Primarily, school’s macro environment. It is, therefore, impractical to

Primarily, this research paper seeks toanalyze the impact of a decentralized system of educational management (UK)towards a centralized system such as that of Greece.

With a background inHistory and Archaeology, an analysis of middle-leadership of UK school relatingto the Greek academic system would enable a deeper identification of the issuesaffecting the latter. This scenario would create a solution towards quellingthese issues and moving Greek education at par with the British systemregarding middle management. It has been proven that middle management has anintegral impact upon schooling such as the fact that OECD data in the UKdisplays a 75% achievement disparity between the advantaged and disadvantagedchildren may be attributed to their performance levels within a school(Dimmock, 2012).

This discrepancy is edged out through greater focus on eachstudent conducted through an exemplary focus on learning and teaching for everydepartment trickling down to every subject. These intricate details areexceptionally high for the upper management such as the head teacher to deal,and thus it is charged with middle-level management.There is also an incremental need formiddle-leadership within educational facilities as they have been realized tobe the backbone of improved educational performance in the UK and thus shouldtranscend to Greece for the enhancement of their educational system. The Greeksystem lacks strong middle management, and their system emphasizes the role ofthe headmaster who is charged with a myriad of responsibilities. Thus, theheadmaster would not be in a position to handle duties that are supposed to bein the hands of middle management.

In general, the Greek educational system isbureaucratic, and thus the roles of the headmaster are; establishing andensuring that the school’s vision is realized. Additionally, this method alsoidentifies and forms a school culture, to teach and tutor students, imparting agood relationship between the school and the parents among other individualswithin the school’s macro environment. It is, therefore, impractical to expectthat a Greek headteacher would be in a position to conduct both middle andupper-level management (Gravani & John, 2005). Consequently, it isimperative to establish a middle-management structure as strong as that in theUK.  

The thermal and mechanical shock resistance. Due to Vantablack’s

The complex structure of carbon nanotubesallows it to maintain certain properties such as electrical and thermalconductivity as well as mechanical strength. In order to obtain these complexstructures and properties, however, the carbon tubes need to be synthesized intotheir according structures. Chemical vapor deposition is the most commontechnique, although other synthesis methods such as arc discharge and laser ablationcan be used. In chemical vapor deposition, vaporized hydrocarbons are heatedand decomposed by a metal catalytic substrate which serves as a template fornanotube formation. The uniqueness of carbon nanotubes extends far beyond theirstructures and properties, as their level of compliance with different fieldsis vast. From building the darkest color to providing a medium for tissueregrowth, there seems to be few boundaries for these nanomaterials.              Vantablack is a material created bySurrey Nanosystems which was originally created for satellite-borne blackbodycalibration systems6.

Vantablack is currently being recognized asone of the darkest man made materials as it reflects only 0.036% of light6.  When it is applied to a 3D surface, theobject appears to lose its dimension to the darkness and resembles a black holein space (Image 26). Itshigh absorption extends from the UV spectrum, into the visible, and also theinfrared (>16microns)6. The reason it absorbs such a large rangeof light is because of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VANTA).

Thearrays contain spacing which permit the entrance of a photon, however, the light/radiationreflects between the tubes and eventually becomes absorbed as it is convertedto heat. The heat is then transferred to the nanotubes’ substrate which can be madeof aluminum alloys, cobalt, copper, nickel, sapphire and more. Besides opticalproperties, Vantablack contains other properties make it an extraordinarymaterial. For example, it is very hydrophobic and therefore prevents water frominterfering with optical properties and it also has high thermal and mechanicalshock resistance. Due to Vantablack’s properties, it can be applied to variouspieces of technology to enhance data collection and imaging. Some applicationsinclude its incorporation into IR imaging, Spectroscopy, telescopes, sensors,and calibration sources.

INFL??NC? and s??ar tracti?n and r?m?t? ?xt?nsi?n l?ads ?sing

INFL??NC? T?? L?CATI?N ANDCRACK ANGL??N T?? STR?SS INT?NSITY FACT?RNaja? R?st?m M??sin     Abstract: T?ispap?r d?als ?it?t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack ?bliq?? and its l?cati?n ?n t?? str?ss int?nsity fact?r m?d? I (KI) and II (K11) f?r a finit? plat? s?bj?ct?d t? ?niaxialt?nsi?n str?ss.

