. 3. It was an observational study. 4. The

.  Lund, H. G.,
Reider, B. D., Whiting, A. B., & Prichard, J. R. (2010). Sleep Patterns          and Predictors of Disturbed Sleep in a
Large Population of College Students. Journal
of Adolescent Health, 46, 124-132.

2.    What
college students’ sleep patterns are like and what affects their sleep.

3.    It
was an observational study.

4.    The
variables involved in this study were behavior, fatigue, academic performance,
sleep habits and patterns, and physical, emotional and psychological factors.

5.    Sleep
habits and patterns, and physical, emotional and psychological facts were
predictive variables.

6.    Behavior,
academic performance and fatigue were predicted variables.

7.    The
purpose of this study was to portray what causes poor sleep quality and
patterns of sleep in college students.

8.    The
participants were 420 male and 705 female students aged 17-24 from a large,
private, Midwest university. These students were either entered in a raffle for
gift certificates from $25-$150 value or they could get a class credit for
certain psychology courses. Of these participants, most were Caucasian at 86%,
and the rest were Asian or Pacific Islander at 5%, African American at 2%,
biracial at 2%, American Indian or Alaskan Native at 1%, and Hispanic at 0.4%
(3% did not specify or chose other).

9.    The
following materials were used: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index which
measures seven factors affecting sleep over the last month on a 0-3 scale, 3
being the worst. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale has eight items, testing how
sleepy the participant has felt over the past 6 months, also on a 0-3 scale, 3
being the sleepiest. The Horne-Ostberg Morningness Eveningness Scale where
participants select time preferences for activities between 5:00 a.m. and 12:00
p.m. The Subjective Units of Distress Scale measures participants’ level of
stress. The Profile of Mood States measures how much participants feel
depression, tension, fatigue, confusion, vigor, and anger.

10. An
email was sent to the eligible students and the survey was available online in
the middle of the semester for 4 weeks. After finishing the survey students
could go to a different site to enter the raffle.

11. The
result was that college students have chronically restricted sleep as well as
poor sleep quality. Poor quality sleepers has higher negative mood scores and
more illness. These sleepers also drink more alcohol than others and ingest
more prescription medications to stay awake. The largest cause for poor sleep
quality was reported to be stress.

12. Discussion


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 I am scripting this letter in response of the article your newspaper had printed on the topic of “children learn better with inclusive education” on the date of fourteenth of October,2017 at 7:15 IST by Patricia Mascarenhas which I read with keen interest but the sheer blemishes is a concern for me.
Patricia Mascarenhas stated that ” The Right to Education (RTE) Act, introduced in 2012 allows children with special needs to pursue mainstream education this act is a blessing to all those disabled children who don’t get a chance to study the standard education ,moreover this unites all of the children and creates no borders between them.However I’ am completely against this as not every parent is amped up for carrying their children with inabilities into the standard classroom setting.Also full mainstream education or inclusion  isn’t generally the most ideal approach to address understudy issues research shows that students with the most severe disabilities benefit from placement in regular classrooms. 
In addition the second fact I have chosen is “If you check Ch 2 (2) of the RTE Act, it says that a child with ‘disability’, as defined by the Persons with Disability Act 1995 and the National Trust Act, has the right to free and compulsory education as per the provisions of Ch V of the PWD Act,” informs Pallavi Lotikar. Essentially this RTE demonstration of part 2 gives to each offspring of the age of six to fourteen years the privilege to free and obligatory instruction in an area school till the consummation of rudimentary training. Studies demonstrate that two out of ten youngsters aren’t ready to manage the cost of the essential education. So if these kids are getting free training in any event the neediness will be annihilated and the employment rates would increment in the long run .Isn’t this helpful for India?
Further moving on with what evidence they can mention that “The main problem is that no one is aware or concerned about the provision for special kids”, said lotikar.  There are more than 2,500 schools in India that take into account the necessities of kids with extraordinary needs and learning challenges, such as dyslexia, attention deficit disorder and cognitive disabilities. Endeavours are made to coordinate these children into the mainstream school environment. These schools are doing a great deed in distinguishing their necessities and supporting them battle against their inabilities. 
In addition to the statement mention by Mithu Alur, chairperson,ADAPT adding “that inclusive education does not refer only to children with special needs ,it is high quality education individualised to each child’s needs”. I totally concur with this as inclusive education does not just cook the requirements for unique children or those with incapacities it in facts respects the area in schools where there are, in age suitable ,normal classes and includes everybody in all parts of the life of the school.In my conclusion it basically influences both their school and group to acknowledge decent variety and consideration on a more extensive level.
Accomplishment of Inclusive Education relies upon different variables, of which teacher is the most critical factor. For turning into an equipped and fruitful instructor, it is important to have required learning,  skilled abilities, and a demeanour of coordinated effort .As a matter of fact what lotikar mentioned “Not much is known about inclusive education .They need to look at inclusive education training “which convinces me as studies have shown that the experience and concept of inclusive education is absolutely unclear.I feel that there needs to be a lot of work done in setting up counselling sessions and off the job training .
Doubtlessly this line angers me that “many children not getting fair chance on inclusive education” this is because there are approximately 15000 children enrolled in inclusive schools accomplishing overall inclusion and support.There are many authorities that are working towards the issues that are faced in which they have reached success.Adding on one more line that irritates me is that “lack of adequate support from the authorities and the society which still views disability only on sympathetic grounds leads to insufficient opportunities for inclusion” as statistics represent that 80%of the children have abled to get  opportunities for proper environment for education, also you can hardly argue that the society doesn’t hesitate in holding hands with the special need kids.

The peace treaty between France and Spain who had

The monumental
staircase was created for two purposes. The first purpose was to replace steep
pathways that once led up to the top of the hill. The second purpose was to
celebrate a peace treaty between France
and Spain
who had been at war. The Piazza di Spagna (Spanish Square) which is located at the
bottom of the hill is the site of the Spanish Embassy to the Holy See and at
the top of the hill was the Church of Trinità dei Monti, which at the time was under the
patronage of the Bourbon kings of France. The steps served to
symbolically unite the two nations by physically uniting the two locations.


