Gastritis (CDC, 2016; Elliot, 2007). Education about preventive measures

is a GI disorder in in which there is an inflammation of lining of the stomach
making it to produce less acid, less enzymes, and less mucus needed to protect
the stomach lining. Gastritis can be acute or chronic, but it can also be
erosive or nonerosive. The most common causes of gastritis include H. pylori, infection, damage to the lining
of the stomach due to usage of NSAIDS, alcohol, cocaine, radiation, stress
caused by traumatic injuries (CDC & NIH,  2016).  Also, an autoimmune
response can also be one of main causes of gastritis. People with gastritis usually
present with symptoms of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen. Also, other symptoms
may include nausea and vomiting. Sometimes, some people may have Signs and
symptoms of bleeding in the stomach including difficulty breathing, dizziness, hematemesis,
black, tarry stools, hematochezia, weakness, and paleness. When gastritis is
not treated appropriately, some complications can occur due to chronic
gastritis, such as peptic ulcers, anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anemia(CDC
& NIH, 2016).

gastritis can be done based on a good medical history, physical exam, upper
endoscopy along other tests such as upper GI series, blood tests, stool test
for H pylori and blood, and urea breath test to help detect H. pylori infection. Once
gastritis is detected, there are many measures and treatments that a health
care provider can use. First, it is suggested to treat the underlying cause
first, and decrease the amount of acid in the stomach by prescribing medications
like antacids, H2 blockers and PPI to help curing of the stomach lining (CDC,
2016; Elliot, 2007).
Education about preventive measures can also important factors in treatment.
For instance, health care providers can advise people to help preventing the
infection by washing their hands with soap and water before eating or after
using bathroom, eat food are washed well and well cooked, and clean drinking
water from safe source (CDC & NIH, 2016).

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Whereas, gastroenteritis, as another GI system disorder,
is considered as an inflammation of the lining of the intestines that is often caused
by either a virus, bacteria or parasites. The most common causes of viral
gastroenteritis are norovirus and rotavirus
infections that can be spread
through contaminated food and water and contact with an infected person. People
who are more prone to gastroenteritis are children in daycare, military and
traveler persons, and people with weak immune system. Symptoms of
gastroenteritis often include diarrhea, abdominal pain,
vomiting, headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and chills. Other symptoms are diarrhea,
poor feeding in infants, extreme sweating, damp skin, muscle pain or joint
stiffness (CDC, 2016; Elliot, 2007). People with gastritis may become
dehydrated rapidly due to vomiting and diarrhea. Therefore, signs of
dehydration are important factors in physical exam. Nevertheless, people
usually recover from gastroenteritis with no treatment. Diagnosing of
gastroenteritis can be made based on medical history and physical examination.
One of the most important treatment in gastroenteritis is to keep the patients
dehydrated. the replacement of fluids and electrolytes that are lost due to
diarrhea and vomiting in gastroenteritis is the most vital factor when treating
gastroenteritis (CDC, 2016; Elliot, 2007). Antibiotics are usually not advised
since the disease is mostly caused by virus. Antiemetics are
often not recommended because the vomiting related to gastroenteritis disorder
is usually self-limited, and giving an antiemetic such as Zofran can increase
the possibility of dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, pulmonary aspiration, IV
hydration or hospitalization.

 Also, further
preventions such as proper hygiene by washing hands frequently before and
after, eat washed and well coked food are as well important. According to research
studies, the best prevention is frequent hand washing (CDC,
2016; Elliot, 2007).



Finally, cholecystitis is
another GI disease, is
caused due to inflammation of the gallbladder, which may become a serious
condition later. There are two main causes of cholecystitis: calculous
cholecystitis and acalculous cholecystitis. Calculous cholecystitis, the most
common but less serious, often develops when the cystic duct is blocked by a
gallstone or a biliary sludge, which is a mix of bile and cholesterol crystals
and salt (Huffman & Schenker, 2010). Once the cystic duct is blocked,
there is a building up of that biliary sludge in the gallbladder causing an
increase in pressure and causing also the inflammation of the gallbladder.
However, acalculous cholecystitis, which is less seen but have more serious
effect, occurs because of an infection or injury that damages the gallbladder.
Common diseases causing acalculous cholecystitis are burns, sepsis, severe
malnutrition, AIDS, major damage associated with a surgery (Huffman & Schenker, 2010).

People with cholecystitis often
present with signs and symptoms of upper right quadrant sudden sharp pain radiating
to right shoulder that can be constant or non-constant,  abdomen tenderness, breathing difficulty, fever,
nausea and vomiting, perspiration, diminished of appetite, and jaundice. History
and physical along physical examination are important aspects in helping to
diagnosing cholecystitis. Also, some tests that should be considered are blood
tests ERS and CRP, an ultrasound of abdomen to check for stone, X-ray, Ct scan
or MRI to examine the gallbladder (Huffman
& Schenker, 2010).
As compare to the above GI disorders, people who are diagnosed with cholecystitis
should be treated in a hospital setting. Treatments are as followed: keep
patient NPO to help straining off the gallbladder, give IV fluids to prevent
dehydration, pain medication. If an infection is suspected, it is advised that
antibiotics should be administered. However, sometimes those treatments may not
be sufficient, and there is a need for surgery, like the removal of the
gallbladder to prevent complications. Surgery can be done in two ways: laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy. Cholecystitis can be prevented by adopting
a healthy and balanced diet with low cholesterol food to prevent gallstones
formation, but also avoiding a low calorie and rapid weight loss (Huffman & Schenker, 2010).



Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention. Norovirus Accessed 4/7/2016.

Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Viral Gastroenteritis Accessed  


Elliott EJ. Acute
gastroenteritis in children. BMJ. 2007;334(7583):35–40.

Huffman, Jason L. & Schenker,
Steven (2010). Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Review.

        Journal of Clinical
Gastroenterology and hepatology, Volume
8, Issue 1, Pages 15–22.


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