Heterosis [16]. Genetic analysis of hybrid vigour is important

Heterosis is the process of increase in vigour of F1
hybrids over their parents. The term heterosis was first coined by George H. Shull 13.There are three
types of heterosis, mid parent heterosis, better parent heterosis and useful
heterosis 14. 12Heterosis
in grain legumes is due to dominance gene effects but sometimes due to
epistasis effects 15. Heterosis in
mungbean is significant for plant breeders to find out superior crosses and
also helpful to select desirable parents. Heterosis play vital role in F1 and F2
generation because it provides a basis for determining genetic variability in
mungbean 16. Genetic
analysis of hybrid vigour is important for the identification of hybrids
showing superiority over the parents and for better utilization of heterosis in
mungbean breeding program. Heterosis for different yield and its attributing
traits were observed in the hybrids such as branches/plant ,pods/plant,100-seed
weight and seed yield/plant 17. Divergent
hybrids of mungbean were studied to quantify the hybrid vigor for grain yield
and other quantitative traits. Genetic architecture of mungbean plant
improved through hybridization and develops some superior mungbean cultivars
with useful yield related traits such as total dry matter and harvest index18. Five mungbean lines were crossed with four
testers to find out the nature of gene action, combining ability and heterosis
for yield and its attributing traits. Different traits such as days to 50%
flowering, days to maturity, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, dry
weight/plant, seed yield/plant and harvest index has significance heterosis
observed19.Heterosis studies on mungbean were conducted between
two parents exotic and five native under controlled conditions. Mid
and better parent heterosis was recoreded in which data of plant height, pods/plant, pods length, seed/pod, 100 seed
weight, biological yield/plant, harvested index . Maximum heterotic effects was
observed for pods/plant, grain yield/plant and harvest index in that crosses
(NCM 87 x MI 5, NM13-1 x NCM 7, NM13-1 x T-77)20.Heterotic effects were studied over
mid-parent and better parent in 8 parental diallel involving 3 local and 5
exotic mungbean genotypes. Hybrids along with their parents were screened out
for different traits. Heterosis was observed in the different traits like
number of pods/plant, grain yield/plant, and plant height. Strong heterosis
were observed for grain yield/plant and number of pods/plant in four F1
hybrids (NM 51 x VC 3902, NM 20-21 x VC 1163, VC 3301 x VC 1163 and NM
51 x VC 3902) 21.Five mungbean
varieties (CM1 to CM5) from china, two from Thailand (KPS1 and KPS2P) and one
from Korea (K7) were crossed to generate 34 F1 crosses. Mid-parent
heterosis and heterobeltosis was calculated for better agronomic traits.
Maximum heterosis was observed in different yield and yield attributing traits22. Twenty eight
hybrids of mungbean were established through 8 × 8 diallel excluding reciprocal
crosses. Significance of heterosis over better parent and standard check were
calculated. Maximum heterosis 80.76% over standard check and 72.39% over better
parent were observed for grain yield/plant 23.


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