Ideologies my sister and I that we are not

are a part of everyone. Everyone has them to some degree. When evaluating my
own ideologies and beliefs I recognize several; such as feminism, equality of
opportunity, and Marxism. Most of my personal ideologies lie within the realm
of equality. I believe woman should have the same rights and opportunities that
are so easily afforded to men. Equality of opportunity is exactly that, the
eradication of discrimination within our society; such as race, gender,
religion or disabilities. The ideas in Marxism that draws me to it is the goal
of a classless system and a proletariat ruled society. I believe that a lot of
political systems take advantage of the working class and Marxism begins to steer
away from that.

            From a young age my mother instilled into my sister and I
that we are not above anyone else simply because of circumstance. No matter
your race, class, gender, or religion everyone should be afforded the same opportunities
as everyone else. Growing up in a religious home this was something my mom was
very adamant about, that everyone was created equal in the eyes of God and that
you must treat everyone with kindness and be selfless in many aspects of ones life.
My mother along with my own experiences have led me to having ideologies that
match up with feminism. Throughout my lifetime I have witnessed many instances
of sexism and misogyny; from street harassment, the wage gap, rape “jokes”, slut
shaming, etc. Experiencing and witnessing these things further cemented my
position as a feminist and my goals to see a society closer to gender equality
within my lifetime.

            The Abnegation factions within the movie shows commonalities
with Marxism. Abnegation is known as the selfless factions and they blame the selfish
acts of mankind as cause of their downfall, so they focus themselves on being
completely selfless. For example, the faction itself feeds and cares for the
factionless following the Marxist ideals that no person gets left behind. My
family also makes a habit out of this; throughout my childhood we would frequently
feed the homeless and sometimes even give them the coats off our backs. One
character who also shows these traits is Tris. She is seen throughout the movie
making decisions to benefit others. She was also born into Abnegation so and
therefore was taught to be selfless and care for others from birth; this
selflessness also helps her succeed in Dauntless. 

First team may ruin the play but we cannot

First of all generalization is a general explanation or idea acquired by derivation from particular cases by mostly observation. Sometimes our generalizations can be based on our experiences, emotions and perceptions. There are methods for knowing where speculations do exist and data is more precise, for example, in measurements or the normal sciences. In any case, we can never be a hundred percent sure certain that what we feel, see or accept is acknowledged as valid from everybody. In this manner, I believe that the statement written above is more likely to be true means I agree.

            If we should give an example, this can be about the sport teams. For example basketball team plays and you are watching it, the team may ruin the play but we cannot say that they are such a bad team that they ruin the play all the time. On the other side if we search about the teams history and get some data about their losts and wins we may say something about the team but just looking at one game and make a general comment (generalization) would be pretty wrong.

            Another example could be taken from the art galleries. In art galleries there are tons of pictures, each and every picture has different meanings hidden inside and when the people look at them they all see something different related with the history of them maybe. The main idea is that, even for the pictures our generalizations may lead us to the wrong way.

            Behind these the generalizations may help us in the natural sciences such as math, physics and biology. In the natural sciences we see generalizations all the time because the experiences are done multiple times which is enough to make generalizations. For example in the world wherever you go, 2 plus 2 is equal to 4. No matter how many times we repeat the same calculation, the answer would never change and makes the generalization a right one.

            Another impact that separates the cost starting with one nation then onto the next is the power of its economy; in the USA, for instance, the costs are put in whichever esteem the administration needs. This is another case of why speculations are never 100% genuine and might be mistaken.

            Continuously when you make tests, they must be rehashed one hundred times to check if the outcomes meet, they must be reasonable tried, else you have bamboozled, and the outcomes won’t be obvious. By doing the tests bunches of times it is probably going to accomplish similar outcomes again and again, and that is the thing that you need, notwithstanding, you can’t state that this specific analysis will dependably give a similar outcome.

            When we sum up, we can confer botches effortlessly, as perhaps there has been an absence of concentrate of the subject, or an absence of specific perception which for me can be viewed as more exact and exact, as there is a more extensive perspective of the issue being examined, and most of the time we can prove these perceptions, on the off chance that they are done effectively. Likewise, there are things we say where nobody can negate this, so it’s considered “genuine”. So basically my answer to the knowledge question that I wrote above would be yes. We are more likely to be mistaken in our generalizations than our particular observations. 

In is equally as lethal. It, too, has the

In Fire and Ice Robert Frost uses
the elements of fire and ice very symbolically. While he could be speaking
literally of the destruction of the world by fire or ice, I believe he using the
two elements to describe the two types of people in this world.