The project for the
staircase was initiated by a competition held in 1717 by Pope Innocent XIII and
financed with funds from a French nobleman and diplomat named Étienne Gueffier.
The competition was won by a little-known Roman architect named Francesco De
Sanctis and executed shortly thereafter between 1723 and 1725.


The staircase
consists of 11 sets of 12 steps with three additional broad steps at the
bottom, for a total of 135 steps. Four pillars at the base of the staircase are
topped with travertine balls that alternately display reliefs of an eagle, the
symbol of Pope Innocent XIII’s coat of arms, and a Fleur-de-lis, representing
the French Bourbons who financed and approved the project.


The staircase is
divided into two sections each separated by a stone balustrade (stone railing).
At the top of the first section of the staircase is a large plaque with a Latin
inscription commemorating the French nobleman and diplomat Étienne Gueffier who
financed the construction of the monument. At the top of the second section of
the staircase is a second large plaque with a Latin inscription commemorating
Pope Benedict XIII who was pope when the staircase was completed, King Louis XV
of France who reigned when the staircase was completed and Cardinal Melchior de
Polignac who was the French ambassador to the Holy See when the staircase was


Initially the
staircase was called the “Scalinata della Trinità dei Monti” (meaning
Staircase of the Trinity of the Mountains), referring to the Church of the
Santissima Trinità dei Monti which is located at the top of the hill. It soon
came to be referred to as the “Scalinata Spagna” (meaning Spanish
Steps) in reference to the Piazza di Spagna (or Spanish Square) located at the bottom
of the hill, which has been the site of the Spanish Embassy to the Holy See
since 1647.


The Spanish Steps was
a popular gathering place for poets, artists and writers in the eighteenth and
nineenth centuries and has appeared in several popular films throughout the
decades. Today the square and staircase is often filled with locals as well as
visitors to Rome
and in the spring, pots of pink azalea flowers decorate the stairs, adding to
its charm.

