1. the soil structure and decreasing water holding capacity.

Issues and background

Oil pipe leakage in Iraq

In 2006, in Iraq of pollution with crude oil have
the total amount of oil spilled is 565,149 m³ and the quantities of liquid and
dry gas leaked were 3560 tons as a result of 113 sabotage accidents of the
pipeline in 7 provinces. Most of the incidents were in Baghdad, Kirkuk,
Salahuddin, and Basra. On the other hand, fire accidents are continual in an
average of 20 days during 2006 and mostly in January, August and
September.  The contaminated soil with crude
oil looks like black film or oil droplets splashing from the pipes that have
been blown up. The percentages of hydrocarbon compounds in soil samples in
light polluted soil were 0.02-0.08% and 0.49-13.2% in highly polluted soils.
These percentages decreased with the depth of soil (Ghazi, M.M. and Aqeel, R.L., 2014)


Impact due to pipe leakage

Soil fertility


The toxicity of the
hydrocarbon components that can affect the soil properties and plant growth can
be identified as follows:


i. Lack of oxygen
in soil caused by high concentrations of hydrocarbon gases and carbon dioxide
that will affect biological processes of plant roots and microorganisms. This
will result in the infertile soil.


ii. The heavy
hydrocarbon blocks soil pores and consequently decreasing the permeability or
porosity and water movement, and increase the difficulty of plant’s roots
penetration. The plant can’t grow in this particular polluted soil.


iii. Spoilt the
soil structure and decreasing water holding capacity. Thus the soil dry and are
not suitable for living organism. Lack of water will result to die as water are
an important component in all living organism.


iv. The nutrients
that should be used by plants due to element competition and pH variation will
be depleted. In Iraq, an experimental study was conducted on plates of clay
soil that contaminated with kerosene and gas oil (5% contamination), refer
Al-Azaawi (Al-Azaawi, D. F. 2000). The results showed that these two materials
have adversely affected the production of yellow corn. In the experiment, it
was found that the increase of the production is related to the decomposition
rate of the oil products, and the decreasing of the infiltration rate to the
decreasing of the pollution concentration. Meanwhile, there was no variation in
the pH and electrical conductivity of polluted soils. (Al-Khafaji, A.A., Askar,
S.R., and Kasal, S.M., 1986; Ellis, R., and Adams, R.S., 1961). Thus proving
that this problem will give some impact in the future by decrease the soil


Water source

The hazardous character of oil mostly due to its
toxicity and compounds that do not degrade or chemically breaks up easily. Some
of them are circling into the food chain and accumulates in living organisms
while others are very complicated and not easily transmitted and have low
toxicity. However, the presence of oil on the surface affects the seed
germination rate and water absorption by the plant.  There are a big number of chemical compounds
used in the petroleum industry such as the additives in the drilling process,
oil refining and which is used in the removal of fat and deadly lichens, fungi
and so on. Their movement direction must be traced because most of the compound
have harmful effects and negative impact on the environment, especially on
agricultural production. Crude oil and the associated materials contain large
amounts of salt, such as sodium chloride and calcium chloride together with the
materials that are added during drilling operations. These salts can
contaminate the soil during leakage or spillage.  The clay waste resulting from drilling
operations can also pollute the environment as it contains heavy metals. These
metals are not easily decomposed by nature and can transport to long distance
by water. Most of these heavy metals are harmful to humans through drinking
water or food, and their effect can be a cumulative and toxic (Al-Khafaji, A.A,
1994; Al-Omar, M.A., 2001; Kiely, G., 1996).

The concord to Boffey and Rankin (2017)[1], is the

Political Directive of the EU for negotiations of Brexit

crucial matter deals with the prospect of communicating the three significant
entities of an agreement of Brexit – legal separatism, political progress,
imminent association – further in similarity or, put in diverse terms, the degree
to which negotiations regarding political progress and upcoming finance and
trade agreement provisions can be meaningfully presented to previous levels of
cooperative discussions. Article 50 clarifies its referential citation to
assessing the context for its imminent association and, to some degree
judiciously, some contend in favour of any conduit or political progress to a
specific end point can merely be envisioned provided some simplicity regarding
what that precise end goal will seem to be. Questions were communicated in
regards of whether the negotiation stances of the Commission were adequately
insightful of this and, more commonly, concerning the pragmatism of its
directive provided an equitably short timeframe of two years of prospect for
accomplishing a group of inclusive treaties. This elevated the contradictory
outlook in terms of whether it could be conceivable for Britain to convey the
EC to CJEU if its own directive was not considered in accordance with the
provisional terms of the EU treaty. Provided the dissents of the British
government toward CJEU’s imminent contribution in British matters, nonetheless,
this seems to be executively difficult. One other challenge in the procedure of
diplomatic communications, in concord to Boffey and Rankin (2017)1,
is the fundamental matter regarding the Commission’s directive that is
discussed through the European Council. Any perspectives on its suitability and
the adaptability of its provisional terms are therefore to be coordinated at
the EU-27’s administrations without its Commission and the Commission’s
principal arbitrator Barnier by means of EU representatives bring attention by

an accompanying obstacle to discussing the intertwining phases associated with
withdrawal correspondingly are the crucial differences amongst their
fulfillment’s provisions and decisive endorsement. Whereas concluding a divorce
contract of Article 50, Barnard (2017: pp. S5-S7)2
explains, will simply involve a competent seventy-two percent mainstream of
remaining affiliated nations to EU (twenty EU nations) that signify no less
than sixty-five percent of the residents of the EU-27, an agreement on the
potential association among Britain and the EU as representing a third nation
officially institutes a purported diverse treaty, as indicated in TFEU’s
Articles 207, 217, and 218. Article 218 is the last one then possibly transforming
as persistent in governmental and social media editorials as currently Article
50 is. A diverse treaty requires not just the twenty-seven continuing EU member
states’ consistent approval and the European Parliament’s authorization;
nonetheless, also the participation of a greater amount of domestic and
provincial legislatures (presently 38 of them). British Prime Minister Theresa
May apparently approved of Britain’s position as representing a third state and
the requirement of a diverse treaty in her given speech in Florence, signifying
such a treaty regarding the potential bond of amicability will entail the
suitable official authorization, which would be time-consuming.

Financial & Additional Characteristics

allegedly piercing question of Britain’s economic obligations and probable
pledges toward the EU appears to be difficult to loosen from broader matters;
for example, contemporary and potential finance and trading prospects,
protocols, expenses, and much more. The emphasis on solid, perceptible
quantities of economic liabilities, yet without question important and
deserving of evaluation and controversy, could therefore cover more extensive crucial
disputes regarding some of the additionally elusive characteristics of Britain’s
legal separation and renewed affiliation with the EU. Cf.
LSE (2017)3
states that whereas the cost labels
applied to financial liabilities or potential investment funds from superseded
EU contribution charges are openly assessable and evident, the potential ‘expenses
of zero-contract’ are more difficult to identify and refer to with assurance in
legal-political arguments (not the smallest amount of provided current disbelief
regarding the precision of predictions or also the quality of professional decision-making

Genuine records of anticipated
installments to be paid deviate significantly in civic disputes and transversely
over political spheres on both margins of the network. Although Britain
presently seems to be prepared to provide ten billion pounds each year amidst a
potential evolutionary timeframe of two years, in accord with Darvas et al.
(2017)4, numerous
UK residents are still inquisitive regarding under what conditions to make a
payment. They bring attention to the circumstance that partnership establishments
depend on the belief that affiliates are simply required to make a payment within
that particular establishment for as any span of time as they become integrated
into it. In parallel, the budgets of members of partnership establishments, for
instance, should similarly be reserved on a ‘payment-completed-as-progressing’
foundation only.

regardless of the matter of whether Britain should make a payment, if any, is
reserved, which seems to be the situation following the speech delivered at
Florence, much space for disagreement in terms of the aggregate of all expenses
stays. In comparison to British Prime Minister Theresa May’s proposal of twenty
billion pounds, officials have assessed the obligations to total up to no more
than sixty billion pounds (keeping apart additionally complicated mathematic
practices; for example, counterbalancing the legal separation bill that is
counter to the UK’s part in the economic possessions of the EU) (Barker, 2017:
pp. 1-5)5.
Unsettled interrogations comprise of Britain’s labelled
assets and value share within the European Investment Bank (EIB) (House of
Lords, 2017: pp. 24-28). It could be authorized for regaining when it terminates
to be an affiliate of the EU. Additionally, the EU and the UK could wish to
concur on the sustained contribution of Britain in various cooperative ventures;
for example, Erasmus is also available to European nations that are not members
of the EU (Begg, 2017 b)6. In
persuasive vernacular, the remaining economic obligations which will eventually
be approved upon good terms will possibly be in between the dual polar
opposites of the aforementioned range.


In conclusion, subsidiary
negotiations that at initial view seem to be being deviations from the
perfectly confined issue of economic liabilities in reality demonstrate that it
can never be restricted within limited legal queries. The great interlinkage of
the various characteristics of Brexit discussions are a key issue within the congested
system in the development. Therefore, a sporadic idea upon which the common
public would accept is that if matters are interlinked and are subject to be discussed
under an apparently busy timetable, a well-ordered dissection and systematization
of topics cannot constantly be achievable, and the ordering of urgencies
requiring satisfactory development prior to any other issue is formally negotiated
may be a challenging route to seek at initiation (Waibel, 2017)7. Aside
from the mentioned scenario, nevertheless, development in the extremely practical
approach to settle the UK’s Brexit bills continues to be unmanageable.