Fire, or “desire”, would be the
type of person filled with love, passion, and bliss. Robert Frost knows from
personal experience, that these powerful emotions are strong enough to turn our
world into a huge fireball of emotion, ultimately destroying humanity as we
know it.


Then there is ice, also known as
the harsh emotion of hatred. While love may get all the praise, hatred is
equally as lethal. It, too, has the power to destroy our world with its cold emotions.


Robert Frost could also be speaking
of something like war, where these two emotions go against each other, and
ultimately end up destroying each other, and everything around them.


Fire could additionally be
described as the animal side of our nature. The emotions associated with fire
are instinctual for us. We don’t think, we just do. Therefore, in Robert frosts
opinion, fire would win, and end up destroying earth. The “ice” emotions are far
more complicated. They need deliberation and thought.


            In line 3
Robert writes “From what I’ve tasted of desire” meaning he has definitely
experienced the emotions that go along with fire. He seems much more hesitant
on the subject of hatred or “ice” for example in line 4 he writes “I think I know enough of hate”. We don’t what hate he knows from this line. Has he
merely observed hate, has he been the victim, or has he been the one hating?


            When I
think of hate, I think of rage, which is associated with the color red, like
fire. So why doesn’t Robert frost portray hate as fire? Maybe he is speaking of
the type of anger that lingers in your mind, beneath the surface of it all. Eventually
that anger is pressured to show its self in one way or another. Imagine a lake
frozen over, if you hit it hard enough it cracks and the water underneath it
all shows itself.

It was the first trigger for my choice of

It has been said that “Perseverance is not a long race, it is many short races one by one”. Those perseverant short races of my own life have always been influenced by my persistent determination to achieve my goals and my passion for learning and they shaped the person that I have become.My first race started after finishing my high school. My father is a civil engineer and I’ve always watched how different software supports his career by all means and that encouraged me to search and find out how different computing-related fields take part and interact with all other scientific fields. In fact, that was the first trigger for my choice of Informatics Engineering in Albaath University as my major and during my studies for various formative courses I realized more the vital role of this field in changing our future world into a better place. I was and still am certain that of all scientific specializations at the present time, Computer Science takes pride of place. Unfortunately, I had to drop out of my university after my third year due to the war circumstances in Syria and I had to move to Saudi Arabia with my family. For the following two years I was hopelessly waiting for returning back to my university and there was no chance for completing my studies in KSA. Starting over in 2013 at JUST University in Jordan with a new major which is specific oriented program was an excellent platform for me on a personal, academic and practical level and eventually I got my bachelor in Network Engineering and Security.Completing my masters’ studies is my next aim and studying abroad in a high-tech country like Sweden will help me in constructing a better professional identity and boosting my intellectual vitality. In addition to the excellent worldwide reputation of the University of Karlstad and the keen sense of a welcoming atmosphere that I have about it, the decisive factor for me to choose this particular master programme in computer science is its focusing on Computer Networking and Security. I am eager to dive deeper into Computer Networking and Security and enhance my related qualifications in problem solving, theoretical and applied researching and handling with complex situations.

Today roots knowledge and that will give you definite


Today I am going to share few tricks and tips to become popular
on Instagram, you can increase your followers gradually. Nothing comes over
night, I do not have magic stick or neither you should believe in magic nor shortcuts,
Everything takes time in life, I have been researching on this topic since long
and have came across with many websites and apps who guarantee you 100k
followers or more than this in few hours. Here I am not going to let you know
any type of short term short cuts but will be sharing route to roots knowledge
and that will give you definite and steady success. My small effort can be
useful to those who are earning from Instagram. So let’s begin with it.

Three things to keep in mind while creating Instagram account

Decide your niche

I have been visiting many famous Instagram account and one
thing is common is content. If you are good content writer then just pick up
your niche that goes viral and start posting, you can also check out your
competitors account to find your niche, such as writing about sports,
celebrity, food, funny videos or depend on your interest.

Create complete account

Everyone knows how to create account in Instagram. Fill your
profile description well that will help your followers to know more about you. Find
suitable logo for your account, even 3d logos are also famous, put profile picture,
you can also mention your email Id for collaboration or just write PM for

Make an add

Create add to tell people to follow you, some high quality
video and music will help you to get more followers, Post add on other similar pages
and in your social circle.


