Goodman of ability on the spelling and ball throwing

Goodman (1990)
stated that self-instructional methodologies created by analysts at the
Learning Disabilities Institute of Kansas, that are the concentration of a
whole educational modules for the auxiliary school learning disabled teenagers.
They appear to instruct the disabled teenagers standards and belief for
critical thinking, finishing of undertakings and autonomous work. It is with a parallel
aim of helping the learning disabled youngsters in possible schools to work
autonomously, to gain logical information and critical thinking capacity that
the agent led the present investigation to test the adequacy of
self-contemplate approach and current instructional methodologies in limiting
learning disabilities.

Boyle
and Forchelli (2014) have shown that students with Learning Disabilities
(LD) experience problems in recording notes from lectures, yet lectures serve
as one of the major avenues of learning content in secondary classes. Despite
the importance of note-taking skills for students with LD, only few studies
examined the differences in note-taking between students with LD and students
with high and average achievement. In this study, the note taking skills of
middle school students with LD were compared to peers with average and high
achievement

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 Crompton (2012) examined the cognitive
and academic profiles associated with learning disability (LD) in reading
comprehension, word reading, applied problems and calculations. Results
supported the hypothesis that unexpected under achievement is associated with
Learning Disabilities.

Schieve
(2012) found that children in all developmental disabled groups
had significantly higher estimates for health care use, impact, and unmet needs
than children without disability. This study provides empirical evidence that
children with disability require increased pediatric and specialist services,
both for their core functional deficits and concurrent medical conditions.

Job
& Klassen (2011) suggest that adolescents with Learning Disabilities
(LD) are less accurate in predicting academic performance than normally
achieving (NA) adolescents and display a tendency to overestimate their level
of performance. However, no studies have been conducted investigating whether
this over estimation is specific to academic context or a phenomenon that
extends across domains. Ninety –four (46 LD, 48 NA) predicted their performance
on a spelling task and a ball throwing task. Results revealed group differences
in performance calibration across domains with adolescents with LD showing an
over estimation of ability on the spelling and ball throwing task, and NA
adolescents demonstrating more precise self                   appraisals. Additionally,
the accuracy of non-academic performance predictions remained stable with increasing
difficulty in the NA group where as the adolescents with LD demonstrated a
decreased in accurate performance prediction as the difficulty level increased.

Lovett
& Sparks (2010) found that increasing number of
students are being diagnosed as simultaneously gifted and having a Learning
Disability, although the identification procedures and characteristics of these
students are method of continuing debate. In this study, post secondary
students with Learning Disability diagnosis were grouped according to their IQ
scores, and the groups’ cognitive and achievement characteristics were
explored, with special attention to the proportions of each group that would
meet various objective criteria for Learning Disability diagnosis. Many
students in each group failed to meet any of the criteria although higher IQ
students were more likely to meet most of the criteria. In addition, the higher
IQ group exhibited higher achievement scores than did the lower IQ group,
although the achievement gaps were much smaller than the IQ differences.

Carlson
(2005) reported that there is significant difference
between learning disability and Learning difficulty; an individual with
learning difficulty can learn using conventional teaching techniques while an
individual with learning disability requires specialized interventions which
depend on the type of disability. Learning Disabilities can result from injury;
it can be hereditary and it can come in many forms.

Mathew
(2000) in her study on the effectiveness of self
instructional materials and modern instructional strategies in minimizing
learning disabilities of students in secondary school found that the self
instructional materials focused programmed learning and supervised learning
module and the modern method of guided inductive inquiry model are better than
the traditional lecture demonstration method in the achievement of Biology of
the L.D and non LD students. The study also found that extraneous variables
like achievement motivation, home learning facility, study habits and
socioeconomic status had no significant relationship with the achievement of
the experimental and control groups of LD and Non LD students.

Wisniewski
(1990) conducted a study to assess the patterns of errors between
students with learning disability and those of their non-disabled peers. The
findings indicated that the students with learning disability had greater
difficulties in acquiring the concept of regrouping than their nondisabled peers.
They were also observed to make different pattern of errors.

Rima
(2011) investigated the prevalence of dyslexia in the UAE
among female students attending the UAE University during the academic year
2007-2008. The findings suggested that the prevalence of features consistent
with dyslexia is 17.6% among female Emirati University students, that they
experience these difficulties in both English and Arabic, and that they tend to
choose courses that are more job oriented.

