How much information can we seen in abrief visual presentation? A simplequestion: Whatdid you see?’ requires the observer to report both what he remembers and whathe has forgotten” (p. 1). People tend to said that they canseen more that they could remembered .
Sperling(1960)demonstrated that when people been presented with a large amount ofinformation, they could only report about few. The limit of the memory that canreport from a maximum amount of information is know as the span of apprehension.In this study, the focus will be on how difference types of report condition influencedthe numbers of item observer can report. An array of letter was presented to the observer in a very brief time. Ina whole report experiment, the observer is required to report as many letter ashe could.
The observer generally could not report the letter correctly and thenumber of letter that can be report is limited. In a partial report experiment, the observer is required to report only one row of the letter but he didn’t knowwhich row he required to report at first that’s mean the cue is randomly. Aninstruction tone is given to indicate which row to be report. A high tone ispaired with upper row and a low tone is paired with the lower row. The observerneed to hear the tone and decide which row to report. In result, the numbers ofletter that the observer could report is improved.
In addition, Sperling alsomanipulated theinterval separating stimulus offset and presentation of the cue. Theresults show that as the cue interval increased, the number of letter that observercould report diminished. In conclusion , observer tend to performbetter in partial- report condition than in whole-report condition .In the samematerial, the accuracy in partial-report is higher than whole-report.This isbecause while in whole-report condition, only limited number item can be report due tothe span of apprehension.
Also , iconic memory fades with time so that as the timeinterval of the cue increased, the number of item that the observer couldreport decreased.