Top 8 secrets to become Instagram famous


1. Repeat your most liked post:

For instance you have shared a video on recipe and it has got
many likes and your followers have been increasing afterwards this is the clear
indication from you followers that they really like this video and want you to
make more videos on the same topic so notice your account carefully and do what
your followers wish. This automatically increases your followers.

2. Be connected with your viewers

Whenever your followers comment just reply, If they have just
sent smiley then small heart on right side in Instagram do like that, One will
feel special and recognized and will be your loyal follower forever. Won’t you
feel good if someone does this to you?


3. Regular Insta stories

Don’t take this lightly. Instagram stories will surely bring
more followers. If it’s not possible for you to make story on daily basis then
schedule it once in three days but do Instagram story it is very effective.

4. Share the same post on other social media platform

Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp, there are many more social media
platform to share one post, do use it, if not all then some of it, Decide one
post and rest just post on all other social media platform that will increase
your likes and followers. Utilise them wisely to increase your followers.

5. Give hint or teaser for upcoming posts

This is also very effective and creates curiosity amongst
your followers. Try to give hint about your next post, Event or video. What are
you going to do next, how this can be beneficial to them? Just give small hint
about it and the rest leave upon the followers.

6. Use Schedule for post regular post for organic posters

If you are looking for organic followers then you have to
post regularly, If you are travelling or busy with some other stuff then just
schedule your post. Posting regularly will engage your followers with you and
they will be waiting for your next post after the other.

7. Use video for more engagement

Researchers found that posting video is more attractive then
image, If you have really good camera than try to post more videos then images.

8. Like popular hash tags

Find your audience like or comment on particular related
group. There are many popular hash tags and I have found people following them
all. But try to find out right audience and accordingly follow it. For example
if you are having photography accounts than there is no point of following #deepikapadukon.
Do not only follow celebrities instead follow right audience, loyal followers
who is going to like your future post


I have seen people following others so that they can follow
you back follow others but do  not exceed
more than 100 a day you can un follow them by next day too.

Don’t upload everything at one go post only 3 times a day
that is more than enough.

Use most relevant trending hash tags if you are beginners. There
many tools available online use them.

Do not believe in imposters who takes money out of you and
give you likes or followers, they are not genuine at all, likes, and followers
everything is fake.

Be aware, Stay Blessed. J






I high-end automobiles. The other is to aim at

I recently watch the discussion of SCOTT ANTHONY, BRUCE BROWN AND ERICH JOACHIMSTHALER. In this discussion everyone participated with their own point of view. Discussion is quite interesting. But the question is how to find opportunity in emerging market. After watching this video and listening all of them I agree with the SCOT ANTHONY. In emerging market that can lead in one of two directions. One approach aims for the rich customer who has an aggregate purchasing power. Today these customers can enjoy luxury brands, world class restaurants and high-end automobiles. The other is to aim at the bottom of pyramid that contains the new customers who beginning to gain purchasing power products and services. The rich segment in many markets is fairly well served and sustainable competitive advantage is difficult to obtain. But success in the bottom of the pyramid is difficult and challenging. So rather than focus on where the market is today? Investor looks where the market is going to be. The opportunity in emerging market clearly defines in the middle class. In the middle class number of potential consumer are available. According to SCOTT ANTHONY, in 2009 GODREJ & BOYCE launched “Chotukool”, a $70 refrigerator targeting the 85% of Indians who found the existing refrigerator too expensive. “Chotukool” fulfill the needs of middle class consumer. This “Chotukool” is portable battery –powered refrigerator is a huge hit and GODREJ plan to extend the “chotukool” brand to washing machines and other appliance for the benefit of middle consumers. Understanding the unique demand is another key factor to find an opportunity in emerging market. SCOTT ANTHONY also focused on the business model. For this he explained the example of Ten cent’s QQ instant messenger service. Ten cent is one of the world’s biggest internet companies; producing $1 billion in revenues per quarter. The secret behind the ten cent success is the innovative and unique business model. This is new way to create, capture or deliver value to the customer. The most important about business model provides the sustainable competitive advantage. At last companies need to energize their local operations and ask their office in emerging market to be innovation hot spots that generate unique insight and design and deliver the market appropriate product in the emerging market.

The who was taking drugs. About 78.8% are against

The mean scores of (9.3 ±1.585)
questionnaire was above the theoretical mid-point (61% with a 10-point and 44%
with 9-point). However, overall scores were normally distributed and Kolmogorov–Smirnov
test (0.006) denoted normal distribution. Distributions of student responses to
different questions are presented in table 1.