1 Daniel Boffey and Jennifer Rankin, ‘Brussels Trip By PM Fails To
Unblock Stalemate As Both Sides Harden Stance’ The Guardian (2017)

accessed 14 December 2017.

2 Catherine Barnard, Law And Brexit (Oxford University Press 2017)

accessed 10 December 2017.

3 London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), ‘Report
Outlines Costs Of No Brexit Deal’ (London School of Economics and Political
Science, 2017)
accessed 29 December 2017.

4 Konstantinos Darvas and Inês Raposo, Divorce Settlement Or Leaving
The Club? A Breakdown Of The Brexit Bill (Bruegel – Corvinus University
accessed 20 December 2017.

5 Alex Barker, The €60 Billion Brexit Bill: How To Disentangle Britain
From The EU Budget (Centre for European Reform (CER) 2017)

accessed 7 December 2017.

6 Iain Begg, ‘The Gaffe That Keeps On Taking: How To Break The Deadlock
Over Britain’s EU Divorce Bill’

accessed 16 December 2017.

7 Michael Waibel, ‘The Brexit Bill And The Law Of Treaties’

accessed 31 December 2017.

Agile can speak and no one can interrupt them


An lively thoughts, quicker choices, properly coordination


How to be?

                        Agile is not associated with how agile you are along with your
movements, it is a manner that facilitates human beings paintings collectively
on projects. it can be difficult to persuade people you figure with to move to
an Agile model, in particular in the event that they’ve been running with old
school approaches or maybe without a method.


Agile makes up plenty of practices and may be
a bit overwhelming to a beginner, so breaking it up into these five approaches
must be easier for someone new to swallow. It must additionally be a sluggish
implementation and be eased in to at your studio.


Stand up meetings


Step one to being greater Agile is by adding rise up conferences.
sometimes rise up meetings are referred to as “scrums”. A rise up
must take area each day and have to always cowl those 3 things, and most
effective these things:


1.         What I did the previous


2.         What i am doing today


3.         What my roadblocks are


you will want this assembly to be the same time every day, even though
someone must be overdue or leave out. 
also, have a speaking token, which means that simplest the character
protecting the token (it could be anything – like a toy or wand) can speak and
no one can interrupt them and all the attention is at the speaker.


2. Retrospectives


These conferences must take vicinity roughly each two
weeks at the stop of the dash. A dash is one to four weeks of your development
cycle and can be made up of labor items or capabilities that you’re operating
towards to your initiatives.


A Retrospective will have three unique talking factors
for everybody, primarily based around those questions:


1.         What
things ought to I preserve doing?


2.         What
things need to I prevent doing?


3.         What
matters need to I begin doing?


Quality & prioritizing



?          Must – requirements that must be
covered to be taken into consideration a          achievement


?          should – necessities that ought to be


?          ought to – necessities could be covered
if time and assets are to be had


?          may not – requirements that won’t be
included consistent with stakeholder.


Keep roles in the loop


Using R. A. C. I. charts permit you to ensure which you’re preserving
every person that needs to be worried inside the loop of your improvement.


?          responsible – the person that’s genuinely accountable for doing the
challenge in your development cycle.


?          accountable – the individual that has remaining possession and
making the very last selection or a undertaking.


?          Consulted – a person
who desires to be consulted before a selection is made.


?          knowledgeable – a person who needs to be informed once a choice has
been made.


Key takeaways


the end of her talk, Goh-Livorness gave three main takeaways that can help you
get more Agile and get this process in place.



1.         conferences
completed well can assist to enhance conversation on your group.


2.         Be
aware of all roles, no longer simply your personal.


3.         A
bodily planning wall can create extra assignment visibility.


Common pitfalls to avoid

There are a few matters you may need
to avoid when you’re working Agile. stay clean of communique silos by way of
retaining distinctive disciplines separate due to the fact you’ll simplest use
the language you already know the humans around you’ll apprehend. it’s easy to
arrange where people are sitting. The stand united states will additionally
help with human beings running collectively getting greater comfy with every
other.do not estimate work with the aid of hours whilst assigning time to
paintings items because you will fall right into a trap of a small scope.ensure
to report roadblocks even though it is tough to rise up in the front of anyone
to say what you might be suffering with or cannot deliver it in time. however
reporting early on is extra time powerful and less pricey


PESTLE John Lewis increase sales and profit as well.

PESTLE analysis is used to examine the macro-environment the company exists in. It is a helpful tool used to understand the market growth or decline, current position of the organisation and more. In addition, it is used to evaluate certain factors that the company operates in such as: political Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (Contributor, 2011).The political factors include government regulations and laws such as employment laws and tax policy. Economic factors affect the purchasing power of a company since it plays a vital role when a company decides their financial decisions, in particular and also affects the cost capital. These factors include interest rates, economic growth as well as inflation. Social factors affect customer’s needs, population growth, potential market size such as John Lewis’s goods, fashion and age demographics. Technological factors include innovation and change of technology and its impact on the company. Environmental factors include the weather and climate change and its impact on certain tasks that require a specific climate in order to be undertaken. Last but not least, legal factors include laws related to discrimination, employment and health and safety, these affect John Lewis in terms of their costs and the demand on their products (Contributor, 2011)PoliticalThe government is thinking of decreasing the corporation tax from 30% to 28%, which will help John Lewis increase sales  and profit as well. Immediately after the brexit vote, political uncertainty lead to a decrease in consumer confidence regarding spending. In the mid-term, goods purchased overseas will become more expensive. This means that the organisation would need to decide whether or not to increase their prices.  However, in the long term considerations for the organisation would be their reliance on any non-UK workers and potential opportunities. An exit from the EU means the UK would be able to follow any tax system anticipated with a higher level of confidence (Impact of Brexit on Retail sector, 2016).EconomicWhen the UK is facing a recession, there will be sensitive to changes regarding the interest rates. Over the two decades globalization has been the main factor in the business life and became a contested debate. Globalization results in increased competition. Competition includes products and services offered, cost and price, target market and more. Also, competition against other sectors of the retail has resulted in retails giving many incentives to customers, which would influence John Lewis since their prices have to be lowered most of the time and ensure they meet their customers expectations to keep up the sales and profit (How globalization affects business | Bookboon Blog, 2011).Socio-culturalConsumer’s preferences, taste and lifestyle is changing into a new market created by them due to the society being more materialistic. Therefore, John Lewis should consider introducing more high end brands and the latest fashion items to ensure they please their customers (Neville, 2013).TechnologicalFor retail industries such as John Lewis, internet shopping is very common, it directly influences the sales approach. The management of the company are constantly carrying out IT systems, which are accessed via secure servers. As a result, this will make customers browse more comfortably, leading to higher sales and profit.EnvironmentalThe renewable source of supplies that are used in production, mainly cotton and wool are both environmentally friendly. Threats are to do with legal penalty for livestock’s in terms of health and safety. Western companies have put a lot of emphasis on the role of big companies in reducing carbon footprint and increasing energy efficiency (Bream 2008). Almost every firm will have to prove they are reducing impact on the environment and when this is done, it will create customer loyalty and improve the company’s reputation.LegalNational legislation become stricter regarding health and safety to do with consumer rights and production of renewable sources used to make the clothing.

Knowledge Natural Sciences. Therefore the Knowledge Question that will

Knowledge is a truth that can be acquired through past experiences, education, opinions and facts. Different Areas of Knowledge requires different types of comprehension as well as the amount of comprehension that we need. Knowledge in Natural Sciences, for example, requires more expertise and skills rather than knowledge in Religion because natural sciences deals with aspects of the physical world which includes physics, chemistry and biology. These aspects require more precision as conversely many people (and scientists) talk about increasing confidence in one’s knowledge as a process of ‘proving things’ or finding “scientific proof”. This is not the case in religion, however, because for many people knowledge in religion relies greatly on faith. Religion is a particular system of faith and worship especially to superhuman controlling power such as a God or Gods. In this way most of the knowledge that people have on religion is inherited empirically and from ancient times that has been passed on to today. The essence of knowing too little may be fatal on Natural Sciences and the essence of knowing too much may be doubtful on Religion. This distinction is what leads me to explore the nature of “doubt” and confidence” in the acquiring of knowledge for the Areas of Knowledge Religion and Natural Sciences. Therefore the Knowledge Question that will guide my investigation forward will be; “To what extent does one’s knowledge of religion and natural sciences correlates with skepticism?”

