Historically society has been interested in why people behave criminally. The study of criminal behaviour has focused on two main theories to explain criminal behaviour.
One theory suggests an individual’s upbringing and socialization forces play a significant role in the individual behaving criminally. The other theory suggests individuals can be born predisposed to criminal behaviour as a result of particular genetic conditions. An examination the impact of alcohol and drug abuse, XYY Chromosome Disorder and single parent living situations provide evidence that both socialization and genetics influence criminal behaviour. One of the most significant causes of people behaving criminally is drug and alcohol abuse.
Remarkably, criminals under the influence of narcotics and alcohol account for a significant cause of behaving criminally. Research study done by, the National Council on Drug and Alcohol Dependence, shows that 80% of of criminal offenders use, and/or abuse drugs or alcohol. Not only that but, nearly 50% of inmates are clinically addicted.
Alcohol, more than any other illegal drug is often found to be associated very closely with violent crimes such as, murder, rape, violent assault, child and spousal abuse. Alcohol and drugs impact violent crimes, and criminal behaviour. When consuming alcohol it acts as a depressant, resulting in your brain cells communicating slower than normal.
Not only that but, your regular fears and anxieties are affected. They begin to disappear, in a result you become more outgoing and social. Often, crimes involving alcohol take place when the offender, victim, or both have been consuming alcohol. Nearly 500 000 incidents between people involve drugs or alcohol, along with 118 000 family incidents, and 744 000 between acquaintances. Crime associated to drugs often include three types of drug cartel crime.
Use-related crime, involving an individual who ingests drugs, and commits a crime as a result of their impacted thought process. Secondly, Economic-related crimes, an individual who acts to fund their drug habit, including theft and prostitution. The last crime is, System-related crime, is a result of the drug system. This includes production, manufacture, transportation, and sale of drugs, including violence related to, like turf wars. Offenders with a drug dependency are more likely to be arrested due to robbery-like crimes. According to the, Federal Bureau of Prisons, 80 353 or 46% of inmates are inside due to drug related crime.
Although a main theory of criminal behavior suggests that drug and alcohol abuse is a leading factor. An examination of single parent living situations has proved it can also account for people behaving criminally. Children that are born into single parent families have a greater chance of falling into poverty, welfare, and dangerous external influences. There is a significant rise in violent crimes in families abandoned by their fathers. Approximately, 4 out of 5 teens in the youth court have no father figure, or abusive fathers. Often, teenagers find excitement and ego gratification when committing a crime.
Without a powerful figure above them, they find their pride and fulfilment through gangs. During this, there is praise to those who carry out orders. Loyalty is shown, and a feeling of approval is often earned in these situations. If arrested, teenage gang members are assured that they will have highly paid defence lawyers at their service. Although, prior to their first arrest, there is an average of 140 crimes committed.
On average, there are 101 000 youth justice violations. As it has been shown, the odds are more often than not, are in favour of the criminal. Children and teenagers are often more open to a life of crime considering they would most likely face juvenile delinquency sentences. The maximum sentence for a young offender is 2-10 years in a correctional facility. Not only that but, children under the age of 12 cannot be prosecuted in the criminal justice system. Even if a teenager is charged as an adult, they can be paroled after serving a small fraction of the sentence originally required. Families without a father present can take a toll on the development of a child.
Difficulties with social adjustments, friendship issues and behaviour problems can become an issue. A backseat personality can even arise to hide underlying fears and anxieties. Socialization plays a role in developing the mind of a criminal, fatherless households included. Children raised in these situations seem to only have one destination, behaving criminally. The final theory of the causations of people behaving criminally is due to the XYY chromosome disorder. XYY chromosome disorder is genetic condition where the male has an extra Y chromosome. There are normally 46 chromosomes but XYY leaves a man with a 47th.
A chromosome is the part of a cell that carries hereditary information. The second Y chromosome increases the idea of a man behaving criminally, once this sort of behaviour starts to become present, it is very difficult to reverse. Dr. Helen Morrison, a forensic anthropologist, says that the abnormality in certain serial killers begins to express itself during puberty. A legal defence has even been developed for the defendant that should relieve him or her of the legal responsibility for the criminal act. However, this defence has never been successfully used. XYY can be easily diagnosed, a blood test is all it requires. Although, it is not always accepted in a court trial because it lacks scientific evidence to prove that the criminal act was due to the chromosome disorder.
The XYY disorder was only discovered in 1961. Scientists started to come up with links between the disorder and aggressive and extremely impulse decisions and behaviours. Behaviour started to become abnormally clear, proven by the amount of men present in prisons with the XYY chromosome disorder. The legal status’ have been confirmed by many studies done inside the regular population. However, these studies have manifested doubts in many people’s minds about how factual the relations between aggressive behaviour and XYY chromosome disorder are, this is because many males are living absolutely normal lives with the chromosome disorder. Although XXY has always believed to have a significant impact on people behaving criminally, it is not always true. Historically, society has always been interested in the mind of a working criminal. Alcohol and drug abuse are one of the leading factors.
Almost 80% of offenders in jail use and/or abused drugs during the time of their arrest. Secondly, socialization factors constitute a big portion of crime rates in young children and teens. Without a father, living in a single parent home can have significant impacts on a child’s development and mind. Criminal behavior is often the result of these families. Lastly, XYY chromosome disorder was originally believed to have one of the greatest impacts on people behaving criminally. Although, is not often true.
XYY chromosome is linked to aggression and impulsiveness, but many men living with the disorder live a completely normal life. Society should install an infrastructure to help decrease the about of people behaving criminally, a safer future could be the result.