In X, and Millennials. Traditionalists were born from 1900-1945,

In the last century, there have been four equally unique generations in the United States. These generations are known as the Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Traditionalists were born from 1900-1945, Baby Boomers from 1946-1964, Generation X from 1965-1980, and Millennials from 1981-2000. Each of these generations have many aspects that make them all distinct: influences, values, attributes, family lifestyle, view on education,  work ethic, and motivation. While the four most recent generations are results of the individual aspects of which they are comprised of, they have each been distinct. By comparing the four most recent generations, individuals can understand how to foster productive relationships and gain insight by seeing through the lens of other perspectives. The primary cause of differences in generations and acting as a strong indicator to differentiate generations is the influences on the generation. Traditionalists were heavily influenced by the effects of the Great Depression, New Deal, World War II, beginning of the Cold War, and the rise of corporations. On the other hand, Baby Boomers were influenced by the Civil Rights Movement, the majority of the Cold War, and the Space Race. As children, Baby Boomers were told to pursue the “American Dream.” This pursuit of the “American Dream” resulted in many becoming covetous, materialistic, and overly ambitious. On the contrary, Generation X was influenced by turbulent government scandals, the rise of dual income families, the majority of children being left unsupervised for extended periods of time, the Oil Crisis of 1973, a large increase of working mothers, and an drastic increase in the number of divorces which resulted in the rise of single parents. They were heavily influenced by having to become self-sufficient at an earlier age than previous generations and reaching maturity in a time where the United States was beginning to decline as a world leader. In contrast, Millennials were influenced by an expanding amount of digital media, a world focused on investing in children, increasingly frequent terrorist attacks at home and around the world, typically growing up with divorced parents and constant stimulation when young. The majority of Millennials ended up being extremely sheltered due to parents trying to protect their children from the ever increasing dangers in the outside world. As Neil Howe states, “millennials have grown up as the focus of one of the most intense child-protection movements in American history, a crusade that has given us drug-free zones and childproof homes, school uniforms and bicycle helmets, V-chips and urban curfews, AMBER alerts and the in loco parentis school and college” (p. 2). Many Millennials can be defined as self-righteous as they work to be a generation with a positive mark in history by fixing the “wrongs” done by past generations in the current world. The core values of each generation are results of their influences, and are a defining characteristic of the generations. Traditionalists valued discipline, respecting and not questioning authority, dedication, conformity, loyalty, patriotism, and trusting the government. Over everything else, Traditionalists valued family and community. Contrarily,  Baby Boomers value optimism, youth, growth, making a positive impact, ending war, limiting government, questioning authority, being a successful person, and treating every person as an equal. In comparison, Generation X values diversity, education, informality, disorganization, enjoying oneself, independence, and their overall cynicism. Generation X is also known to seek balance of work and outside life and highly value thinking with a mindset to do something for the greater good. On the other hand, Millennials value high tolerance for others, good morals, technological advancements, living in the moment, nihilistic optimism, knowing useful life skills, being social, and diversity. Many Millennials are known to overvalue buying on credit, living in the moment, and having a fun experiences with others. Out of everything they value, Millennials strive to be unique. Another defining trait which distinguishes each generation from the other are the general attributes of the generation. Traditionalists are known to be loyal, respectful, ethical, efficient, conservative, and competent individuals. An overall respect for rules and authority drive the dedication of this generation for which it is infamous for. Traditionalists have adapted to technology, but do not have a high reliance on it. Conversely, Baby Boomers are defined by their ambition, competition, idealism, optimism, political correctness, high education, and consumerism. A major attribute of this generation is its overall negative attitude toward government. Baby Boomers are more knowledgeable than the previous generation in regards to technology, but do not rely on it heavily. On one hand, Generation X is distinct in it’s ethics, adaptability, confidence, drive, responsibility, and willingness to work hard. The most distinct trait of this generation is its desire for independence and self-sufficiency. Generation X workers have become reliant on technology for working, and have ample knowledge to operate the technology. On the other hand, Millennials are easily seen to be aimlessly ambitious, team-oriented, sheltered, well educated, focused on diversity, innovative, and geared for political correctness. However, the easiest characteristic of a Millennial to notice is their knowledge of and high reliance on technology. While they play a relatively small effect on the shaping of a generation, the family lifestyle and view on education are unique to each generation, and help to tell one generation apart from another. For Traditionalist children, a good education was a goal to be met. If attained, the resulting knowledge was highly valued in society. Unlike Traditionalists, Baby Boomers viewed a thorough education as a birthright for all. It was expected for somebody to have a good education and to use it well. In contrast, In Generation X, the value of education declined in the eyes of society. Instead of a necessity, education became a means to an end. That end being a well-paying career for the children to eventually find themselves in. Continuing this trend, Millennials view education as less than the two generations before it. As the cost for a strong education increases, the return on investment decreases, and the value of education, especially higher-level education, declines in society. As expected of such diverse generations, they each have unique work ethics.  As Shannon Gausepohl (qtd. in Cascotti) states, “Every person comes into the office with different life experiences, perspectives and views, which is valuable to the company … Having varying perspectives of seeing the world helps you to see more of the landscape and your company’s spot in it, and that’s a great thing.”(par. 3). Traditionalists are well known for their dedication, hard work, respect, and putting the needs of the company before the needs of the individual. According to the West Midland Family Center (WMFC), for Traditionalists, “Authority is based on seniority and tenure” (p. 4). In comparison, Baby Boomer workers have a reputation for being driven workaholics who produced quality results. According to the WMFC, the views from Baby Boomers on authority are “skeptical of authority but are becoming similar to Traditionalists” (p. 4). Similarly yet also differently, Generation X is known to focus on smarter and more efficient work, being self reliant, and working well under a well designed structure. As the WMFC states, Generation X workers are “Skeptical of authority figures,” and “Will test authority repeatedly.” (p. 4). In contrast, Millennial workers are infamous for being ambitious and working on multiple tasks at one time. According to the WMFC states, Millennials “will test authority…” (p. 4). In addition, Millennials have proven to appreciate and sometimes expect to be mentored at work. As White states, “In 2014, 47% of Millennials said they wanted to be mentored by their bosses, a figure that actually crept up by one percentage point in this year’s survey, even though these workers have two more years of work experience under their belts, and many are even becoming managers themselves” (par. 9). To support this, the WFMC also states that Millennial workers will “… often seek out authority figures when looking for guidance” (p. 4).As work ethic and values of each generation are distinct, it comes naturally for there to be differences in motivation for each generation. Traditionalists are motivated by being respected, trusted, and having a secure livelihood through money as compensation for their hard work.Contrarily, Baby boomers like to be validated, being a necessary part of something, and being a valued worker. In addition, they are highly motivated by money, as it is a symbol of status in for the generation. As stated by One Digital, Baby Boomers “are motivated by recognition, want to feel valued, and appreciate monetary rewards” (p. 2). Conversely, Generation X workers are motivated by being left to their own devices, having limited restrictions, being able to have time away from work to take a break, and money as compensation for their work. As stated by One Digital, Generation X workers “…prefer to operate as entrepreneurs and are motivated by freedom, removal of rules and time off. When interacting with HR, they prefer casual information sessions” (p. 3). In contrast, Millennial workers strive to work with others who are of similar skill to them and having free time during work to socialize. Millennials view salary as just a payment for their fair share of work. In conclusion, research indicates the difference between the four most recent generations are very apparent. Each generation has unique influences, values, attributes, family lifestyles, views on education, work ethics, and motivation. For all generations, there are many factors that combine to form create something which is is truly distinct. Understanding the beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral norms of each generation is key to harnessing the positive energy of each generation and fostering healthy interpersonal relationships.

Bosch cultural barrier is one of the common reason

Bosch is an organization that have a healthy mix of
employees from all across the world, hence cultural barrier is one of the
common reason for communications breakdown. Communications breakdown is a
significant issue to be address because employees must be able to communicate
well to work together harmoniously and contribute to the organizational success.
The company could encourage their employees to share aspects of his or her
culture with everyone, so that employees could learn and appreciate other
culture. Alternatively, employees could write a feature article in Bosch connect
about a culture.

As a result of the diverse workplace, language barrier can
occur as well. Some of the employees who came from other countries might not
have a strong English foundation when they started to work in Singapore. They
might struggle to communicate with others or even try to avoid it. For example,
there was a colleague in my team who came from Japan to work for 3 years. It is
difficult for him to communicate in English and sometimes he has to rely on
google translate to send an email. Fortunately, the team was very understanding
and willing to guide him. The positive attitude of the Japanese colleague who
constantly strive to improve his English rather than avoiding also prevent
communication breakdown from occurring. In addressing this barrier, employees
can use simple language and avoid using ambiguous words and jargons.

Physical barriers also obstruct employees to communicate
effectively with each other. At Bosch, each employee is assigned to a cubicle
and is isolated from their colleague’s workspace by partitions glass. Employees
that are of higher rank such as the head of the department will have their own
office to work in. These employees spend most of their time sitting at their
desk facing the computer, and communication is usually done through Skype or
email if they require certain information or materials from their colleagues.
For example, some of the meeting is conducted through skype instead of the
meeting room. Hence, this result in very rare occasion where employees would
interact with each other face-to-face. In time, such irregular conversations
might cause employees to lose their confidence in communicating with people and
feel discomfort when they have to. The company which has already recognized
this issue had carry out some ways to overcome this communication barrier.
Occasionally, each team will organize team outing such as volunteering work and
team dinner. This is to give the employees an opportunity to bond and socialize
with each other.   