A paradox is a statement that in first light may seem absurd or ludicrous and yet if investigated further might hide a latent truth. The key words “confidence” and “knowing little”, “knowledge” and “doubt” are contradictory terms that are used in this statement to create a paradox within the readers minds. I will take an example by highlighting the values that each of these Areas of Knowledge has on the human body. The human anatomy is a complex structure where organ systems are supported by cells, tissues and individual organs in order for a body to be fully functioning and alive. The knowledge we gain through natural sciences relies greatly on the importance of which each of these functions work so that as a whole, the body can exist in optimum condition. The inherent value of a body, as well as the knowledge we attain from these values, is different when seen from a religious perspective. In religion, the human body is seen not so much as a holistic system for us to function and live but it is more a symbol that sparks philosophical ideas and reflections. I have been born and raised as a Christian and arguably the most famous biblical reference is ‘The Last Supper’ in which Jesus Christ, son of God, offered his body as bread and his blood as wine; “And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, ‘Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me” (Luke 22:19). In christianity, Jesus bestowing his body as an offering for his disciples, symbolizes his sacrifice to repel the sins of humanity. This becomes a belief for every Christian that in the Communion Service, when we eat the bread that symbolizes the body of Jesus Christ, we also remember and deeply appreciate why He had to offer His body to be beaten and abused for our redemption and absolution. In this way, the offering of the body of Jesus as bread (which in turn is a popular allegory for daily food, “Give us today our daily bread” (Matthew 6:11)), signifies the importance of appreciating our blessings in being given a basic necessity for living as the people who has faith will believe that because of the sacrifices of Jesus, they are able to eat. This knowledge and values are attained by faith. It does not need solid evidences to acquire knowledge of religion as much as it does for natural sciences. So the paradox between the key words “confidence” and “knowing little” fits perfectly for the Area of Knowledge Religion. 

If said a person leans more towards the pursuit of knowledge in natural sciences they will have more doubts on their beliefs of religion. How was the world created? The catastrophic Big Bang? A holy hand painting the universe as if on canvas? This battle persists till today because, as the ancient Greeks and Latins belive, the human nature rests on its necessity to begin thinking in order to abolish doubt. In the beginning of human knowledge, the ancient people have been dependent on trust as the main form of obtaining knowledge. It is usually a priest or a high teacher that would lecture the young from a book that is reserved only for them. The knowledge acquitted at the time is customarily about or relating to religion for through religion, children learned how to behave ethically and live their lives through this ethical and morally right way. But modern “doubt” does not work in that way. For the now generation “doubt” is the ground from where we begin our search for knowledge in the hopes of finding “certainty” of what things are and how they become that way. The beginning of time itself has contradictions. The Christian religion accounts on how “God created the world in six days and rested on the seventh” (Genesis 1:1). This knowledge has been passed on from the oldest of generations till today. When the high priest or teacher lectures young minds on this matter, they nail it to their brain and believe in it. It isn’t hard to take what a person says to you and say “with confidence” that you know plenty. But if a critical thinking person would go out of their way to rebel against that knowledge to seek out further understanding on the matter, they will find that perspectives on the beginning of time has a lot of branches and these branches stretches out beyond the horizon so that the more they understand, the more they will begin to feel like they have even more to understand. This creates doubt. And with doubt, knowledge is requested. It becomes a perfect loop as the more knowledge you gain, the more you doubt and the more you seek to reach that place of “certainty”. 

In natural sciences, the Big Bang theory is the most popular conspiracy on how the world came to be. A scholarly article written by Ram Brustein and Judy Kupferman’s with the title, ‘The Creation of the World – According to Science’ states that science grants a real possibility of approaching a definitive answer but “we still have no idea if an absolute truth can ever be found”. The millions and millions of researches of Quantum Universe, singularity/explosion, the hot Big Bang and the invisible dark matter do not satisfy enough knowledge for people to have a definitive truth. They cannot rest peacefully in the place of “certainty”. The knowledge is there, but they have more and more doubts and these gaps are hard to fill. As you search for your own answers, and you find out more, you suffer more on the doubts and on the questions that you have left unanswered. The visible matter of the universe is only 5%. The rest is invisible and are called “dark matters”. This surrounds the galaxies and the clusters. We know now that it is there. But we still can’t see it. How will you understand something that you cannot see? A person who believes blindly and has insurmountable faith in a knowledge will claim to know so much. But a person who asks questions will always find themselves with even more questions on top of the pile of unanswered questions. In this way, having little knowledge can increase confidence and having more knowledge can increase doubt. 

On a more personal account, I too have experienced the uneasy place of uncertainty when it comes to knowledge. As a young child everything seems quite certain because no advanced knowledge precedes my young mind. Religion has been taught to me since a very early age and I had no doubt beyond the fact that “After creating the earth, the sky, the seas and plants, God made birds and fish on the fifth day and animals and humans on the sixth day” (Genesis 1:27). As I matured and developed as a human being and enrolled in schools, the education system has allowed me to pursue more knowledge and by doing so, more doubts has crossed my mind. In the gaining of knowledge I find myself inquiring more on the things that I have just uncovered. For example, the pursuit in my knowledge of natural sciences as I study biology has got me thinking about why the hypothalamus works so perfectly to keep the body temperature in check, or on how the cells in our body have different functions just to be able to support the simplest functions of another tissue? The nature of our uncertainty lies not in the “what” and “how” of things because these things, as Rene Descartes states, are called simple facts. The nature of our uncertainty lies in the “to what extent” of the “howness” and the “whatness” of these simple facts could it be “simple”. In the light of my studies I’ve discovered Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and thought that maybe this would answer my doubt to how a human being’s body could have so many systems and yet function very holistically as a whole. Either way, I still have a lot of questions unanswered and through the process of acquiring the answers, knowledge is gained and when knowledge is gained, doubt arises and with doubt comes knowledge again. This perfect loop of learning and doubting is the nature that humans have inherited to achieve the safe haven of “certainty”.

Thus we may conclude that in some Areas of Knowledge, people become more confident by knowing little and in some knowing more increases doubt. Either way the nature of this paradoxical statement is that knowledge increases doubt increases knowledge because humans thrive for a truth in the things that they believe in. No matter if the knowledge you need is little or more, where there is doubt there comes learning. And when doubt is no longer present, the learning becomes static. 

OBJECTIVES deplorable. 31% of the population travels more than


        The objectives of the project are to develop assistive technologies for the rural environment in health care with the following services:

1.    Remote monitoring services for the people in the villages.  One of the important problems in rural India is the lack of health care centers.

2.    To improve the awareness of people towards healthcare.  Most of the people in villages do not care about the importance of frequent health checks which is one of the main important contribution to the number of health issues faced by them.

3.    On time emergency services to the people in the rural environment.  Lack of emergency services still remains one of the main reasons for primary health issues reaching its extreme.   

4.    Disease based predictive analysis for people in villages to increase the accuracy of diagnose given to the patients.


        Health is not everything but everything else is nothing without health.  Healthcare is the right of every individual but lack of quality infrastructure, dearth of qualified medical functionaries, and non-access to basic medicines and medical facilities thwarts its reach to 60% of population in India.  A majority of 700 million people lives in rural areas where the condition of medical facilities is deplorable.  31% of the population travels more than 30km to seek healthcare in rural India and 66% of rural Indians do not have the access to the critical medicines.  Though a lot of policies and programs are being run by the Government but the success and effectiveness of these programs is questionable due to the gaps in the implementation.  In rural India, where the number of Primary health care centers (PHCs) is limited, 8% of the centers do not have doctors or medical staff, 39% do not have lab technicians and 18% PHCs do not even have a pharmacist.  Information Technology (IT) is set to play a big role with IT applications being used for social-sector schemes on a large scale.  Some of the IT technologies which have key roles in enhancing the healthcare is the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, Data mining and Predictive Analytics.  These technologies helps in providing right medication to the patients, improving the medication efficiency, helps in providing preventive medicines.

        Providing communities with essential health care is no easy task.  The distribution of health care around the world is notoriously uneven.  Remote rural areas do not get their fair share of resources.  Attempts to attract healthcare professionals to work in rural areas to redress this imbalance have been only partially successful.  So, we need an alternative approach.  Drones are potentially a solution to this logistical problem.  Drones make it possible to deliver medicines to rural areas and have the ability to reach victims who require immediate medical attention within minutes, which in some cases could mean the difference between life and death.            

This proposal intends to exploit the IT technologies to diagnose and monitor patients remotely using wearable medical devices and smartphones, to provide on time emergency services to the people in the rural villages using drones and to avail predictive models on the data collected from the patients for a long-time welfare of the people. 



        All the related works that have been done by other researchers that are related to the above stated problem are as follows

·       In-home healthcare services based on the Internet-of-Things (IOT) have great business potential; but it is not affordable in rural India since the average amount a person can spend in rural India is 32 per day.  Instead of providing in-home healthcare services, this proposal aims at educating the social workers and local medical practitioners to make use of these IoT devices to make frequent assessment on the people’s health condition.  This approach may reduce the cost spent by the Government, people and it will provide various employment opportunities to the local people.


·       The current evolution of the traditional medical model toward the participatory medicine can be boosted by the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm involving sensors (environmental, wearable and implanted) spread inside domestic environments with the purpose to monitor the user’s health and activate remote assistance.  RF identification (RFID) technology is now mature to provide part of the IoT physical layer for the personal healthcare in smart environments through low-cost, energy-autonomous, and disposable sensors.  The disadvantage is that RFID technology covers only short area.


·       Another proposed method involves a health monitoring system comprises several sensors connected to a person and they communicate with a data aggregator and processing unit.  The data aggregator and processing unit may be a specialized device and p.c.  The aggregator unit has the responsibility of collecting each sensor data following strict sampling rate.  An ARM7LPC2148 microcontroller is used for aggregation.  Hospital computer is used as a processing unit for the health monitoring system.  The aggregator uses wired USB serial connection to communicate with the data processing unit.  Services will be provided to the users based on the data.  This system can receive valuable medical advice from the doctors for the patients and can set alarms or reminders for timely medications and appointments and graphic files.  The drawbacks include limitation in the classical databases, lack of global suggestion for the patient health, delayed responses for the given query, no automated alerting system, unable to handle the situation instantly and no personal connection between doctor and patient.  All these drawbacks has been overcome in our proposal.