Cawthon
and Cole (2010) studied the postsecondary students’
perspectives who have LD on accommodations, access and obstacles, available
services, and self-advocacy strategies. Results indicated that this student
population might not have used the University resources to the extent that they
were available, pointing towards a potential need for greater awareness of
campus resources.

Cantu
(2002) studied the higher education options for young
adults with LD. The study found that students are assisted by mentors who help
them determine their own realistic goals, discover which learning techniques
work best for them, enhances their abilities and explores their potential.
Students are provided with access to tutors, counselors and psychologists.
Students thus develop a strong sense of self-esteem, self awareness and
lifelong learning or work strategies. These institutions present a holistic approach
to learning in higher education and emphasize the “goodness of fit” with cognitive
strengths usually leading to employment or higher education for students with
LD.

Greenbaum,
Grahamand, and Scales (1995) reviewed various
studies investigating the outcomes for students with LD in higher education,
and overall, the results report that the graduation rate for people with LD was
only 30% compared to 50% for students without LD and a graduation rate of 37%
for students with LD from a college that provided highly coordinated support
services. Findings thus reveal that students with LD continue to experience
difficulties into their postsecondary education years, although ultimately,
many do graduate

Chanock
et al (2010), in search of a simple assessment
instrument for identifying dyslexia for university students, trialed an alternative
instrument based on the York Adult Assessment developed in the UK. The aim was
to enable university staff in disabilities and academic skills units to
identify students with dyslexia quickly, easily and at no cost to the student
and to recommend a limited range of appropriate accommodations based on the
result. The trial produced significant group effects, but unacceptable false
negatives; the instrument was recommended. Therefore, there is the need for
reliable alternative instruments.

Kerka
(2002) analyzed the special challenges for people with LD
with regard to the process of career development. Research on high school and
college students with LD shows that a multifaceted career development program
is needed. Many lacked clear understanding of their disability and its impact
on career choices and ability to perform a job; many youth with LD had
unrealistic or no career ambitions; and a large number were not actively
engaged in career development and believed they had little control over career
decision making. A model for career success of adults with LD is comprised of these
seven factors: internal decisions (powerful desire to succeed, clear sense of
goal orientation, reframing the LD experience) and external manifestations
(persistence, goodness of fit, learned creativity, social network providing
support). Practices to assist persons with LD to gain and maintain employment
are accurate self-knowledge; world of-work knowledge; self-efficacy
enhancement; self-advocacy skills; job search skills; and development of
personal qualities.

Sharma,
Forlin, and Loreman (2008), assessed the impact of training
teachers regarding the education of students with disabilities and the effect
of that training on their attitudes and concerns. The results of their study
indicate that a significant change took place in all participants’ attitudes
regarding inclusion, except for the participants from Singapore. It indicated
that the teachers felt inadequately prepared to actually implement inclusion,
despite their support for the practice. Lastly, the study indicated that a significant
change was not present in their personal attitudes towards people with disabilities
in general.

Jung
et al (2007) conducted a study on attitudes of teachers
and pre-services teachers towards the integration of children with special
needs into regular schools in the UAE. Their studies indicated concerns such as
teachers’ time taken away from the rest of the students, class size, lack of
training and resources and those teachers are not prepared to meet the needs of
students with significant disabilities. The studies concluded serious
recommendations for future practice focusing on initial teacher education.

Goodrich
and Ramsey (2013) examined the attitudinal differences
between students having LD and physical disabilities. Finding revealed that
people with physical disabilities had a greater feeling of exclusion, pride and
social activism, whereas people with LD had a greater tendency to value
treatment assistance from doctors. Attitudes of people with physical
disabilities were different from those with LD, a distinction that requires
understanding, acknowledgement, sensitivity and appropriate interaction.

Tee
and Cowen (2012) conducted a study on supporting
students with disabilities and promoting understanding amongst mentors in
practice. The researchers concluded that implementing reasonable adjustments in
practice requires a close working partnership between higher education
institutions and mentors who appreciate support in understanding the
development and application of coping strategies to overcome disabilities. Effective
preparation of mentors is essential to ensure that opportunities for disabled
students to succeed are maximized.