Designing designer stream, I was introduced to logo designing

Designing a logo using Vector GraphicsBeing a student in designer stream, I was introduced to logo designing in Vector Graphics class. It was all very fascinating for me. My instructor taught me various techniques to design logos. I was introduced to most widely used tool for designing logos i.e. Adobe Illustrator. It was fun to use such a tool and design attractive logos.Apple pencil to draw on iPad in adobe illustratorThe question arises, Are logos important for a website or a web app or a business. In fact, Logos are an indispensable part of a website or a web app or a company/Business. Logos are used for building trust. A professional logo is perceived by people as a sign of trust. For major companies, logos represent the companies, define a company’s identity. Logos are also used for purpose of branding. Eye-catching logos on promotional and advertisements banners stand out.Current trends in Logo DesignsNothing persists in the world. Same is true for logos as well. The trends always keep changing. Sometimes stripes, letter stacking and geometric shapes are popular and after some time Negative space, mono-line and geometry shapes were fantasy. Some of the things i think are important for logo designing and are in trend always:1. Relevant typographyAlways make use of typography according to your brand. For example, for companies like Microsoft and Apple we have to use fonts that look more professional whereas, for companies like facebook or snapchat a bit of funky typography is more attractive to the customers.2. Geometric line and shapes in logosGeometric shapes if used proper in a logo can be a piece of art. A well balanced and unified geometric shape in a logo can be eye-catching and never gets old. Logos for companies like Adidas and Microsoft use simple geometric shapes and are always welcome by people.3. Use of long shadowsSometimes use of long shadows in logos give them a unique appearance which is easy for the user to trust and remember. Use of shadows is not always necessary, sometimes it makes the design worse. We need to be very specific where to use shadows and where restrict their use.References25 Posts on Why a Good Logo is Essential to Your BusinessHaving a good logo is extremely important to your business and to the branding of your company’s name, but it is also…www.qualitylogoproducts.com2018 Logo Design Trends: Your Guide to Navigate Hot Trends and Avoid FadsA good logo design must reflect your brand, and be memorable, unique, and timeless. You should avoid trends that get in…www.crowdspring.comDrawing with Procreate photo by Rober González (@robergd) on UnsplashDownload this free HD photo of drawing, illustration, art and tech by Rober González (@robergd)unsplash.com

Mass production of processed foodDone by: KerineContents:What is mass

Mass production of processed foodDone by: KerineContents:What is mass productionCertifications and guide to follow for production What is QA and QCWhat are the tests that are done to ensure that the food is of good qualityReference What is mass productionMass production are manufacturing products in a huge quantity. Because the quantity of products that are produced in mass production are huge, the products are often sold at a lower cost. The two types of methods that are used for mass production are human labours and machineries.1  Human laboursHuman labours are also known as manual labour, this method making use of human for production instead of using machines. This method has been in used before machines were being produced and used in the modern world. Some works still require manual labour for works like construction. AutomationTechnology are improving everyday in these days. Everything now are using machines and electronic stuffs for work, communication and casual. Machines are getting more popular these days because it helps to reduce the amount of human errors and can be more precise compared to humans. 1.1 Comparison between human labour and automation in productionHuman LabourAutomation Cheap ExpensiveHigher chance of getting errorsLower chance of getting errorsHigher chance of getting injuriesLower chance of getting injuriesProduction is slowerProduction is fasterRequires resting time Does not require resting time 2. Certifications to follow for production of processed foodProcessed food require ISO 22000. This standard is for food safety management and processed food are meant for consumption, thus if a company wants to produce food products, they are required to get the certificate for ISO 22000. For mass production, it is usually produced in a factory which will require HACCP 2.1 ISO 22000ISO 22000 is a standard for food safety management system. 2 This standard is required in food industries as they are dealing with products that are for consumption. This standards helps to ensure that the food products that are produced by the company is safe and clean for consumption for customer. The food products are to remain clean and safe until it reaches the customer hands. 2 The main purpose for requiring  ISO 22000 is because it aims to lower the risk of causing infection by the food due to contamination. During production, before a food is finally made into a finished product, it will go through lots of procedure and hands in order to make the product. Going through all the process will cause the chance of contamination to be higher as the food is being transferred from one place to another place. This will increase the risk of bacterial contamination, this can cause danger to a person health. 2.1.2 Example Checklist for ISO 22000Source from: https://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/magazine-archive1/december-2005january-2006/a-global-standard-puzzle-solved-how-the-iso-22000-food-safety-management-system-integrates-haccp-and-more/ Point 4 to 4.2 The points in number 4 is focus mostly on the documentations that are used in the company. Some documents are written daily, while documents are written occasionally and must be signed and verified by respective supervisor or managers. These documents must be ensured that the informations and the details are up to date. Point 5 to 5.7The points here are focusing on the management within the company. The company will have to come up with a food safety team for food safety and plan a food safety policy where everyone in the company will have to follow. This food safety team will need to have a team leader and also know the responsibility of each other roles. This food safety  team will have to ensure that all communication within or outside the company is clear so that there will be no miscommunication within each other during production or when talking to external people. Point 6 to 6.4For point 6, it focus on the resources that the company currently have. From human resources eg; management, production  and the raw materials that is needed for production. For human resources, there should be some trainings that are needed for certain type of job like operation of machines or forklifts. Another focus will be the building structure of the company or factory. The auditors will check if the infrastructure of the building is safe for production and is working environment safe for the workers to work here. Point 7 to 7.10This area are focusing on the used of the HACCP. The food safety team that was mentioned before are to identify the hazards that could potentially present in the company which could affect the safety of the food products and the workers who are working there. This process is called Risk Assessment process.Source from: RP Laboratory Management learning package one; Lecture notesAfter identifying the hazards in the company, they would need to evaluate the risk of that particular hazard will cause. Consequence would be how serious will the outcome if the hazard cause any injury while likelihood would be how frequent the hazard will cause injury. 1 is the lowest, 5 is the highestSource from: RP Laboratory Management learning package one; Lecture notesA high consequence could mean that the hazard can cause death or serious injury like paralysed waist down. A low consequence could mean that the hazard might cause minor cuts or  bruise  A high likelihood would mean that the frequency of the hazard causing injury is very common. A low  likelihood would mean that the frequency of the hazard causing injury is not very common.  Point 8 to 8.5This part of the audit would focus on the internal of the company. How often they conduct a internal audit and if the control measures that the company get from the risk assessment is valid and useful. The auditors will also check if the previous rectification is being applied in the company. 2.2  HACCPHACCP is also known as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point. It is a system that is under the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). This system is created to help to control hazards from causing injuries to people, be it chemical or physical hazards during production. 3This system is usually used during raw material production, and during the process of production to make the raw materials into finished goods. In a production company, a HACCP plan is needed for the workers so that they will know what steps to do and the flow of the process that are needed to do for mass production. The main purpose for HACCP plan is to identify what are the hazards or what are the possible hazards during production which might cause spoilage to the food or harm the consumers. Here are the possible types of hazard that can be found in production. 4Types of HazardsExamples Physical Wet floors, uneven floors, loose objects on the floor, protruding objects Ergonomic Lifting heavy objects, standing position, Psychological Sounds, bright lights, heightBiological Bacterias, virus3. What is QA and QCQA is Quality Assurance while QC is Quality Control. These two are often worked together, within a company to ensure that the products are produced are the same and are of good quality. 3.1 What is the job scope of a QARight before a product is being manufactured into a finished product, a QA manager is supposed to plan out what are the possible problems or quality issues will occur during the production of the finished product.  His job will be to plan out and set some guidelines 5 that are required for the product to be produced in a good quality form. For example; calibration of meters. The QA manager will have to plan out the procedure on how to calibrate the meters, the time and steps. Thus, whoever is doing the calibration, will have to follow these steps that are planned by the QA manager. In another words, a role of a QA manager is to prevent defects or error from occurring during production. The QA manager will have to plan what are the documents that are needed for which steps, for example; during production, what is the sample size that are supposed to be taken for taste and what are the test that are supposed to be done for the sample. When the sample is being taken, where is it supposed to be documented in. 6 Another example, is when there is raw materials received. What is the sample size that is supposed to be taken for that amount of raw materials that are received. Eg;  if 350,000 caps are received, a sample size of 50 is to be taken out for inspection. These caps that are taken out, needs to document in which file and submit to who is also planned by the QA manager. 3.2 What is the job scope of a QCA main job of the QC is to check and ensure that all raw materials are of good quality when the company receive the materials. The main job of the QC is to check the raw materials base on the guidelines that the QA manager planned and what are the sample size that is needed to check. When a product is being manufactured out into a finished product, the job of the QC is to check the finished product before delivering it out to the customer. 5 The QC will follow the guidelines that are planned out by the QA manager and check the finished product. The main job of the QC is to ensure that the finished product is of good quality after going through all the process. 3.3 Difference between QA and QCSource from: RP Good Manufacturing Practice Problem 1; 6th presentationFor QA, they focus more on how the product are being developed through the process. They will have to think of ways to prevent defects or bad quality finished product from the production. For QC, they will check and identify what are the defects that are found in the finished products before it reaches the customers’ hands. To put it simply would be QA are in charge of ensuring the products’ quality before it is manufactured out and developed while QC are to check the products that are being produced out from the machines and  ensure that the finished product are of the good quality that the company have promises the customer’s requirements.