·       Zipline, a California-based company started flying commercial drones from its distribution center in Muhanga, Rwanda, to nearly two dozen hospitals in the country.  Health workers, social workers or medical practitioners at remote clinics and villages can order supplies via text.  And Zipline promises to air drop the delivery in as soon as 15 minutes, cutting time on trips that once took hours to complete by car.  Currently, our country fails to facilitate drone services to improve medication in rural India.  This proposal would be a promising initiative to provide drone-based emergency services in rural India.  



        The overall architecture of the proposal can be picturised as

Fig 1: An overall Architecture

The proposed model, intend to use IOT based smart sensors to monitor patient’s health condition by measuring five important vital signs.  The sensors of use includes Heart Rate Sensor, ECG Sensor and Accelerometer.  The vital signs or health attributes include Heart Rate (HR), Respiration Rate (RR), Electro Cardio Gram (ECG), Dissolved  Oxygen (Sp02) and Blood Pressure (BP).  The data collected from the precedent sensors will get transferred to a mobile app using the Bluetooth technology.  The raw data gathered from the sensors will be converted into some meaningful information since all data is destined to have some value, even if not known at the time of collection.  The data is then stored on a server using the WIFI technology.  The private server of MIT, Anna University stores the details of the patient history, details of the doctor and many more useful information for this project.  Any abnormal conditions of the patient are detected from the vital signs measured using the sensors and an alert is sent to the doctors and care takers of the patient. 


Fig 2: Database Structure

A large amount of patient’s history stored in the server is further mined and analysed using suitable Data mining and Predictive modelling algorithms to improve the patient outcomes.  These algorithms can be utilized to efficiently manage rising-risk and at-risk populations, triage patients who need early intervention and reduce preventable hospitalizations.  The Predictive algorithms can forecast the future of a patient’s health with the help of clinical data and the medical knowledge integrated in the database.  Clustering of the patient’s data is also done to improve customization and diagnoses efficiency.

The data collected from the sensors and the data generated by the algorithms running on the server will be stored on a relational database in the server.  The relational database consists of a set of tables normalized to hold the information.  The database tables have been related to extract significant information.  The structure and the relationship among the database tables have been outlined in Fig 2.  The database structure is mutable as new sets of data is collected or generated.

This model also emphasize on providing emergency services to the patients.  The predictive algorithms running on the centralized server will generate primary alerts to the doctors and care takers when an abnormality has been predicted.  In addition, when the patient’s health condition becomes critical, a secondary alert will be generated to all the ambulance services near to the victim’s location.  The ambulance service which is prompt will carry on the patient to the nearby hospital.  This model also includes creating a third level of alert when the patient is desperate of some medicines.  This alert will be generated either by the social worker or the medical practitioners.  The drone from the hospital which is in proximity to the patient will deliver the prescribed medicines.  All these services will be automated with the help of current and scalable technologies.      

The major advantages of the proposed model is that it ensures frequent monitoring of the patient’s health, decreases the travelling done by patients, improves the information continuity, builds communication between patients and doctors to personalized health care to the people, instant services for the emergency and critical issues, large storage media for the health data of the patients, runs complex algorithms for predictive analytics and machine learning on the patient’s data to improve the diagnoses efficiency and the proposed model has a rich business model.

The proposed model portrays an affluent business model.  The sources of value includes the vital sign measurements, provision of on time alert and medicine services.  The key stack-holders of this model will be the village people, social workers, local medical practitioners, primary health care centres and public hospitals.  The business model has been picturized in the Fig 3.























                                         Fig 3: Business model of the proposal


The architecture of our proposal is picturized in Fig 1.  The first stage of implementation starts with the social workers or local medical practitioners conducting regular health checks.  The health assessment is carried out by measuring the vital parameters with the help of various sensors like Zephyr BioHarness3, Wrist Worn Blood Pressure Sensing Device and Nonin fingertip pulse Oximeter.  These sensors are used to measure Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate, ECG, Blood Pressure and SPO2 in order.  The measurements from the sensors are shared to a smart phone using a connecting technology.  The connecting technology used here is Bluetooth.  The measurements from the sensor are displayed on the smartphone using a mobile application designed as a part of the project.  The data from the mobile phones are stored in the server through Wireless communication.  The server is the part of the architecture which runs program to process data stored on it.  The processes carried on the server includes optimization of the vital parameters of the patients using Genetic algorithms, classification and personalization of the data of the patients through clustering.  The clustering is done based on the vital parameters using K-means algorithm.  Data mining and predictive modelling algorithms are also run on the server to improve the diagnoses efficiency in the future and to suggest primitive medicines during emergency situations.

                               Fig 4: An algorithm description of the model

The architecture also involves emergency services.  To provide emergency services, the algorithms manipulating the vital parameter measurement checks for any emergency.  If there is an emergency an alert message is generated in the form of voice message to the doctors associated with the patients and their care takers.  The patient is also provided the ambulance service in case the patient needs immediate hospitalization.  The algorithm programmed on the centralized server will find the ambulances in proximity to the patient’s location and gives an alert to all the located ambulances.  The mapping of ambulances is achieved using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Location services.  The mobile app used by the medical practitioners or the social workers to record the patient’s vital sign measurements will be connected to the centralized server.  The ambulance will also have a receiver device which will also be connected to GPS.  This helps the server in locating the ambulances which are adjacent to the patient’s location.  The ambulance which is prompt in responding will carry on the patient to the nearest hospital.  The drones will be programmed to deliver medicines to the ambulance or even to the patients directly in case of emergency alert by the medical practitioners or the social workers.  All the above services will be delivered by adopting shortest path or optimal path selection algorithm.  There are wide range of this path finding and search algorithms like Dijkstra’s algorithm, Bellman Ford’s algorithm, Floyd-Warshall’s algorithm, AStar algorithm and several other benchmark algorithms from which the one which suits the model and the environment will be adapted. Besides these path finding algorithms, this model also propels dynamic collision detection and greedy path selection algorithms to support the successful delivery of medicines during emergency situations.

The implementation of drone services in India has legal constraints.  Flying of drones without prior approval from the governmental authorities is illegal in India.  The reason behind this strict restriction by the Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is that the Unmanned Aviation (UA) operations would present problems to the regulator in terms of ensuring the safety of other users of airspace and persons on the ground.  The usage of drones came under scrutiny after the realization that the drones can be used for aerial attacks and may pose a great threat if not regulated.  This complication has to be solved by registering the drones with DGCA by following the stated guidelines.

The project will mainly use the Java programming language for mobile and server applications, server-side scripting languages like PHP, relational database language like MySQL and mark up languages for presentation.  The project also makes use of some of the important predictive analytical tools and data science packages.     





Completion Date



Project Community Discussion




Submission of Project Proposal




Project Material Acquisition




Develop and Enhance the IoT
Part of the proposal




Construct predictive models and
Machine learning algorithms on the
Data received from the sensors.




Extend the alert service with
Ambulance and drone services.




Enhancing the web and
Mobile applications




Testing the functionality of the




Draft Report




Community Discussion








Submit Final Report




Fig 5: Process Flow Diagram

The process starts off with the medical practitioners and social workers, measuring the vital signs of the patients periodically with the help of the sensors and the mobile app.  The vital parameters measured will be transmitted to the centralized server deployed on the cloud using the wireless technology.  The server runs diverse of algorithms as listed in Fig 3 on the data collected using the sensors.  An alert classified as normal and critical alert will be generated accordingly to the doctors and the care takers on any abnormality.  In case of emergency situations, the ambulance and drone services will be delivered to the patients promptly.       

        This proposal will produce an assistive technology for an early detection of fall and detection of abnormality in the vital parameters of the people in rural areas by deploying IoT technology.  This proposal also involves effective collection of the patient’s health data using body sensors and stores it in the cloud.  This proposal also involves the development of a mobile application for the social workers to verify the patient’s vital parameters, a mobile application for the doctors to view the details of the patient registered with them and also a web application to achieve the same.  The data collected using the sensors are mined and analysed using suitable data mining and predictive analytical models to increase diagnoses efficiency.  This proposal also ensures instant emergency services which includes alert service, ambulance service and drone service to the people in the rural villages.

        The current working model has a suitable IoT based mechanism to collect health data using wearable medical devices through smartphones.  The data is collected, viewed and stored using android apps.  A working Open Source Cloud Server operating on OpenStack and Open Nebula has been used for the storage of data.



·       This application promotes healthy lifestyle to rural people.  Smartphones act as a general purpose computing device and bridges the gap between the doctors and the patients in rural areas.

·       This proposal intends to provide constant monitoring of elderly patients in their area of living through social workers and local medical practitioners. Doctors can constantly take clinical measurements of the vital parameters like Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate, SpO2 and can track any type of motion, abnormal patterns.

·       This proposal helps in avoiding emergency situations by pre-empting the patients on any abnormalities before-handed using the complex algorithms running on our server.

·       This proposal also ensures that in case of emergency, care-takers and doctors registered with the patient will be notified immediately through a voice message.

·       The proposal also ensures real time location services with the help of mobile application developed.

·       This proposal involves a tightened budget and at the same time have updated infrastructure to provide better healthcare services to the patients.