T?? pr?bl?m is s?lv?d n?m?rically ?singfinit? ?l?m?nt s?ft?ar? ANSYS R15 and t???r?tically ?singmat??matically ?q?ati?ns.A g??d agr??m?nt is ?bs?rv?d b?t???n t?? t???r?tical andn?m?rical s?l?ti?ns in all st?di?d cas?s. ?? s??? t?at incr?asing t?? crackangl? f l?ads t? d?cr?asing t?? val?? ?f K1andt?? maxim?m val?? ?f K11 ?cc?rs at f=45?.

F?rt??rm?r?, K11 ?q?al t? z?r? at f= 0? and 90? ??il? K1?q?al t? z?r? at f= 90?. ????v?r, t??r? is n? s?nsitiv? ?ff?ct t? t?? crack l?cati?n??il? t??r?  is a c?nsid?rabl? ?ff?ct ?f t?? crack ?bliq??.K?y ??rds: Crack,angl?, l?cati?n, t?nsi?n, KI, K11, ANSYS R15.I.                        INTR?D?CTI?NFract?r?can b? d?fin?d as t?? pr?c?ss ?f fragm?ntati?n ?f a s?lid int? t?? ?r m?r?parts ?nd?r t?? str?ss?s acti?n. Fract?r? analysis d?als ?it? t?? c?mp?tati?n ?fparam?t?rs t?at ??lp t? d?sign a str?ct?r? ?it?in t?? limits ?f catastr?p?icfail?r?.

It ass?m?s t?? pr?s?nc? ?f a crack in t?? str?ct?r?. T?? st?dy ?f crackb??avi?r in a plat? is a c?nsid?rabl? imp?rtanc? in t?? d?sign t? av?id t??fail?r? t?? Str?ss int?nsity fact?r inv?lv?d in fract?r? m?c?anics t? d?scrib?t?? ?lastic str?ss fi?ld s?rr??nding a crack tip.?as?b?and In??ara 1 analyz?d t?? r?lati?ns b?t???n t?? str?ss int?nsity fact?rs andt?? angl? ?f t?? ?bliq?? ?dg? crack f?r a s?mi-infinit? plat?. T???carisand Papad?p??l?s 2 ?s?d t?? ?xp?rim?ntal m?t??d ?f r?fl?ct?d ca?stics t? st?dyt?? infl??nc? ?f t?? g??m?try ?f an ?dg?-crack?d plat? ?n str?ss int?nsityfact?rs K1and Kn. Kim and L?? 3 st?di?d K1and K11 f?r an ?bliq??crack ?nd?r n?rmal and s??ar tracti?n and r?m?t? ?xt?nsi?n l?ads ?sing ABAQ?S s?ft?ar?and analytical appr?ac? a s?mi-infinit? plan? ?it? an ?bliq?? ?dg? crack and anint?rnal crack act?d ?n by a pair ?f c?nc?ntrat?d f?rc?s at arbitrary p?siti?nis st?di?d by Qian and ?as?b? 4.

Kim?ra and Sat? 5 calc?lat?d K1and K11 ?ft?? ?bliq?? crack initiat?d ?nd?r fr?? ing fatig?? c?nditi?ns. F??  and Rizzi 6 d?scrib?d t?? str?ss int?nsityfact?rs ?nd?r vari??s crack s?rfac? tracti?ns ?sing an ?bliq?? crack in a s?mi-infinit?b?dy. C??i 7 st?di?d t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack ?ri?ntati?n angl? f?r vari??s mat?rialand g??m?tric c?mbinati?ns ?f t?? c?ating/s?bstrat? syst?m ?it? t?? grad?d int?rfacialz?n?. G?k?l ?t al 8 calc?lat?d t?? str?ss int?nsity fact?r ?f m?ltipl? straig?tand ?bliq?? cracks in a riv?t ??l?.

K??lil ?t al 9 ?val?at?d K1n?m?rically ?singlin? strain m?t??d and t???r?tically. R?c?ntllty, M??sin 10 and 11 st?di?d t???r?ticallyand n?m?rically t?? str?ss int?nsity fact?rs m?d? I f?r c?nt?r, singl? ?dg? andd??bl? ?dg? crack?d finit? plat? s?bj?ct?d t? t?nsi?n str?ss .Patr iciand Ma? ??ij 12 m?nti?n?d t?at, ?? can disting?is? s?v?ral mann?rs in ??ic? af?rc? may b? appli?d t? t?? plat? ??ic? mig?t ?nabl? t?? crack t? pr?pagat?. Ir?inpr?p?s?d a classificati?n c?rr?sp?nding t? t?? t?r?? sit?ati?ns r?pr?s?nt?d in Fig.1.