Banks reduce credit risk by screening loan candidates, requiring collateral for a loan, performing a credit risk inspection, and by diversification of risks. Banks can considerably minimize their credit risk by loaning to their clients since they have more details about them as compared to other competitors, which lessens unfavourable selection. Checking and savings accounts can unveil how well the customer manage their wealth, basic income, monthly expenditures, and the measure of their reserves to hold them over financial difficulties. Banks will likewise verify incomes and employment history, and get credit reports and credit scores from credit reporting agencies.Collateral for a loan significantly reduces credit risk not just becauseborrower has a greater motivation to repay the loan, but also because the collateral can be sold to repay the obligation if there is an occurrence of adefault.Diversification can also reduce credit risk by producing loans to organizations in diverse industries or to borrowers in various locations.             However, the key to reducing loan losses and ensuring that capital reserves             appropriately reflect the risk profile – is to execute an integrated,              quantitative credit risk strategy. This strategy should get banks up and run              quickly with simple portfolio measures.An effective credit risk strategy should:     Include a sound credit risk policy that prevents operating                                                    losses.     Be clearly comprehended by credit organization.     Have the implementation involving senior management as                                              part of credit procedure and policies.     Act as a key risk control with segregation of duties according                                             to credit function responsibilities.

Jonathan lead to a better understanding of each substance





Fair Essay

Exploring Chemical Combustion

            Gasoline, alcohol, and acetone are
liquids that are used every day as fuel and first aid, as well as powerful
solvents and cleaners. Gasoline is an efficient fuel used by many people every
day. Alcohol has several uses, including cleaners, fuel, and first aid, as it
has powerful cleansing properties. Acetone, too, has numerous uses, serving as
a solvent and fuel and cosmetic additive. Each liquid has many uses, and each is
highly flammable. Of the three, gasoline will burn the longest. If a
measurement of gasoline were to be lit, it will burn longer and more
efficiently than the same measurement of alcohol or acetone because of its ease
of combustion and its efficiency as fuel.

            The purpose of the following
described series of experiment is to answer two main questions, the first being
“Which chemical substance burns for the longest amount of time?”, and the
second being “Which chemical substance burns the cleanest?” This experiment is
set out to answer these questions because their answers may provide valuable
information that can help benefit society, as well as provide a better
understanding of each substance and how each one reacts and combusts. To answer
these questions, a set of controlled experiments is held. The experiments are
controlled as they are held under the same conditions with only one variable:
the chemical substance that is being burned. The purpose of this experiment is
to discover which substance burns the longest and which substance burns the
cleanest, the answers of which can hopefully lead to a better understanding of
each substance and of how each can benefit society.

