Gastritisis a GI disorder in in which there is an inflammation of lining of the stomachmaking it to produce less acid, less enzymes, and less mucus needed to protectthe stomach lining. Gastritis can be acute or chronic, but it can also beerosive or nonerosive. The most common causes of gastritis include H. pylori, infection, damage to the liningof the stomach due to usage of NSAIDS, alcohol, cocaine, radiation, stresscaused by traumatic injuries (CDC & NIH, 2016). Also, an autoimmuneresponse can also be one of main causes of gastritis.
People with gastritis usuallypresent with symptoms of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen. Also, other symptomsmay include nausea and vomiting. Sometimes, some people may have Signs andsymptoms of bleeding in the stomach including difficulty breathing, dizziness, hematemesis,black, tarry stools, hematochezia, weakness, and paleness. When gastritis isnot treated appropriately, some complications can occur due to chronicgastritis, such as peptic ulcers, anemia, vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anemia(CDC& NIH, 2016). Diagnosinggastritis can be done based on a good medical history, physical exam, upperendoscopy along other tests such as upper GI series, blood tests, stool testfor H pylori and blood, and urea breath test to help detect H. pylori infection. Oncegastritis is detected, there are many measures and treatments that a healthcare provider can use.
First, it is suggested to treat the underlying causefirst, and decrease the amount of acid in the stomach by prescribing medicationslike antacids, H2 blockers and PPI to help curing of the stomach lining (CDC,2016; Elliot, 2007).Education about preventive measures can also important factors in treatment.For instance, health care providers can advise people to help preventing theinfection by washing their hands with soap and water before eating or afterusing bathroom, eat food are washed well and well cooked, and clean drinkingwater from safe source (CDC & NIH, 2016).GastroenteritisWhereas, gastroenteritis, as another GI system disorder,is considered as an inflammation of the lining of the intestines that is often causedby either a virus, bacteria or parasites. The most common causes of viralgastroenteritis are norovirus and rotavirusinfections that can be spreadthrough contaminated food and water and contact with an infected person. Peoplewho are more prone to gastroenteritis are children in daycare, military andtraveler persons, and people with weak immune system. Symptoms ofgastroenteritis often include diarrhea, abdominal pain,vomiting, headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and chills.
Other symptoms are diarrhea,poor feeding in infants, extreme sweating, damp skin, muscle pain or jointstiffness (CDC, 2016; Elliot, 2007). People with gastritis may becomedehydrated rapidly due to vomiting and diarrhea. Therefore, signs ofdehydration are important factors in physical exam. Nevertheless, peopleusually recover from gastroenteritis with no treatment. Diagnosing ofgastroenteritis can be made based on medical history and physical examination.One of the most important treatment in gastroenteritis is to keep the patientsdehydrated. the replacement of fluids and electrolytes that are lost due todiarrhea and vomiting in gastroenteritis is the most vital factor when treatinggastroenteritis (CDC, 2016; Elliot, 2007).
Antibiotics are usually not advisedsince the disease is mostly caused by virus. Antiemetics areoften not recommended because the vomiting related to gastroenteritis disorderis usually self-limited, and giving an antiemetic such as Zofran can increasethe possibility of dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, pulmonary aspiration, IVhydration or hospitalization. Also, furtherpreventions such as proper hygiene by washing hands frequently before andafter, eat washed and well coked food are as well important. According to researchstudies, the best prevention is frequent hand washing (CDC,2016; Elliot, 2007). CholecystitisFinally, cholecystitis isanother GI disease, iscaused due to inflammation of the gallbladder, which may become a seriouscondition later. There are two main causes of cholecystitis: calculouscholecystitis and acalculous cholecystitis. Calculous cholecystitis, the mostcommon but less serious, often develops when the cystic duct is blocked by agallstone or a biliary sludge, which is a mix of bile and cholesterol crystalsand salt (Huffman & Schenker, 2010).
Once the cystic duct is blocked,there is a building up of that biliary sludge in the gallbladder causing anincrease in pressure and causing also the inflammation of the gallbladder.However, acalculous cholecystitis, which is less seen but have more seriouseffect, occurs because of an infection or injury that damages the gallbladder.Common diseases causing acalculous cholecystitis are burns, sepsis, severemalnutrition, AIDS, major damage associated with a surgery (Huffman & Schenker, 2010).People with cholecystitis oftenpresent with signs and symptoms of upper right quadrant sudden sharp pain radiatingto right shoulder that can be constant or non-constant, abdomen tenderness, breathing difficulty, fever,nausea and vomiting, perspiration, diminished of appetite, and jaundice. Historyand physical along physical examination are important aspects in helping todiagnosing cholecystitis.
Also, some tests that should be considered are bloodtests ERS and CRP, an ultrasound of abdomen to check for stone, X-ray, Ct scanor MRI to examine the gallbladder (Huffman& Schenker, 2010).As compare to the above GI disorders, people who are diagnosed with cholecystitisshould be treated in a hospital setting. Treatments are as followed: keeppatient NPO to help straining off the gallbladder, give IV fluids to preventdehydration, pain medication. If an infection is suspected, it is advised thatantibiotics should be administered. However, sometimes those treatments may notbe sufficient, and there is a need for surgery, like the removal of thegallbladder to prevent complications.
Surgery can be done in two ways: laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy. Cholecystitis can be prevented by adoptinga healthy and balanced diet with low cholesterol food to prevent gallstonesformation, but also avoiding a low calorie and rapid weight loss (Huffman & Schenker, 2010). ReferencesCenters forDisease Control and Prevention. Norovirus Accessed 4/7/2016.NationalInstitute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Viral Gastroenteritis Accessed 2016Elliott EJ.
Acutegastroenteritis in children. BMJ. 2007;334(7583):35–40.Huffman, Jason L.
& Schenker,Steven (2010). Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Review. Journal of ClinicalGastroenterology and hepatology, Volume8, Issue 1, Pages 15–22.