        This proposal promises the deployment of cutting-edge technologies to comfort the people in rural India with regular health check-ups and remote monitoring.  The lifestyle of the people in rural India can be highly improved at a tightened cost.  The project also provides a descent money flow between the social workers, local medical practitioners and the Government.  The communication pattern can be greatly improved between the doctors and the patients by imparting personalization of the patient’s data.  This proposal would greatly impact hundreds of thousands of lives in rural India.

As the liquidation costs because Salomon was an ‘agent’

As a basic rule, companies have
their own separate legal personality. Both the common law and statues identify
that a company is legally separate from those involved.  This is the idea that a company is a legally
different person from the members and those who invest in it. It means that the
company is in association with its members rather than the members being the
company. There are however, exceptions where the courts are prepared to
overlook the separate legal personality in what’s known as ‘piercing the
corporate veil’. This essentially means to overlook the separate legal
personality and, where exceptions apply, hold members and directors liable for
the actions of a company.

A company has a separate legal
personality. Liability for actions made on behalf of the company does not lie
with the members and directors. The leading authority for this is Salomon v
Salomon and Co Ltd1.
The decision made by the Court of Appeal was overturned by the House of
Lords; a company that is incorporated is a separate person with its own
individual set of rights and liabilities. The liquidator in this case argued
that Salomon was liable for the liquidation costs because Salomon was an
‘agent’ of Salomon and Co Ltd.  The Court
of Appeal first held that Salomon was liable; they overlooked the separate
legal personality. The House of Lords meanwhile, decided that, because the company
was incorporated, it was its own personality and thus the defendant was not
liable for the insolvency costs.

In 2013, the
case of Prest v Petrodel Resources Ltd & Others2
provided a new insight into the law of legal identity and personality. The
defendant and claimant were husband and wife going through divorce proceedings.
As a standard, divorce law outlines that assets owned by the parties must be
shared during the divorce. In this case it was the husband who owned a
substantial amount of expensive property. To avoid having to share this property,
the defendant set up several companies and transferred his properties to those
companies. Under divorce law, the defendant had no assets, they were owned by
the company, thus did not have to share any with the claimant. Broadly
speaking, this makes sense. The company is its own legal personality and
therefore owns the properties, not the defendant. However, the supreme court
viewed this as a matter of company law also. The decision to be made was
whether or not it was appropriate to pierce the corporate veil with regards to
the assets. Whether the properties owned by the companies should be transferred
to the claimant. Out of this, Lord Sumption developed two principles; that of
evasion and of concealment. The important difference between the two is that
concealment is legal whereas evasion is not.

Concealment is
the act ‘in which a human being is seeking to conceal their involvement in the
assets held by the company’3.  The case example of this is Salomon4.
The defendant created the company in order to move himself away from any
liability and pay out he may have to make if the company went bust. As it
happens the company did go bust and because Mr Salomon had created a company
with a separate legal personality, he was not liable. Cases regarding concealment
are difficult to decide as it is hard to know where the line stands.

On the other
hand, cases of evasion, are more significant to the veil. This occurs when the
defendant is trying to evade a legal liability such as the one in Jones vs
By giving the land to a company, the defendant was trying to avoid the order of
specific performance thus leading to an evasion of legal liability. Prest6
itself is also an authority to evasion. By transferring assets to
companies, Mr Prest was evading the legal liabilities held under divorce law.
In the leading judgment, Lord Sumption held that ‘the corporate veil may be
pierced only to prevent the abuse of corporate legal personality’7.
One would argue that in suggesting this he created an overarching rule for when
the veil can be overlooked.

Before the
decision in 2013, but still applicable today, the courts followed traditional 2
exceptions to the ratio in Salomon8.
The first was agencies. This occurs when there is a relationship between an
agent and a company whereby the agent has the authority to create legal bonds.
For example, the contracts of sale, between a third party and the company.
Usually this exception is based around 2 ideas. Firstly, when the company is an
agent of a parent company and secondly, when a company is an agent of one of
its members. In Smith, Stone & Knight Ltd v Birmingham Corp9
it was the former that applied; the parent company was allowed damages with
regards to business carried about by an agency (daughter company) because the
actions were on behalf of the parent company.

The second
traditional exception is mere façade. This applies when the company in question
is a sham or a cover-up for the actions of the member(s). Members typically
create sham companies to avoid restrictions imposed by law and the rights of
claims from third parties. In Salomon10,
it was argued in the Court of Appeal that this was the case. The claimant
suggested that the defendants company was set up so that he could avoid paying
out for the debt that he had incurred. The court of appeal agreed that the
company was indeed a sham and that Salomon was liable for the debt
because he was acting as an agent. As mentioned previously, this
decision was overturned and the House of Lords held that because the company was
duly incorporated it did have its own separate legal personality. Another case
example is Jones v Lipman11.
The defendant set up a company to avoid an order of specific performance
regarding a piece of land. The land was transferred to the company and because
this was only reason for the company, it was decided by Russel Judge that the
company was a sham and the defendant should be held liable.

With regards to
whether an overarching rule has emerged, the law is still very unclear with
more than one approach as to when the veil can be pierced. It can be said that
the guidelines set out in Prest12
do provide a structure to the current law. Lord Sumption’s division into
concealment and evasion have meant that there are two leading authorities to
follow. One outlines when the veil can be pierced and the other when it cannot.
This does not mean however that there is one single overarching rule. The
exceptions of agencies and façade still stand alongside evasion and concealment
meaning that there are 4 different methods of viewing any individual case. Salomon13
still provides the good authority as to when it can be pierced but even
this is too broad to be described as an overarching rule. It was not set out in
the judgment the line between concealment and evasion, nor does it outline when
the veil cannot be pierced. Prest14
deals with the latter but with regards to the former it must still be
decided on a case by case basis. Prest15
and Salomon16
are similar in the fact that both defendant’s transfers items to companies
in order to avoid something; Salomon17
avoided liability for insolvency and Prest18
avoided liability for his assets. 
Why was it therefore decided that one of these was legal and the other
was not? Both were avoiding losing monies so why was one legal and not the

With respect as
to whether the law in now more developed or limited, it must be said that both
is the case. The law has developed in the sense that we now have new authority
to base cases upon and a more structured approach as to when and under what
circumstances the veil can be pierced. In developing though, the law has also
become more limited.  New cases means
more structure and more structure means that the law is far less broad than it
was. Prior to Prest19
we only had one authority that would only advise when the veil cannot be
pierced. Prest20
provided explanation as to when the veil can also be pierced thus limiting
the claim pool. In conclusion, I think the law has both developed and limited
the idea of piercing the corporate veil but than an overarching rule has not
yet emerged.






The company the
group wish to set up will be a public limited company (PLC) rather than a
limited company (Ltd). It is important to distinguish between the two before
determining the roles of parties and the company’s constitution. Both PLCs and
LTD’s are governed by the Companies Act21.
This outlines everything to do with how a company should run and be formed and
more importantly what is legal and what is not. The main difference between a
public and a limited company is shares. Both types can raise capital though
shares but only a public company can trade shares on the stock markets. This
can have both positive and negative effects. The use of the stock market means
that anyone and everyone can buy shares in your company. This makes it quick
and easy to raise capital to be used by the company. However, it also means
that the documentation and details of the company are shared publically.
Limited companies on the other hand, cannot use the stock market, instead
directors usually offer out shares to people they trust and know and raise
capital this way. This can be beneficial because you could share it amongst
wealthy investors and gain substantial capital. It also keeps the company more
private as documentation doesn’t have to be shared but it means that shares are
not traded and aside from the initial capital, your friends who are now members
may not wish to invest any more. It is important to note that a shareholder and
a member are the same thing. With regards to the clients, a PLC would mean that
they could raise a lot of capital very quickly and not have to rely on the 1.1
million they have.

With regards to
roles within the company, there are three main positions to discuss. Firstly,
the shareholders. Holding a share in the company provides you with rights in
the company as well as access to the profits made on that’s share; dividends. ‘The subscribers of a company’s memorandum
of association are deemed to have agreed to become members of the company and on
its registration become members and must be entered as such in its register of
As a shareholder, you are only liable for your first initial payment, no more.
Bradley, Laura and Jason have all put forward money to invest in this project.
With regards to them wanting to invest no more than what they have already put
forward, they don’t have to. For example, Bradley is liable to pay in the one
million pounds into the company but after that no more from him is required.
The same is applicable to Laura and Jason. As shareholders, they also have the
ability to elect a director of the company or a board of directors. However,
because this is a limited company, all those who may have bought shares in the
stock markets will also get a vote.

The director themselves then also acquires
duties under the Companies Act. A director is any person occupying the position
of director no matter what their title23. As
director, there are 7 duties they must adhere to. They must act within their
powers only, promote success of the company, have an independent judgement,
perform their role with reasonable care, skill and diligence, avoid conflicts
of interest, not to accept benefits from any third parties and finally, to
declare an interest in proposed transactions. It is impossible to advise who
might be the director because it is up to the shareholders as mentioned

With regards to the constitution, a company
must have articles of association24.
Section 17 of the Act25
describes a constitution as including the articles and any resolution or
agreement affecting the constitution. It is usually recommended that members
enter a separate shareholders agreement that differs from the company’s
constitution. Previously, Table A has set out provisions/articles that companies
can use in their constitution. For modern companies however, the Company’s Act
200626 says
that a company can chose to use all or any of the provisions of the model
article or to create its own bespoke articles. In this situation, I would
advise following the model article. Following these articles makes them
binding; Companies Act 2006, s33(1). An article they may wish to add in, either
to the constitution or the shareholders agreement is with reference to majority
shareholders. Currently Bradly has the biggest share or owns the most. Out of
11, he would own 10. This would give him the right to appoint directors and
make decisions on the company’s behalf because he controls more than 75% of the
shares. With this in mind, for Jason, Laura and Lizzie to be able to have any
input, they must decide a way of limiting Bradleys powers but not reducing the
effect of shares. It would not be possible to suggest that one share has the
same power as 11 because then nobody would buy more than one share in the
company and raising capital would fail.