            Before discussing the experiments
themselves, understanding of each substance must be established. Gasoline is a
substance made from crude oil, a fossil fuel. Fossil fuels are buried
combustible geological deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed
plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or
heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth’s crust over thousands
of years (ScienceDaily). The crude oil pumped out of the ground is called
petroleum, which is an oily, thick, flammable, usually dark-colored liquid that
is a form of bitumen or a mixture of various hydrocarbons, occurring naturally
in various parts of the world and commonly obtained by drilling (Brain,
Marshall; Dictionary.com). Petroleum liquid contains hydrocarbons, meaning that
it contains organic chemical compounds composed only of the elements carbon (C)
and hydrogen (H) (Brain, Marshall; Carey, Francis). Chains of these hydrocarbon
molecules can form into a wide variety of products. “For example, a chain with
just one carbon atom in it (CH4) is the lightest chain, known as methane. As
the chain gets longer, they get heavier” (Brain, Marshall). Hydrocarbon chains
of five to seven carbons form solvents, including dry cleaning fluids and paint
solvents, such as acetone (Wonderopolis.org). The gasoline used for automobile
fuel is made up mainly of hydrocarbon chains with seven to eleven carbon atoms.
These hydrocarbon molecules can combust. “Hydrocarbon combustion refers to the
type of reaction where a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to create carbon
dioxide, water, and heat” (energyeducation.ca). Energy is released from these
types of reactions. This energy is what powers the gas engine, which in turn,
power the automobile (energyeducation.ca). Gasoline is a substance made from
crude oil, or petroleum, which is a highly flammable substance made of
hydrocarbons that combust and react with oxygen to generate energy that powers
the device of which it serves as fuel to.

            Isopropyl Alcohol, also known as
Propanol or Isopropanol, is a colorless, flammable, water-soluble liquid
produced usually by methods of hydration (Dictionary.com; Favors, LaTasha). The
process of creating isopropyl alcohol begins with the process of Hydration.
“During hydration, the component substances of water, which are hydrogen and
oxygen (H20), react with those that compose propene—carbon and hydrogen (C3H6)”
(Favors, LaTasha). There are two methods of hydration under which isopropyl
alcohol can be produced. These methods include direct hydration and indirect
hydration. “In direct hydration, propene and water are combined either in their
liquid or gaseous forms. For a reaction to occur, a solid acidic catalyst (a
substance that triggers chemical reactions) must be present when the two
substances mix” (Favors, LaTasha). Manufacturers use furnaces to apply pressure
and heat to the material, to stimulate the reaction. However, as “not all
materials are consumed in the reaction, a system for separating and recycling
waste materials and byproducts is then employed” to ensure that the alcohol is
as pure as it can be” (Favors, LaTasha). The second method of hydration is
indirect hydration. “In indirect hydration, the propene is initially mixed and
dissolved with sulfuric acid, in an apparatus called an absorber. The result is
a mixture of sulfate ester” (Favors, LaTasha). Later in the process, the
sulfate esters mix with water and run through hydrolyzers, which are machines
that “break down the water and other complex molecules to create isopropyl
alcohol,” and, as with direct hydration, “byproducts are either recirculated or
set aside” (Favors, LaTasha). These reactions form new chemical bonds and
create isopropyl alcohol. However, these chemical reactions often leave additional
byproducts. The initial result of these reactions is a mixture of alcohol and
various other wastes and byproducts. Thus, the substance is refined by the
process of distillation, which is defined as “the volatilization or evaporation
and subsequent condensation of a liquid” (Favors, LaTasha; Dictionary.com). The
process of distillation then produces one-hundred percent isopropyl alcohol
(Favors, LaTasha). Isopropyl alcohol is a flammable liquid that is produced by a
three-part process of hydration, hydrolysis, and distillation.

Understanding the chemical structure of
isopropyl alcohol can help to also understand why the substance is so useful. The
chemical formula of isopropyl alcohol is written as C3H8O, meaning that there
are three carbon (C) atoms, eights hydrogen (H) atoms, and one oxygen (O) atom
per molecule of the liquid. “The three carbon atoms of isopropyl alcohol are
bonded together in a three-carbon chain. The two carbon atoms at each end have
three hydrogen atoms bonded to them, and the carbon atom in the middle has one
hydrogen atom bonded to it and one hydroxyl (OH) group bonded to it”
(Study.com). Because of its hydroxyl group, isopropyl alcohol molecules are
held together only by weak hydrogen bonds. “Consequently, it has a much higher
boiling point and melting point than propane,” another chemical substance with
the same number of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms (Brennan, John). Also, as
isopropyl molecules are only loosely held together, they can combust easily. “Combustion
is a process in which strong electrostatic force of attraction between the
molecules are broken and simpler compounds are formed, resulting in the release
of energy” (Jha, Amrendra). This is also why the substance is flammable,
because the easily triggered combustion process takes the form of burning.
Furthermore, Isopropyl alcohol is a very useful substance that can be used for
a wide variety of products. For example, “exposure to oxidizing agents like
chromic acid will convert isopropyl alcohol into acetone, while exposure to
heat and concentrated sulfuric acid can dehydrate isopropyl alcohol to form
propene” (Brennan, John). When mixed with water, isopropyl alcohol makes for a
very good disinfectant for surfaces, as well as an effective antiseptic for
wounds. Isopropyl Alcohol is a flammable, water-soluble liquid made by one of
two forms of hydration, and is very combustible, making it a very useful liquid
used in first aid, cleaners, and even fuel. 