Prevalence and attitude toward doping


The prevalence of personal use of
banned substances among physical education students is 2.7%. While 6.8% are
willing to use any prohibited substances in the future. About 49.1% had met someone who was taking
drugs. About 78.8% are against such a person being presented in their vicinity.
Almost 94.1% of the participants think that using prohibited substances is
considered a kind of fraud and deceit and 85.1% is considered as a form of


When the mean scores were compared
between those who reported doping use and those who claimed not using doping,
the difference was of no statistical significance (Table 2). A majority
(204/221, 92.3%) who claimed staying away from doping in the future recorded
higher mean scores than those who willing to use PEDs (Table 2). The difference
was statistically significant.


Knowledge of doping and welcoming
for training


Only 28.4% of the studied
population indicated that they had heard of the IOC/WADA list of banned
substances. Only 44.3% of who said yes could name drug/drugs on the banned
list. About 78.5% reported that they are aware about world anti-doping program,
only 22.5% could mention the role of this program in terms of control doping
among athletes by detection, awareness and continuing education to keep
fairness, justice and spirit of sport. Around 94.5 of the participants
confirmed the importance of knowledge to physical education students in their
career and general life.


Reasons of use & Beliefs
regarding doping


The most frequently chosen reason
for doping (55.8%) is the considerable pressure on the athlete by expectations
of others such as coaches, audience, family, friends and even society itself.
The distribution of different responses about reasons of doping was presented
in figure 1. While 50% of who reported personal use of doping believed that
doping use is owing to a very strong desire to achieve the best results and
33.3% of them due to lack of knowledge about the effects of doping.


 In terms of health consequences, 97.7% of
respondents reported that using doping substances have negative health
consequences. Around 14.8% believed that using of doping substances are
efficacious in improving performance and considered the reason behind the
usage. In this study, just over the half (51.4%) agreed that some of the
current top athletes used doping substances. Interestingly, the same percentage
(50%) was recorded among those who reported personal use of doping.


Attitudes towards doping prevention
and testing


In the present study, 41.3% thought
that current doping controls cannot detect the athletes who took dope.
Moreover, 62% of the respondents confirm that there is a way to deceive the
doping control tests.


Sports and doping scandals


The most infected sports by doping are
in figure 2. About 21% of the responses were related to athletics and Judo,
football 17%, then wrestling 12%. While least marked sports with doping
scandals are in figure 3. Around 26% of the responses were related to swimming,
football 18%, then fencing 14%.



The use of PEDs has been a problem
in sport for long time. It was recommended to further expand the current doping
data to all geographical and cultural areas to understand the global situation
and to allow better comparisons between countries (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). Up to authors’
knowledge, there is no study about doping in this locality. The results of
present study could give a preliminary data about the knowledge, beliefs and
attitudes of a group from physical education students toward doping to
understand and consequently could prevent doping among young people in respect
to their culture and locality.


Prevalence and attitude toward doping


The mean overall score indicated
that no problem to expose beliefs and explicit attitude toward doping. The prevalence of
personal use of banned substances
and even that of who willing to use any prohibited substances
in the future in the present
study is very small and negligible in comparison to prevalence of earlier
studies taking into account their young age (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). This is also
could be attributed to their culture. We should put in our mind until now they
did not receive any course within their curriculum about doping, this specific
course will be taken in the last year.


The estimates of use among their
mates or any other people around them are significantly more than self-reported
use. This percent is consistent with other previous study which explained that
high percentage of students is familiar with the doping effects mostly through
their mates or acquaintances (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). Most of
students (78.8%) are against such a person being presented in their vicinity.
percent is higher than that was presented by previous study (47%) (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013).
is very important that the majority of participants have a negative opinion on
this matter and this could support their ant-doping attitudes. The engagement of
doping was encouraged by coaches, friends, family members and other athletes.
From prevention point of view, minimization of the behavior towards the use of
banned substances could be encouraged by surrounding peoples (Dunn and Thomas 2012).

Biodata kelas 5 Sekolah Dasar dengan mengikuti sang ayah

Via Vallen menjadi hal dicari banyak orang, hal ini lumrah mengingat
Via Vallen adalah bintang dangdut yang sedang naik daun. Lagu Sayang,
yang memiliki lirik sederhana dengan campuran bahasa jawa menjadi
“candu” yang mudah terngiang dan diingat oleh pecinta musik.