Acc?rdingly, ?? c?nsid?r t?r?? distinct m?d?s: m?d? I, m?d? II and m?d? III. Int?? m?d? I, ?r ?p?ning m?d?, t?? b?dy is l?ad?d by t?nsil? f?rc?s, s?c? t?at t??crack s?rfac?s ar? p?ll?d apart in t?? y dir?cti?n. T?? m?d? II , ?r sliding m?d?,t?? b?dy is l?ad?d by ?rc?s parall?l t? t?? crack s?rfac?s, ??ic? slid? ?v?r ?ac??t??r in t?? x dir?cti?n. Finally, in t?? m?d? III , ?r t?aring m?d?, t?? b?dyis l?ad?d by s??ar f?rc?s parall?l t? t?? crack fr?nt t?? crack s?rfac?s, and t??crack s?rfac?s slid? ?v?r ?ac? ?t??r in t?? z dir?cti?n.                  str?ss fi?lds a??ad ?f a crack tip (Fig.2) f?rm?d? I and m?d? II in a lin?ar ?lastic, is?tr?pic mat?rial ar?as in t?? f?ll??, And?rs?n 13                          In many sit?ati?ns, a crack is s?bj?ct t? a c?mbinati?n?f t?? t?r?? diff?r?nt m?d?s ?f l?ading, I, II and III. A simpl? ?xampl? is acrack l?cat?d at an angl? ?t??r t?an 90° t? a t?nsil? l?ad: t?? t?nsil? l?ad C?, is r?s?lv?d int? t?? c?mp?n?nt p?rp?ndic?lart? t?? crack, m?d? I, and parall?l t? t?? crack, m?d? II as s???n in Fig.

3. T??str?ss int?nsity at t?? tip can t??n b? ass?ss?d f?r ?ac? m?d? ?sing t?? appr?priat??q?ati?ns, Ra? 14,           Str?ss int?nsity s?l?ti?ns ar? giv?n in a vari?ty?f f?rms, K can al?ays b? r?lat?d t? t?? t?r??g? crack t?r??g? t?? appr?priat?c?rr?cti?n fact?r, And?rs?n 13   ???r? ?: c?aract?ristic str?ss, a: c?aract?risticcrack dim?nsi?n and Y: dim?nsi?nl?ss c?nstant t?at d?p?nds ?n t?? g??m?try andt?? m?d? ?f l?ading.?? can g?n?raliz?t?? angl?d t?r??g?-t?ickn?ss crack ?f Fig.4 t? any planar crack ?ri?nt?d 90° -p fr?m t?? appli?d n?rmal str?ss. F?r ?niaxial l?ading, t?? str?ss int?nsityfact?rs f?r m?d? I and m?d? II ar? giv?n by K1=      ???r? KI0 is t?? m?d?I str?ss int?nsity ???n ? = 0.

T?? crack-tip str?ss fi?lds (in p?lar c??rdinat?s)f?r t?? m?d? I p?rti?n ?f t?? l?ading ar? giv?n by              II.                       Mat?rials and M?t??dsBas?d ?nt?? ass?mpti?ns ?f Lin?ar ?lastic Fract?r? M?c?anics L?FM and plan? strain pr?bl?m,K1and K11 t? a finit? crack?d plat? f?r diff?r?nt angl?s and l?cati?ns ?nd?r ?niaxialt?nsi?n str?ss?s ar? st?di?d n?m?rically and t???r?tically.A.                  Sp?cim?ns Mat?rialT?? plat?sp?cim?n mat?rial is St??l (str?ct?ral) ?it? m?d?l?s ?f ?lasticity 2.

07?5 Mpaand p?is?n’s rati? 0.29, Y??ng and B?dynas 15. T?? m?d?ls ?f plat? sp?cim?ns ?it?dim?nsi?ns ar? s???n in Fig.5.          B.              T???r?tical S?l?ti?nVal??s ?fK1and K11 ar? t???r?tically calc?lat?d bas?d ?n t?? f?ll??ing pr?c?d?r? 1)D?t?rminati?n?f t?? KI? (K1???np = 0) bas?d ?n (7), ???r? (Tada ?t al 16 )    2)                  Calc?lating K1and K11 t? any plan?r crack ?ri?nt?d(P) fr?m t?? appli?d n?rmal str?ss ?sing (8) and (9).