Acetone is a colorless, volatile,
water-soluble, flammable liquid usually derived by oxidation of isopropyl
alcohol or by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (Dictionary.com). The
molecules that make up acetone are composed of three atoms of carbon (C), six
atoms of hydrogen (H), and one atom of oxygen (O), making its chemical formula
C3H6O, a formula very similar to that of isopropyl alcohol, which is C3H8O.
Because carbon atoms are present in acetone’s chemical formula, acetone is
considered an organic compound. Furthermore, “acetone falls under the
classification of ketones, which are organic compounds containing a carbonyl
group, where carbon and oxygen are bonded to each other with a double bond” (Study.com).
Acetone is known as the simplest ketone, as it has the most basic structure of
these bonds (Study.com). Acetone, known also as propanone, is produced in
multiple ways, including by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol. As was
mentioned before, isopropyl alcohol will convert into acetone from exposure to
oxidizing agents, such as chromic acid. Such oxidizing agents react with the
substance in such a way that it actually changes into a new substance, that is,
acetone (Brennan, John). Another way that acetone is produced is by bacterial
fermentation, also known as acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. In this
process, acetone and butanol are produced from glucose using strands of
Clostridia, which are strictly anaerobic bacteria. ABE fermentation produces
solvents in a ratio of three parts acetone, six parts butanol to one part
ethanol (Nujum, Noufal). Finally, acetone has
multiple uses, serving mainly as a cleaner or solvent. Acetone is an active
ingredient in many nail polish removers because of its powerful ability to
remove material. Because of this ability as well, it is used in paint removing
liquids for automobiles and furniture, too. It is widely used in the textile
industry for degreasing wool and degumming silk (ChemicalSafetyFacts.org). Acetone
is used in many products, though most all of these products utilize the
powerful ability it has as a solvent. Acetone is a flammable, water-soluble
liquid, produced by the oxidation of isopropyl alcohol or ABE fermentation, and
has a powerful ability as a solvent.

As each substance to be used in the
experiments has been clearly defined and explained, the steps for the
experiment may now be listed and understood. As was mentioned before, the
purpose of this experiment is to answer two questions, the two being “Which
chemical substance burns for the longest amount of time?” and “Which chemical
substance burns the cleanest?” Thus, to ensure the most accurate data possible,
a set of controlled experiments are held. Some items were purchased beforehand
in preparation for the experiments. Three of the same sized metal bowls, a
standard plastic barbeque lighter, metal measuring spoons (metal so that the
chemical substances, especially acetone, would not melt or damage the spoons),
and a stopwatch are included among these pre-purchased items. The experiment
was held in an outdoor patio at night, as night is the time of day where wind
is almost completely absent, and thus, cannot interfere with the results of the
experiment. Furthermore, each chemical was placed and ignited in the exact same
place in the patio, to ensure a fair and equally consistent burn process for
each liquid. After all the preparation is complete, it is time to begin the

This experiment is a controlled experiment,
each step being carefully and meticulously completed. Each substance was held
in its own respective bowl, to ensure that the chemical substances do not mix. Furthermore,
as the same fifteen-milliliter measuring spoon was used for each substance, it
was thoroughly washed after each time it was used to carry one of the
substances. The experiment starts with measuring fifteen milliliters of
gasoline and pouring it into its corresponding metal bowl. The experiment was
originally completed by using only five milliliters of each chemical substance
instead of fifteen, but the amount was changed so that the results would be
more accurate, as the larger the amount of each substance is used, the more
accurate the results can be, and thus the amount was changed to fifteen
milliliters. After the substance is poured into its bowl, all other flammable
liquids and materials are pushed far away, to guarantee that they do not catch
fire. After all safety precautions are set in place, the substance is ignited.
The gasoline is ignited with a plastic barbeque lighter that carries butane as
its fuel. The moment the gasoline ignites, the stopwatch is pressed, and the
combustion reaction is timed. When gasoline is first ignited, there is no
largely noticeable difference in the atmosphere. however, after just a few
seconds, it begins to give off black smoke, as well as an offensive odor. After
prolonged exposure to these, one might begin to experience discomfort in their
eyes and lungs, which is why it is important to wear proper safety equipment,
such as safety glasses and a respirator, as protection from the smoke. Just as
a larger amount of each substance can increase the accuracy of the results, the
more times an experiment is held, the more accurate the results will be. Thus,
each substance was tested five times, of which the middle three results are
included in the end results of the experiment. After being tested five times,
the middle three results for gasoline came to be two minutes and eight point
twenty-six seconds (128.26 seconds), two minutes and sixteen point zero four
seconds (136.04 seconds), and two minutes and thirty-three point seventy-six
seconds (153.76 seconds), averaging to about 139.35 seconds.

After experimentation with gasoline is
completed, it is time to move on to the next substance: isopropyl alcohol. The
isopropyl alcohol used in this experiment is ninety-two percent isopropyl
alcohol, meaning eight percent of it is water and the rest of it is alcohol. Experimentation
with isopropyl alcohol is done in the same way as was gasoline, only it is done
in a new, clean bowl and with a different substance, that is, isopropyl
alcohol. As was done with gasoline, the isopropyl alcohol is ignited at the
same time the stopwatch is pressed. Unlike the gasoline, the isopropyl alcohol
lets off no smoke or offensive fumes whatsoever. It does give off an odor, but
it is barely noticeable and is not offensive at all. The substance burns
cleanly, but the flame is much smaller and less prominent than that of the
gasoline. The end results of experimenting with isopropyl alcohol are three
minutes and twenty-seven point ninety-eight seconds (207.98 seconds), three
minutes and thirty-eight point eighty-five seconds (218.85 seconds), and three
minutes and eleven point sixteen seconds (191.16 seconds), averaging to about 206.00