Maulida Octavia atau yang lebih populer dikenal sebagai Via Vallen
adalah penyanyi yang dikenal luas sebagai penyanyi dangdut koplo. Via
yang memiliki darah Aceh dan Bandung ini sudah mengasah kemampuan
bernyanyinya dari kelas 5 Sekolah Dasar dengan mengikuti sang ayah
manggung. Ayah Via Vallen adalah musisi dangdut yang mencari nafkah
dari panggung ke panggung. Pada awalnya Via Vallen menyukai jalur
pop, dan orang tuanya mengarahkan biduan kecil tersebut ke jalur
dangdut. Arahan orang tuanya terbukti tidak salah, kini Via Vallen
dikenal luas berkat dangdut koplo. Yuk simak Biodata Via Vallen
berikut ini.
Informasi Umum
Nama Lahir : Maulidia
Nama Panggung : Via
Tempat dan Tanggal
Lahir: Surabaya, Jawa Timur, 1 Oktober 1991
Tempat Tinggal :
Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur
Kebangsaan: Indonesia
Jenis aliran musik:
Dangdut Koplo, Pop
Pekerjaan: Penyanyi,
Agama : Islam
Tahun aktif sebagai
musisi: 2006– hingga sekarang
Perusahaan rekaman:
Ascada Musik Indonesia
Nama Orang tua :
Mohammad Arifin ( Ayah ) dan Rosida ( Ibu)
Perjalanan karir
Via Vallen memulai awal
karir di usia dini, yakni 15 tahun. Pada tahun 2008 Via bergabung
dengan orkes OM SERA. Perlahan nama Via Vallen mulai dikenal luas
oleh masyarakat jawa timur. Via vallen juga
sering kali manggung dengan grup orkes terkenal
lainnya seperti OM New Pallapa dan Om Monata.
Seiringnya berjalannya waktu, nama Via Vallen mulai dikenal publik
tanah air melalui unggahan video video musik orkes dangdut yang
diunggah oleh beberapa penggemar musik dangdut koplo, suara yang
merdu, gaya berpakaian yang fresh dan wajah cantik menjadi beberapa
faktor yang menopang kecepatan kepopuleran nama Via Vallen.
Pada sekitar tahun
2015, Singel Selingkuh menjadi awal mula Via Vallen terjun ke
Industri musik Tanah Air setelah namanya populer dipanggung dangdut
koplo. Kekpopulerannya tersebut menghantarkan Via kesejumlah acara
musik televisi sebagai bintang tamu seperti acara musik Karnaval
Inbox SCTV. Pada Indonesian
Dangdut Awards 2015 Via Vallen menjadi nominasi Penyanyi Pendatang
Baru Wanita Terpopuler
gelaran acara MNCTV Anugerah Dangdut Indonesia 2016 Via Vallen
nominasi Penyanyi Dangdut Wanita Terpopuler. Dan akhirnya pada 2017
tepatnya pada acara SCTV Music Awards 2017 Via Vallen berhasil meraih
gelar sebagai Penyanyi Dangdut Paling Ngetop.
Gaya berpakaian Via
Vallen terkesan santai, modern dan fresh. Via mengusung style korean
girl dan Harajuku style jepang. Gaya berbusana seperti inilah yang
membuatnya lebih dekat dengan penggemarnya yang kebanyakan adalah
anak muda. Penampilan Via ketika diatas panggung juga tidak seheboh
penyanyi dangdut pantura kebanyakan.

Kisah Asmara Via
Via Vallen termasuk artis yang tidak pernah
mengumbar kemesraan dengan pria. Meskipun banyak gosip yang beredar,
namun kabar angin tersebut hanya berakhir dengan tidak adanya
kejelasan dan bantahan dari Via Vallen.

MR temperature of 57–60 °C is extended. In case

MR guided HIFU (MRgHIFU) abscission completely non-intrusive
medication procedure. A speedily augment in the temperature of the focal point
is appeared since the ultrasonic focused beam enclose high intensity. Rigorous addressing
resultant from MRI, bring on heating the aimed cancerous tissues and no
influence on all other abutting healthy tissues and the skin. Tissue
annihilation is possible in case that for a limited time the temperature of 57–60
°C is extended.