 C.                  N?m?rical S?l?ti?nK1and K11 ar? calc?lat?d n?m?rically ?singfinit? ?l?m?nt s?ft?ar? ANSYS R15 ?it? PLAN?183 ?l?m?nt as a discr?tizati?n ?l?m?nt.ANSYS m?d?ls at P=0? ar? s???n in Fig.6 ?it? t?? m?s?, ?l?m?nts andb??ndary c?nditi?ns.

  D.                              PLAN?183 D?scripti?nPLAN?183 is ?s?d in t?is pap?r as a discr?tizati?n?l?m?nt ?it? q?adrilat?ral s?ap?, plan? strain b??avi?r and p?r? displac?m?nt f?rm?lati?n.PLAN?183 ?l?m?nt typ? is d?fin?d by 8 n?d?s ( I, J, K, L, M, N, ?, P ) ?r 6 n?d?s( I, J, K, L, M, N) f?r q?adrilat?ral and triangl? ?l?m?nt, r?sp?ctiv?ly ?avingt?? d?gr??s ?f fr??d?m (?x , ?y) at ?ac? n?d? (translati?ns in t?? n?dal X andY dir?cti?ns) 17. T?? g??m?try, n?d? l?cati?ns, and t?? c??rdinat? syst?m f?rt?is ?l?m?nt ar? s???n in Fig.7.        E.

                  T?? St?di?d Cas?sT? ?xplaint?? ?ff?ct ?f crack ?bliq?? and its l?cati?n ?n t?? K1and K11, many cas?s (r?p?rt?din Tabl? 1) ar? st?di?d t???r?tically and n?m?rically.                                   III.              R?s?ltsand Disc?ssi?nsK1and K11 val??s ar? t???r?tically calc?lat?d by (7 – 10) and n?m?rically ?singANSYS R15 ?it? t?r?? cas?s ass???n in Tabl? 1.A.

Cas? St?dy IFigs. 8a, b, c, d, ?, f, g, ? and i ?xplain t??n?m?rical and t???r?tical variati?ns ?f K1and K11 ?it? diff?r?ntval??s ?f a/b rati? ???n ? = 0?, 15?, 30?, 40?, 45?, 50?, 60?, 70? and 75?, r?sp?ctiv?ly.Fr?m t??s? Figs., it is t???asy t? s?? t?at t?? K1> K11 ???n ? < 45? ??il? K1 45? and K1? K11at ? = 45?.      B.                   Cas? St?dyIIA c?mpr?ssi?nb?t???n K1and K11 val??s f?r diff?r?nt crack l?cati?ns (m?d?ls b, ? and ?) atp=30?, 45? and 60? ?it? variati?ns ?f a/b rati?ar? s???n in Figs. 9a, b, c, d, ?, f, g, ? and i.

Fr?m t??s? Figs., it is cl?art?at t?? crack angl? ?as a c?nsid?rabl? ?ff?ct ?n t?? K1and K11 val??s b?t t?? ?ff?ct?f crack l?cati?n is insignificant.   Fig.9: Varia ti?n ?f K1N?m., K1T?.

, K11 N?m. and K11 T?. ?it? t?? variati?n ?f a / b f?r b, ? and ? m?d?l at P = 30, 45 and 60.

   C.   Cas? St?dyIIIFigs.10a, b, c and d ?xplain t?? variati?ns ?f K1and K11 ?it? t?? crack angl? P = 0?,15?, 30?, 45?, 60?, 75? and90? f?r m?d?ls b, ? and ?.

Fr?m t??s? Figs., ?? s??? t?at t?? maxim?mK1and K11 val??s app?ar at P=0? and P=45?, r?sp?ctiv?ly.F?rt??rm?r?, K11 ?q?al t? z?r? at P = 0? and P = 90?. G?n?rally,t?? maxim?m val??s ?f t?? n?rmal and s??ar str?ss?s ?cc?r ?n s?rfac?s ???r? t??P=0? and P=45?, r?sp?ctiv?ly.                        Fr?m all Figs.