A minority shareholder is someone who owns
less than half the company’s total shares. In this scenario, Laura and Jason
would automatically become minority shareholders because they own less than
half. A claim against the company is available when the company has or is being
managed in such a way that is unfairly prejudice to the minority shareholders.
If this is the case there are 3 types of claim. The first is an unfair
prejudice petition27. This
is available when the affairs of the company have been or are being managed in
a way that is unfairly prejudicial to the shareholders or at least the petition
owner.  If the courts find this is the
case, the result is usually that the majority shareholders are asked to buy out
the minority ones at a price set by the courts. This then frees the minority
shareholders from the company. The second claim is just and equitable winding
up28. As the
name suggests, this involves the winding up of the company and bringing it to
an end. In order to do this however, the petitioner must show that there will
be substantial surplus after the winding up. The courts will award this remedy on
a similar basis to that of the unfair prejudice; unfair conduct. Unlike an
unfair prejudice claim however, there are limited advantages as to when a
winding up would be a preferred remedy. Finally, a claimant can pursue a derivative
claim. This is a statuary remedy under the Companies Act29 and is
made on behalf and for the benefit of the company. The claim must be vested in
company involving either negligence, breach of duty or breach of trust by the
directors. Unlike the other 2 remedies, a court must allow a derivative claim
to pass. This means that as soon as the claim is issued the courts must allow
it to pass.

Regarding the name of the company the group
have chosen, Princess (By Royal Appointment) PLC would not be allowed without
permission. As the company being formed is a public limited company it must
have PLC at the end of its name; s58(19)30, and
although this name has that, it’s the wording within that conflicts with the
Act. Sections 53 and 54 outline what words cannot be used in the name of a
company. Section 53 deals with all words that are offensive and although that doesn’t
apply here, section 54 does. Section 54 of the Companies Act 2006 sets out that
you must seek permission to include any word which may link the company to the Her
Majesty’s Government or any public or local authority. Because the name suggests
this by using ‘By Royal Appointment’, they would have to seek permission from
the secretary of state to name the company this. Before this is done they
cannot use this name for the company.

Looking at finance, the most common way for
a new company to raise capital is through loans or overdrafts from a financial
institution. By using Lizzies property, the group could apply for a mortgage on
that property that would raise them a large amount of capital by using the premises
as security. This would also be known as a debenture. A debenture is a term used
to refer to secured loans such as a mortgage. They are secured so that if the
company defaults from the repayment, the lender can take steps so regain their
money. In this case a title to a property is not enough, instead the money
lender obtains a property right to gain the land which is used as security because
they can enforce this at a later date. In order to obtain this security, a
fixed or floating charge can be used. A fixed charge is applicable to one asset
only for example, Lizzies premises. A floating charge however, is a charge
shifting over assets; Re Cimex Tissues
Ltd (1994)31.
Assets can include cash, stock plant and vehicles, essentially all the company
owns. The difference between the two charges being that because it’s a fixed
charge over one asset, the company can sell that particular asset. A floating
charge however allows the company to sell and purchase new assets as they
please. I would advise that the clients use a floating charge so they can
replace assets as they wish and use the £500,000 premises as security for a
mortgage to gain extra capital.

1 1897 AC 22.

2 2013 UKSC 34.

3 Alastair Hudson, Undertsanding
company law (2nd edn, Routledge 2018) p37.

4 1897 AC 22.

1962 1 WLR 832.

6 2013 UKSC 34.

7 2013 UKSC 34, p19, paragraph 34.

1897 AC 22.

1939 4 All ER 116.

1897 AC 22.

11 1962 1 WLR 832.

2013 UKSC 34.

1897 AC 22.

2013 UKSC 34.

2013 UKSC 34.

1897 AC 22.

1897 AC 22.

18 2013 UKSC 34.

19 2013 UKSC 34.

20 2013 UKSC 34.

21 2006.

22 Companies Act 2006, s112.

23 Companies Act 2006, s250.

24 Companies Act 2006, s18(1).

25 Companies Act 2006.

26 s19(3).

Companies Act 2006, s994.

28 Insolvency
Act 1986 s125.

29 2006,

30 Companies
Act 2006.

31 1 BCLC 409.


Social graduate from college, they are able to get

Social mobility can be defined as the ability to navigate between different roles in society and can increase or decrease your value within a specific social group. Education is an institution that provides critical thinking and knowledge that often gives people the ability to move from one social group to the next. Education is what allows people to easily move to a specific social group. When a person works for a company, they may only be able to have a specific job that could be seen as lower. Getting an education would increase chances of promotion and moving to a higher place in society such as managerial or even CEO. Education allows people to be mobile in their place in society.
FPU offers people to be able to move socially through offering degrees in a city that thrives on diversity. They also offer scholarships to students who are first generation within their families. FPU allows students to study and get degrees in a field that would increase chances of hiring, promotion, and changing their position in society to a college graduate. When first generation students graduate from college, they are able to get better jobs than other family members and can provide financial support. Usually first generation students do not have a lot of money because their parents did not have high paying jobs. By getting a degree, students at FPU can be a more contributing member of society with more skills and experience in the professional world.
One social inequality first generation students face is that their parents may have lower wage than other student’s parents paying for college. Many students have parents who have higher degrees that can afford to send their kids to FPU without loans. However, first generation students often lack funds and have to take out loans. This is inequality because each student should have equal opportunities in attending college without having to fear finances. Second, first generation students can be seen as lower class by others. Many people in this world are conceited and view lower income earners as not contributing to society. They don’t understand why a student should go through college when their families are poor. People also sometimes see low incomers as taking hand outs that they feel is unfair because it’s tax payers money. Lastly, first generation students face discrimination. Many universities may not even accept first generation students because they want students who come from wealthy families who will pay full tuition without scholarships and will donate money to the school. FPU is not one of those schools, but it does happen.
Education can really help first generation students be able to move socially through society by getting them better paying jobs as well as positions in society that increase social stratification.

2. Gender images is how people define what a specific gender should look like and act. For example, media, especially in commercials, tailor pink and dolls to girls while they promote sales of blue and green (manly colors) and dinosaurs and trucks to men. Sexism is established through enforcing these gender images on men and women. That men are seen as masculine and should be classified only in categories that demonstrate strength, while women are only allowed to identify with gentle categories of baking and sewing that classify women as gentle and not strong in society. Feminism is what women have been pushing to be allowed to classify themselves with characteristics, jobs, and politics that sexist people reserve for men. Equal representation in all fields.
Mass media often delivers gender images and roles through how they target commercials. Many times, companies will only target one audience for a specific product. For example, when selling kitchen products, they often show women in the kitchen using these products in order to reach out to what society views as women only characteristics. While when selling products like power tools, they will show men using these tools in the commercial. Especially in news with celebrities, they will show women being heavily scrutinized for what they wear because they are supposed to be the more conservative and gentler sex while praising men for hook ups and being shirtless because that is considered as achievements for men only.
Gender stereotypes can affect children in the worst possible ways. In terms of socialization, many parents will only let their daughters play with other girls because they do not want to allow their girls to play with boys or boy toys. You even see in places like Target where they have a girl section and a boy section for toys and clothes that push young kids into defining what they should and shouldn’t like based on their gender. Social institutions like children’s education push specific crafts onto kids they feel that their gender should enjoy. Girls will draw princesses and boys will draw dinosaurs. Parenting as an institution pushes kids into specific roles even during holidays like Halloween where they dress boys as doctors or military while girls are princesses or Little Bo Beep.
Gender images are widely enforced through mass media like advertisement for clothes costumes, or products. Sexists push kids into these categories because they do not want their daughters seen as boyish or their sons growing up and getting made fun of for being “girly.” This is why feminism was created. It allows for everyone to dress and feel and act however they want without getting scrutinized by society. 

3. Race is described as a group of people whose ancestry come from a specific location in the world where physical and social characteristics of the group are similar. Ethnicity is different because it is the group you as a person identify with based a lot off of culture versus similar physical appearances and ancestry. Social stratification is how people are ranked in society. Many times people will be racist and rank people of different cultures and ethnic backgrounds as considered low. For example, often times in the US, people will consider African heritage or African Americans to be a lower status. Many times in history, Europeans were seen as the superior race regarding things like the Third Reich or the Scramble for Africa and unfortunately still today, the relationship between race and ethnicity and stratification is strong.
Cesar Chavez’s leadership style was based on uniformity and unification of those who were migrant workers, specifically of Hispanic descent. He was able to gain so much recognition and power through his non-violent social movements where all he simply asked for was respect for the workers with working conditions and wage. He never really was a political leader or was trying to change politics which is why people respected him so much because he respected others. He devised ways to get people’s attention by creating boycotts. He founded the National Farm Workers Association and boycotted the harvest of grapes. He wasn’t asking for power and neither were the grape pickers. They wanted respect and dignity which made it easier for people to agree on their terms because everyone in society deserves that.
Cesar Chavez was leading a reformative social movement and simply asking people to change their opinions about workers and to turn away from discrimination against Hispanic pickers. He created alternative social movements with unionizing workers while working towards one specific goal. He led grass root organizations that focused on policy within society versus policy within the government. However, his work did have an effect on government policy through his work not only with workers but with the LGBTQ+ community. He dedicated his life to changing others and people found respect within that. His work influenced many things such as literature, reduction of poverty, and acceptance for the LGBTQ+ community. He helped establish a law in California that was specifically tailored to unionize workers within the fields.
Chavez found hope for his race by pushing people to believe that Hispanic workers should be respected and treated equality to other races. He positively effected the social stratification of Hispanics through unionizing and boycotting peacefully. His work influenced California government policy as well as ignited good working conditions and wages for Hispanic pickers.