Finally, the last substance to be tested is
acetone. Just as before, the acetone is tested in the same way the other
substances before it were, only in a new, clean bowl. As acetone evaporates
quickly, once it is poured into the bowl, it must be ignited quickly to obtain
consistent results. The acetone is ignited, and, at the same time, the
stopwatch is pressed. The acetone did not burn as dirtily as the gasoline, but
also not as cleanly as the alcohol. It was somewhere between the two. The
burning acetone did release some fumes, but they were mild and very tolerable.
When the final experiment with acetone was completed, the middle three results
ended up being one minute and forty-nine point ninety-eight seconds (109.98
seconds), one minute and forty-four point sixty-seven seconds (104.67 seconds),
and two minutes and two point twelve seconds (122.12 seconds), averaging to
about 112.26 seconds, making it the shortest lasting burn time of all the

In conclusion, the final results of these
experiments show that gasoline is not the longest burning, nor the cleanest
burning substance among the ones tested. It showed to be only the second
longest burning and it was the only substance to produce black smoke. Acetone,
which was tested last, burned cleanly, but lasted for the shortest amount of
time. Isopropyl alcohol, which was tested second, burned the longest and the
cleanest, releasing no smoke or harsh odors. These results show that the
original hypothesis has been disproven and rejected completely. A revised
hypothesis would be “if a measurement of alcohol were to be lit, it will burn
longer and more efficiently than the same measurement of gasoline or acetone
because of its purity and ease of combustion.” Furthermore, the questions for
which this experiment was held have been answered fully and with surety, and
the research and results derived from the processes of preparing for and
carrying out the experiment possess the capability of expanding one’s
understanding of each substance and of combustion reactions, an understanding
that may help impact society for the better if he applies what he learns to
scientific purposes. Such an understanding may be valuable to an engineer, a
biotechnician, an automotive person, or even just a student, as they can each
have a better understanding of the substances, of combustion reactions, and of
the scientific process after completing this experiment. As far as improving the
experiment, the only practical thing would be to find a more accurate method of
measuring the liquids, as it is very easy to accidentally spill some liquid
when handling a regular filled measuring spoon. Besides this, though, the
experiment method was practical and uses very common materials and substances.
This experiment explored the chemical structures of three substances, as well
as tested how each one combusts, leading to a better understanding of each
substance and how they react, an understanding that, if applied correctly, can
help greatly impact society for the better. 


Entrepreneurship services. ii) Purchase journal: A purchase journal also







Amisha Acharya

Bus 305 Fundamental
Accounting Principles

Presidential Business

Westcliff University

Mr. Birendra Mahatto

Professor: Dr. Yvan

January 28, 2018





This analysis will highlights on to an Entrepreneurship




An individual who starts a business prepared to risk loss in
order to make money is Entrepreneur. They are innovator, procedures, and source
of new ideas. They have skills to anticipate current and future needs forming new
ideas (Entrepreneur, n.d.). Entrepreneur plays
a key role in an economy.

An Entrepreneur comes with a host of challenges- trying to
establish a brand, adjust to match and keep the business profitable. An Entrepreneur
faces obstacles when they first build their company (Alton, 2016). Financial issues,
building a team, making important decisions, answering bug questions,
rule-making, decision making are the challenges and are difficult to overcome.

The benefits that entrepreneur gain are: – personal
financial gain, self-employment, developing more industries, self-motivation.

According to the question, this chapter is related to the
topic “Happy Family” who supply organic food dealing with numerous suppliers
and customers establishing their own company.

1.Identify the special journals that Happy Family would be
likely to use in its operation. Also, identify any subsidiary ledgers that it
would likely use.

Ans: Happy Family has used both special journals and
subsidiary ledgers in its operation. The company is likely to use the following
special journal.

i)Sales journal: A sales journal is the accounting journal
used to record all credit sales of a company. It records the revenue generated
by the sales of goods or services.

ii) Purchase journal: A purchase journal also known as
purchase day book is a special journal used to record all the purchase made on
credit during a period.

iii) Cash receipts journal: A cash receipt journal is a special
accounting journal used for all receipts of cash or record cash collection. It
records the cash inflow of the company.

iv)Cash disbursements journal: A cash disbursement journal
also known as cash payment journal is a journal by accountants to record all
the payment and expenses made by a company. It records the cash outflows of the

v) General journal: The general journal is the master
journal to record all company transactions but not in special journals. It is
the book of original entry that requires both accounts debited and credited be
listed along with their balance amounts.

The company also is likely to use the following subsidiary

i)Account receivable subsidiary ledger: An account
receivable subsidiary ledger is an accounting ledger to tracks the amounts owed
by individual customers. It is a list of clients who are the debt to the

ii) Account payable subsidiary ledger: An account payable
subsidiary ledger is an accounting ledger to track the amounts owed to
individual vendors. It is also known as creditor’s ledger and the lists of

iii) Inventory ledger: Inventory ledger is the ledger that
shows all different inventory items like inventory ready to sell, in process of
being completed and materials to be used in production.

2. Happy Family hopes to double yearly sales within five
years hence from its current $100 million annual amount. Assume that its sales
growth projections are as follows:


One year    Two years   Three years    Fourth years   Fifth years
Hence         Hence           Hence            Hence            Hence

Projected growth in sales      
   (from the preceding year)…..     0%             20%             15%                 25%               20%


Ans: The current annual amount of Happy Family is $100
million. The double yearly sales in five years are known with the help of


Year 1: $100000

Year 2: $100000*20% = $120000

Year 3: $120000*15% = $138000

Year 4: $138000*25% = $172500

Year 5: $172500*20% = $207000

Year           One Year           Two Years          Three Years           Fourth Years         Fifth Years
                      Hence                 Hence                  Hence                      Hence                 Hence

Sales….      $100.0 mil         $120.0mil             $138.0 mil              $172.5 mil           $207.0 mil


The above table explains if sales follow the growth
projected, the company will have more than doubled the current $100 million in
annual sales to $207 million annually.



Alton, L. (2016, January 07). The 8 biggest
challenges for new entrepreneurs. Retrieved from Entrepreneur:
Entrepreneur. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2018, from Investopedia:






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