Barnard-Brak
and Lechtenberger (2010) investigated the accommodation strategies
of college students with disabilities. College students with disabilities
develop and utilize strategies to facilitate their learning experiences due to
their unique academic needs. The study revealed three underlying themes common
to the accommodation seeking strategies of the participants who were academically
successful college students with disabilities. These themes include: scripting
disclosure of one’s disability, negotiating accommodations with faculty; and
downplaying one’s disability status.

Hallahan
& Kauffman (2003) argued that a disability may or may not
be perceived as a handicap, but depending on the circumstances; they explained
their position with an illustration, thus: the inability to walk is not a
handicap in learning to read, but it can be a handicap in getting into the
stands at a ball game. Furthermore, sometimes handicaps are needlessly imposed
on people with disabilities. They gave an example, thus: a student who cannot write
with a pen but can use a typewriter or word processor would be needlessly handicapped
without such equipment.

 Berry (2009) argued that all
persons are capable of growth and development, hence, should be given
opportunities to excel. Students with developmental and learning disabilities
receive accommodation(s) based on documentation of their disability. Such students
requesting accommodation(s) are responsible for initiating services by
providing the College/University Disability Services Office established in all
American institutions of higher learning for the purpose of handling
appropriate disability support service documentation which should be prepared
by a physician, psychologist, and psychiatrist, etc. The documentation should
include information about how the student’s disability will affect his/her ability
to equally access the educational opportunities, programs, and activities at college/university

 Kelly (2010) identified some
of the more common learning disabilities to include dyslexia, expressive
language disorder, reading processing disability, and attention deficit
disorder. Ideally, the students will self-identify and contact the
institution’s disability services office so the instructor will know what accommodations
are required, but not all students are forthcoming about letting others know about
their learning disabilities,

Teachability
v (2002) that most of the physical disabled students
experienced barriers to accessing their education relating to the physical
environment or teaching and learning (or both) at some point during their studies.
In addition, the institution and course choice of some students was affected by
physical access issues

Riddell
et al., (2002) study revealed the evident that Higher
Education Institutions (HEIs) increasingly encourage and welcome international
students’ participation in higher learning. However, what is not evident is the
ways in which these opportunities have been open to disabled students
specifically physical disables, and how many have chosen to travel and live
abroad countries such as UK.

 Field, (2003) showed that western
educational structure itself is said to reproduce and disrupt existing social
inequalities. The underlying selection procedures of this system, based on
ability and class membership have created and sustained inequalities.
Therefore, it could be safely argued that conventional learning and teaching has
been geared towards serving the needs of those students perceived to be
‘normal’ in a given time and culture but not actually the group known as
disabled specifically physical disabled students

Barnes,
C. (1991) in his study says that Britain exposed that
physical disabled students who manage to enter higher education often face
various discriminatory social and environmental practices during their study
period and there is still much work to do in the British higher learning
sector. When disabled students enter higher learning, they take up a unique
opportunity to develop both academically and socially, and more importantly
feel empowered. Yet, the empowering potential of higher learning education may be
difficult for disabled students to achieve. This is particularly the case for
disabled international students, who also have to contend with additional
cultural, linguistic and funding difficulties in their English higher learning
institutions.

Howell
(2000) study on disabled students and higher learning
revealed that although the schooling system has the potential to support
greater participation by persons with disabilities in higher education,
barriers still remain. Traditional attitudes and stereotyping of the abilities
of learners still lead to exclusion and reinforcement of the notion that learners
with disabilities particularly physical disables do not have a future in higher
education. Barriers are exacerbated by inequalities inherent in the higher
education system. This includes the ways in which higher education institutions
are structured and function, dominant attitudes that inform and shape the
practices of such higher education institutions as well as the role that higher
education plays within society as a whole.

McLean
et al (2003) stated that whilst facilities and
assistive devices play an important role in supporting students with
disabilities and have received much attention from higher educational
institutions, limited attention has been paid to the extent to which teaching
and learning processes marginalize or exclude learners/students specifically
with disabilities. A lack of curricula flexibility and a lack of inclusive
teaching and learning methodologies remain important barriers within higher education
that must be further interrogated.

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