4. Provide a detailed explanation ofthe importance of your findings and connection between Humanities andMathematics. At the end of thisunit, I understand that the interconnection between mathematics and humanitiesis very important. Humanities are the study of human culture, human society,and historical events.
Study of humanities help us to understand about human’slife and make people to progress society by analyzing the past events. Mathematicsare the study of numbers and shapes. Study of mathematics help us to understanda specific data by collecting exact quantitative values and getting extrainformation by calculating values using formula. Consequently, if humanitiesand mathematics interconnect with each other, people can easily notice aserious problem of society by collecting quantitative values and finding outwhich part of the society has a problem. Moreover, people can solve problemsthat society has by collecting and calculating information using mathematicsand applying to the real world using humanities. This means that people can’tsolve problems that society has easily without either humanities andmathematics, because people can’t notice the problems in society and can’tapply the solution to solve problems of society without humanities.
Furthermore,people won’t be able to find how the severe problem is and can’t make thesolution without collecting and calculating data using mathematics. Therefore,the connection between humanities and mathematics are very important. When I was doingthis investigation, both humanities and mathematics were required to make myinvestigation and IDU to be successful. Firstly, humanities helped me tounderstand the background information about this investigation, such as what theUN HDI and the development of countries are. Moreover, humanities allowed me toset the research question, which was the question about what I wanted to know.Secondly, mathematics made able for me organize the data using charts andgraph.
Mathematics also allowed me to calculate my composite HDI and find outhow much do composite HDI correlated to UN official HDI. Moreover, mathematics madeable for me to answer the research question and satisfied my curiosity, especiallyabout development of the world. Words: ****Works cited:”Definition of Human DevelopmentIndex | what is Human Development Index? Human Development Index Meaning.” TheEconomic Times,economictimes.
indiatimes.com/definition/human-development-index. “Human Development Index – HDI.”Investopedia, 23 May 2015, www.investopedia.com/terms/h/human-development-index-hdi.asp. “Mortality rates for children.
” Conflict, conflict.lshtm.ac.uk/page_99.htm. “Population below poverty line – World.” IndexMundi, www.
indexmundi.com/map/?v=69. Hickel, Jason. “Could you live on $1.90 a day?That’s the international poverty line.
” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media,1 Nov. 2015, www.theguardian.
com/global-development-professionals-network/2015/nov/01/global-poverty-is-worse-than-you-think-could-you-live-on-190-a-day. “Literacy rate.” UNESCO UIS, 27 Sept.
Hanania, Jordan, et al.”Access to electricity.” Energy Education,energyeducation.ca/encyclopedia/Access_to_electricity. Accessed 16 Jan.