4. Religion is beliefs and values that are centered around the notion of holiness and sacredness. Social cohesion and social deviance both have relationships with religion based off of people’s perspective of what religion is. Social cohesion is how people form ties and relate to one another. Many people find religion and follow a specific one based off of the values and beliefs that religion holds. People will find religions that have similar minded people. Social deviance is going against society and religion is often used to help people conform to the positive and spiritual values of society.
Religion is a form of social cohesion because it creates a space for like minded people to interact. Many people have specific beliefs on marriage, sex, God, etc., and often want to find spaces where they feel like their values are validated. For example, many people feel sex should be saved for love and marriage and that there is a God. This would create a desire to want to interact with people who hold the same beliefs. People will then turn to the institution of Christianity and go to church services where they can learn more about their beliefs with fellow like minded individuals. Religion helps people form bonds and ties and create order and a functional society. Religion allows for organic relationships to form where each person feels there are contributing to their group through attending service or doing prayer.
Social deviance can also be a reason for religion being an institution. Many times those who break the law will be sentenced to do community service alongside religious affiliations. Often times people who do drugs will seek religion for help. Sometimes homophobic families will send their LGBTQ+ child to religious camps to “pray the gay away.” Often people who feel lost in the world will turn to religion to confess their sins and feel clean again. Often times, in prison, there are pastors or priests who help guide those who are socially deviant. Even in programs like Alcohol’s Anonymous there are spiritual implications of believing in God and giving your life to him.
Religion has a good relationship with both social cohesion and social deviance. It allows people to find someone to connect with on a spiritual level and to find those who share the same beliefs. Religion helps those who are struggling with social deviance by finding values and purpose in life. Often times those who are deviant have trouble with finding goals in life and purpose and religion gives people a reason to live and thrive.

5. Capitalism is a type of economic system that stems from an individualistic desire to self-satisfy. It derives from the belief of freedom for individuals to prosper and the goal to profit. Capitalism is highly business focused with privately owned businesses that often times are the major contributors to the health market. Many times, privately owned businesses are the ones that supply medicine to pharmacies and companies, and they raise the prices significantly where many people cannot even afford the medicine. Often times people do not have health insurance and they cannot pay the thousands of dollars medicine costs. Some people do have health insurance but through MediCare and they cannot even afford co-pays. Privately owned businesses are the fuels behind the health industry in society because its those businesses that raise prices to maximize their own individual economic goals instead of helping people.
Health is a commercial product in the health care system because it has become less of a necessity and more of a “you only get it if you can afford it.” In European countries health and education are consider rights whereas in the US with a capitalist economy, health is considered a privilege to gets sold to you. People in the US have to get approval for specific health insurance, pay premiums, and have to pay for every surgery, medication, and appointment they go to. This has made the health system be more like a business with consumers versus something that people need to survive. Many people will lose their health insurance when they lose their jobs which truly shows that the health markets are for profit and not for helping people who are ill. Capitalism has allowed health to be a product that can be taken away very easily.
There are many social inequalities within the health care system in the US. The first one is that not everyone has access to the same benefits. People who don’t have jobs can only rely on MediCare which is the bare minimum of health care provisions while those who have jobs get private health care. Even then, some businesses will only offer certain services like general health care and dentistry. Many people who have jobs won’t even get optometry or a chiropractor and some do. It really depends on the company and the job you have and lots of people won’t even get specific benefits from government funded health care. Another inequality is how people who are incarcerated are treated with healthcare versus those who receive healthcare from the state. People who are incarcerated receive significantly better healthcare than those who are tax payers.  This shows a huge inequality between those who financially paid for healthcare and those who are getting it for free. Everyone deserves healthcare but many people are committing petty crimes to receive better healthcare within the prisons because of the lack of healthcare benefits within the state. People who are incarcerated have to receive healthcare because they are under the care of the state, yet many people who are contributing members of society suffer. Lastly, healthcare has inequality because of Obamacare. Under Obamacare, people are fined if they do not have health insurance which demonstrates inequality for those who can afford it and those who cannot. Many people do not have access to be qualified under Minimum Essential Coverage and therefore have to pay fines which demonstrates how our system is so capitalist. It’s all about money and not everyone has that. Obamacare fines people for basically not having money which sows the inequality of our wage gap and our health system.
Healthcare is based off of America’s capitalist economic system where the goal is for businesses to benefit off of people who cannot afford health insurance which has lead to so much inequality for tax payers, those who have no jobs, and those who cannot find health insurance.

Purpose Our philosophy is simple, provide progressive fashion that

Purpose of the Marketing plan:

Love at first
Sight Boutique is a start-up fashion boutique, that sells fashionable women’s
clothing and accessories. We will be based out of downtown Fort Lauderdale,
which is a popular hotspot and lifestyle destination in South Florida. It’s
where up and coming designers from all over the world, will share shelf space
with local favorites hand-picked by owner Jordana Norris.

 We are committed to offering our customers
fashionable clothing and accessories that have the quality they need, in the
style they want, at affordable prices. They can expect to find dresses, tops,
skirts, pants and jackets nestled among curated displays of accessories, gifts,
and other stylish curiosities.

The unique shopping
experience will be enhanced with in-store stylist and monthly special events
designed to connect with like-minded women. When customers come into our store,
we can help them find the perfect item that fits their personality and
compliments their style. The Love at First Sight experience can also be enjoyed
online thanks to social commerce on Facebook and Instagram, which showcases our
fashion! Our philosophy is simple, provide progressive fashion that defines
women, with top quality service.

Organization Mission Statement: Love
Life, Love Fashion

Our mission is to make sure our customers have the most
enjoyable shopping experience while in our store, to create lasting relationships.
As well as, providing customers with quality, modern clothing and accessories,
at an affordable price.

Competitive Advantage:

Love at First Sight’s competitive advantage will be offering
clothing and accessories that make a statement. We will ensure that we have a
wide range of quality and affordable clothes and fashion accessories available
in our store and online at-all-times. Love at First Sight will offer clothing
and accessories that are currently trending and so affordable that our
customers will return to our boutique often to check out the new trends. One of
our business goals is to make our boutique a one stop fashion shop.

We are launching a clothing boutique that will singularly
become the preferred choice for women and vacationers in Fort Lauderdale,
Florida. Love at First Sight Boutique wants to represent women’s fashion style.
The competitive factor is that the fashion clothing and accessories for these
women are part of a lifestyle statement.

Our excellent, highly experienced and qualified management
team, customer service, highly secured facility with enough parking space, online
store, and various payment options will also serve as a competitive advantage
for us. We believe that we will create a loyal customer base that will see Love
at First Sight as part of their lives.

Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of
and their welfare package will be among the best within our industry. It will
enable them to be more loyal and willing to build the business with us, to help
deliver our set goals, objectives and achieve all our business aims. 

Today, restorative), has changed as the theoretical paradigm shifts

Today, the debate on
the motivations and causation of crime is popular topic discussed across
various academic domains (i.e. Anthropology). These interdisciplinary debates
have incorporated new principles, allowing some of the formation of new
theories building upon the earlier apperceptions. For instance, rational
choice, routine activity as well as control theories builds up upon the
principles of Beccaria (e.g. free will; cost and benefits). Another example
would be Lombroso’s thesis on physical aberration, which is now improvised with
neurobiology and genetics with environmental methodologies (e.g. twin studies)
deployed in observations and research.

Criminology, as an
academic discipline has been endured constant advancement since the18th
century, despite of its origins from the ancient Greek philosophers (i.e.
Aristotle). With the rise of the classical school founded by Beccaria and
Bentham to the establishment of the positivists schools (i.e. biological and
social), criminologists have derived a list of reasons in which why an
individual may engage in criminal behaviour. Of course, the context and
implications of crime and justice (i.e. retributive versus restorative), has
changed as the theoretical paradigm shifts from one to another (Lawerence,

However, most theories
often deduce and explain the causation of criminality of an individual through
a one-sided perspective (Gadd and Jefferson, 2007, p. 2-5). Sociological
positivists often argue that societal factors such as gender and poverty were
crucial factors in understanding criminality. On the other hand, psychologists
tend to look for traits within individuals, identifying aspects and abnormality
to distinguish individuals who may be inclined towards criminality from the
group. Indeed, both viewpoint provides enticing implications in confabulating
one’s desire to engage in criminal behaviour.