In case of huge volumes, the expiration is accessible
by applying an intricate approach or volumetric heating procedure. The cooling
time between the separate sonication is a challenge that has to be considered, empowering
the amassed energy to be diffused. This property makes curations implemented by
MR-HIFU almost tedious. Guiding the central point onward eloquent orbits
conducted in volumetric heating process. The energy source of this procedure is
furnished from the stored heat in previous stage of the procedure in the focal
of the tumor. Correspondingly, each sonication erode a huge region resulted in
reduction in curation period. (Figure. 4)

Fig. 4. Volumetric abscission approach precept depiction 1


Generic approach and dedicated approach construct the
major species of MRgHIFU breast cancer remedy techniques. The aimed tissue sonication
manner makes the crucial difference between these two sonication mechanisms. The
“generic” approach is extensively employed in medical centers, addressing the cancerous
tissues of the breast from an anterior direction. Direction of the ultrasonic pilings
makes the “dedicated approach” mostly dissimilar to the generic approach. The lateral
sonication of the breast is possible by situating the ultrasound transducers over
the breast, allowing for lateral sonications (Figure. 5).

Fig. 5. breast HIFU abscission (a) Generic approach (b)
Dedicated approach 1


Figure 6 is a depiction of dedicated breast cancer
remedy system. Eight encompassing transducers are surrounding the cup of the cancerous


Fig. 6. (a) Dedicated breast cancer curation (b) eight
circumferentially positioned transducers 1


Ceramics plastic paste. RAW MATER?AL • When the ceramics

Ceramics are products obtained by utilizing the heat energy of the appropriate
mixtures of the elements found in the form of compounds in the nature.
Ceramics are used in many places today. In this section we will examine the
traditional ceramics and production processes. In the beginning, the material
must be in the form of plastic paste.
• When the ceramics are processed, mechanical energy applications
such as impact compression are used to reduce the particle size.
• Two general grinding operations are categorized:Crushing and grinding
• In this part, it may not be enough to reduce the size of the material
once. After a few steps, the desired amount of reduction can be
obtained. We can call it primary crushing, secondary crushing.
• Reduction ratio is between 3 and 6.
• After crushing, grinding of small pieces is called grinding.
• Grinding is the process of pulverizing small pieces after crushing
• It is a phenomenon that wears out in harsh environments with free
movement or comes to the end of the collapse.
• It is made up of three basic components: clay, silica and feldspar.
• Kilin’s main raw hides juicy aluminum silicates (Al2O3,SiO2,H2O), which
in small amounts contain TiO2,Fe2O3,MgO,CaO,Na2O.
• The clay in the traditional ceramics, before it hardened provides
workability and is the main component of the material.
• Silika, also called flint or quartz (SiO2), has a high melting temperature
and provides resistance to conventional ceramics.
Power and water ratio determine the shaping methods
1. Slip casting is a mixture of clay and water. (It contains 25% -40%
2. If the plastic contains 15% -25% water in the clay, it is the plastic
shaping methods.
3. Semi dry press has low softness and moist clay (10% -15% water).
4. In dry pressing, the clay is basically dry and not soft (it contains less
than 5% water).
Suspension of ceramic powders in water is poured into a liquid die,
called a slip. The water coming from the mixture is absorbed into the
liquid to form a hard solid layer on the mold surface. The slip
composition is 25% to 40% water
Plastic Forming Initially the mixture is usually a plastic that contains 15% –
25% water. It can be done manually or mechanically. In order to have a soft
consistency in manual construction, more water is used. Manual shaping
methods have a long history and are still used today.
Manuel method (hand modeling)
Mechanized method (jiggering, plastic pressing, extrusion)
Ø? Hand modeling clay is brought to desired shape and ceramic product
production takes place. It is applied by hand molding or by throwing it
into the wheel of the potter.
1. Jiggering briefly, plastic pressing can be called as a method. Plates
can be used to produce identical products such as glass bowls.
Ø? Plastic pressing is the method of shaping the plastic is applied between
the upper and lower layers in the molds. The clay is removed from the
pores when the vacuum is drawn. Subsequently, the mold sections are
opened with a positive air pressure to prevent the part from sticking.
This method provides faster production than jiggering.
Ø? Extrusion compression of clay is called extrusion in order to produce
long sections with uniform cross-section. Products are hollow bricks,
shaped tiles, drain pipes, pipes.
Water is a material with important factor when traditional ceramics are formed.
The water, which varies according to its quantity, must be removed before the
fire. because it adds a certain volume to the piece, if it can not be removed,
the volume of the piece becomes smaller than the desired size.
The drying process has two stages.
First stage is drying is rapid. The water is evaporated into the air in the
surface and the water in the interior is transported to the surface by capillary
action. At the same time, there is a risk of cracking due to the change in the
The second part of the content is reduced to the area contacted by the
ceramic beads and the volume difference shrinks. Drying heat treatment is
required to sinter the ceramic materials. At this stage the water should not be
removed very quickly.


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