With this in mind, Gadd
and Jefferson (ibid) argues that both perspectives mentioned above only focal
point either internal and external conditions of the individual (i.e. social vs
psychological/developmental factors). The impetus which draws one to
criminality could be due to multiple factors which may come from both
psychological and sociological domains. To truly understand the motivation that
stimulates the engagement of crime, Gadd and Jefferson’s (2007) psychosocial
approach amalgamate the spirit of psychology and sociology, providing a deeper
insight of the offender’s inner world.


“The point is that, whenever we propose a
solution to a problem, we ought to try as hard as we can to overthrow our
solution, rather than defend it. Few of us, unfortunately, practice this
precept; but other people, fortunately, will supply the criticism for us if we
fail to supply it ourselves.”

(Popper, 1959)


Like Popper describes,
all scientific theories and hypotheses are falsifiable.

Using their book:  Psychosocial
Criminology (Gad and Jefferson,
2007) as the main literature reviewed, this paper will provide a critical,
in-depth assessment of the theory in the following order:

and methodology

implication (1): Restorative Justice

implication (2): Intervention – Therapies 

Prior in going
straight to the section of critically analysis, it is vital to outline the key features
of this theory.

When hearing the term
“psychosocial criminology”, one of the thing that may come to a person’s mind
is the study of criminal behaviour via one’s psychological well-being in
relation to sociological factors. In comparison to Gadd and Jefferson’s rendition
of “psychosocial”, the definition resumed above is wrong in spite of being
partially correct to a certain degree.

Though there are
branches in the school of psychology (i.e. social psychology and abnormal
psychology) which outlines the psychological mechanism in the sphere of
criminal behaviour, there is limited literature if not little evidence in
considering the offender as an individual with conflicting, paradoxical
thoughts (Ritchie, 2014). Following the steps of Frosh (2003, p. 183, as cited
in Gadd and Jefferson, 2007), “psychosocial criminology” as an approach
endorses a censorious stance against Psychology while trying to formulate the
“psychological subject”, the human psyche.

Humans, as Frosh emphasised,
(as a psychological subject), are the output compound created by their
cognitive mind (inner psyche) and the shared social dimension (reality). In
simpler terms, the subject (individual) acts as a structural center of action
and thought with external forces exchanging information (i.e. gender, ethnicity,
and social class). More importantly, it is also because of the having
sensations of feeling weak or defenseless that leads one into paths (which may
be considered as discourse by others) that may grant them strength on a
psychological level (i.e. respect in the neighbourhood). 

It is also important
to remember that the inner psyche accounts both conscious and unconscious
processes, emotions (i.e. fear and happiness) as well as ability to manifest
imagination/fantasy. In terms of methodology and data gathering, Gadd and
Jefferson deploy interpretative biographies with elements of free association when
conducting interviews.

Undeniably, Gadd and Jefferson’s
approach in Psychosocial Criminology presents thought-provoking ideas as
synopsized above, but there are points worth questioning (Brown, 2003, 2007; Gelsthrope,
2009; Ritchie, 2014). In their own words, the authors of this theory
acknowledge that their theory is an “ambitious project” that is not detached
when viewed from the wider spectrum of social sciences.


Concept: Methodology – Subjectivity and

The stance in applying
narrative techniques in qualitative research has been an on-going trend for
more than a decade, with various field of disciplines to understand the subject
on an encyclopedic level (Franzosi, 1998; Polkinghorne, 1991; Sandelowski, 1991).

Knowing that their
approach in anatomising criminology through the method of biographical
interpretation may raise opposing criticisms, the two listed several points in
justifying this notion (Gadd and Jefferson’s, 2007, p. 5-8). For instance, the
nature of case studies – being open to interpretation, is considered as the
strength of this approach. Case studies investigates content through an
atypical context, irradiating and canvass unconsidered factors of actual
reality, challenging the mainstream understanding (Fraser, 2004; Mitchell 2000,
p. 170, as cited in Gadd and Jefferson, ibid; Kohler-Riessman,2000).


“Narratives do not mirror, they refract the
past …  Narratives are useful in research
precisely because storytellers interpret the past rather than reproduce it as
it was. The “truths” of narrative accounts are not in their faithful
representations of a past world, but in the shifting connections they forge
among past, present, and future”

(Riessman, 2005)

From an evaluative perspective,
narrative analysis accentuates the relationship between individual’s personal
experience and the subject (i.e. life as a comfort woman in wartime periods). It
can be said that the methods used in the psychosocial theory – interpretative
biography is analysed on three dimensions: thematic (depth and width of
content), structural (how the content is expressed), and interactional. Though
the thematic and structural aspect compliments each other in generating a nullified
analysis, the third component – interactional may distort the decoding process
of the evidence recorded.

The point of employing
interactional analysis is to spotlight the conversation process between the
interviewer and interviewee. Micro-behavioural aspects such as pauses in
speech, gesture and display of physical posture are often left unmentioned in
transcripts (Riessman, ibid). As Kreiswrith (2002) vindicates,
it is inexorable to not adjudge the concept of “narration” as a story, even if
the speculation of the knowledge is based on rationalism.

Sternberg’s (1987) analogy:
truth value and truth claim in historiography emits intriguing points when set
side by side with narrative analysis. He adduces that the historical accounts of
events is a discourse that proclaims to be a fact. In narrative analyses, the “truth
value” is placed with given more attention when scaled with the “truth objective”
on the other end. While the truth value is subjective, the objectivity may be ignored.

With this in mind,



Concept: Psyche – Splitting and Projection

With reference to
Fairbairn and Klein’s notion of splitting, the authors of this theory states that
the human psyche (commonly referred as the inner voice/internal thought) is not
only a center of agency but also a primary ego defensive system. This allows
the individual to “splits” information (i.e. societal values: masculinity) from
the social world into – positive and negative emotions. When under severe distress,
the individual may project the emotions that have been repressed internally
towards people around him or her (i.e. shouting at a child). Likewise, if the
individual is capable of “containing” these uncomfortable sensation (i.e. being
bullied by peers), the individual might be able to “detoxify” the negative
thoughts and respond rationally.

Such elaboration of
one’s ego defense mechanism is far too simplistic in comparison to the other
theories of the same/relevant academic field in conjunction to with
criminality. By  re-examining the work of
Jung and Vallaint, a more well-rounded explanation is inaugerated while keeping
the in a non-reductive stance between social constructionism of the “social
world” and psychology of the “inner psyche”.

Carl Jung’s (2016)
theory of the unconscious also adopts a humanistic viewpoint in understanding
the psyche. In accordance Jung, the human psyche consists of 3 main layers:
ego, personal unconscious and collective unconscious. Focusing solely on the 2nd
and 3rd layer of the psyche, Jung blueprints the darker side of
human nature through the various archetypes he draws upon. The anima/animus
reflects the manifestation of both masculine and feminine archetype, the
“persona” being the mask that one wears to masquerade the real self, whilst the
“shadow” acts as power source for both creative and destructive energy.

In juxtaposition of
the holistic beliefs held by Jung, George Eman Valliant (1992) advocates that the
human psyche can be identified through a four-level classification system.
Though his thesis nucleates from the context of psychiatry, he expands the
dissertate how one may pick up defensive mechanism (i.e. Projection of unwanted
thoughts or emotions) through a developmental vista, which can be observed in
everyday life.

Due to the list of
classification being exhaustive, not all mechanisms will be mentioned.

Level 1: Psychotic
Level 2: Immature
Level 3: Neurotic
Level 4: Mature

In the first level,
mechanisms (i.e. delusional projection or denial) are considered pathological
or anomalous towards others. Interestingly, this can be seen through one’s

The second level:
immature, suggests that the mechanisms associated in this stage is frequently
observed among adults (i.e. schizoid fantasy and projection). Whereas,
delusional projection refers to a belief based on invalid information (e.g.
racist belief learned in childhood) whereas projection links back to Gadd and
Jefferson’s concept of defense- the expulsion of undesired thoughts or emotions
without acknowledging on a conscious level.

In the third level,
mechanisms such as (i.e. repression and displacement) provides short-term
effects in coping with stress. In the last level, mechanisms (i.e. humor) affiliated
with this level allows one to engage conflicting mental states peacefully.

Despite of the
differences between the two viewpoints, both theories elucidates the human
psyche from different levels of perception.  If one was to merge the two theories together
and incorporate Frosh’s concept (ibid) as mentioned earlier, one would realise
that the defensive mechanism of the human ego is not just limited to the
concept of “defensive splitting and projection” (Gadd and Jefferson, p. 53).

Certainly, Gadd and
Jefferson’s approach provides a new limelight in illustrating how the inner
mind of the offender interacts with the social realm. Be that as it may, it
would be too simplistic in consider that the human psyche often/tends to only
resolves with projection of thoughts or emotions through the means of verbal or
physical exhibition. On a structural level, it can be congitated that humans
often repress their “shadow” self from engaging criminal behaviour as it does
not match (Costello, 2002 as cited in Brown, 2007).

Policy and implication: Restorative Justice

Embracing a humanist
approach in evaluating deviant behaviour, it instantly resolves and illuminates
the unknown factor(s) in seeking to unravel the thoughts of the (potential)
offender. Instead of pathologizing the individual, this theory suggests that
everyone in society has the potential in becoming a criminal.  Having said so, this raises philosophical
confusion when the status of the victim can be argued as an offender, as well
as how should societies or the criminal justice/penal system should manage
complex cases like this.


Policy and implication: Rehabilitation


I'm Neil!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out