, it can b? s??n t?at t??r? is n?significant diff?r?nc? b?t???n t?? t???r?tical and n?m?rical s?l?ti?ns.  F?rt??rm?r?,Figs. 11 and 12 ar? grap?ically ill?strat?d V?n._Mis?s str?ss?s c??nt?r pl?ts ?it?t?? variati?n ?f l?cati?n and angl? ?f t?? crack, r?sp?ctiv?ly.

Fr?m t??s? Figs.,it is cl?ar t?at t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack angl? and t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack l?cati?n ar?inc?mparabl?.  Fig.12: C?? nt?r pl?ts ?f V?n._Mis?s str?ss ?it? t?? variati?n ?f crack angl? at sp? cific l?cat i?n.

   IV.                        C?ncl?si?ns1)                 A g??d agr??m?nt is ?bs?rv?d b?t???n t?? t???r?ticaland n?m?rical s?l?ti?ns in all st?di?d cas?s.2)                 Incr?asing t?? crack angl? p l?ads t? d?cr?as?t?? val?? ?f K1and t?? maxim?m val?? ?f K11 ?cc?rs at p=45.3)                 K11 vanis??d at p = 0? and 90???il? K1vanis??d at p = 90?.4)                 T??r? is n? ?bvi??s ?ff?ct t? t?? crack l?cati?nb?t t??r? is a c?nsid?rabl? ?ff?ct ?f t?? crack ?bliq??.

   R?f?r?nc?s 1    .      N. ?as?b?and S.

In??ara. Str?ss Analysis ?f a S?mi-Infinit? Plat? ?it? an ?bliq?? ?dg?Crack. Ing?ni??r-Arc?iv, V?l?m?49(1),pp. 51-62, 1980.2    .

      P.S. T???caris and G. A.

Papad?p??l?s. T?? Infl??nc? ?f G??m?try ?f ?dg?-Crack?dPlat?s ?n K1and K11 C?mp?n?nts ?f t??Str?ssInt?nsity Fact?r. J??rnal ?f P?ysics D: Appli?d P?ysics. V?l.

17(12), pp.2339-2349, 1984.3    .      ?.K.Kim and S.

B. L??. Str?ss int?nsity fact?rs ?f an ?bliq?? ?dg? crack s?bj?ct?d t?n?rmal and s??ar tracti?ns. T???r?tical andAppli?d Fract?r? M?c?anics, V?l?m? 25(2), pp.147-154, 1996.

4    .      J.Qian and N. ?as?b?. An ?bliq?? ?dg? Crack and an Int?rnal Crack in a S?mi-Infinit?Plan? Act?d ?n by C?nc?ntrat?dF?rc? at Arbitrary P?siti?n. ?ngin??ringAnalysis ?it? B??ndary ?l?m?nts, V?l. 18, pp.

155-16, 1996.5    .      T.Kim?ra and K. Sat?. Simplifi?d M?t??d t? D?t?rmin? C?ntact Str?ss Distrib?ti?nand Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?rs in Fr?? ingFatig??. Int?rnati?nal J??rnal ?f Fatig??, V?l.25, pp.

633-640, 2003.6    .      T.

F??  and G. Rizzi. ??ig?t F?ncti?ns f?rStr?ss Int?nsity Fact?rs and T-Str?ss f?r ?bliq?? Cracks in a ?alf-Spac?.Int?rnati?nal J??rnal ?f Fract?r?, V?l. 132(1),pp. L9-L16, 2005.

7    .      ?.J. C??i. Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?rs f?r an ?bliq?? ?dg? Crack in a C?ating/S?bstrat?Syst?m ?it? a Grad?d Int?rfacial Z?n??nd?r Antiplan? S??ar. ??r?p?an J??rnal ?f M?c?anicsA/S?lids. V?l.

26, pp. 337-3, 2007.8    .      G?k?l.R, D?ayanant?.S , Adit?ya.

V, S.S?r?s? K?mar. Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?r D?t?rminati?n?f M?ltipl? Straig?t and ?bliq??Cracks in D??bl? C?v?r B??  Riv?t?d J?int. Int?rnati?nal J??rnal ?f Inn?vativ?R?s?arc? in Sci?nc?, ?ngin??ring and T?c?n?l?gy, V?l. 3(3), 2014.9    .

      F.K??lil, M. B?l???ari, N. B?ns?ddiq, A. Tal?a. A N?m?rical Appr?ac? f?r t?? D?t?rminati?n?f M?d? I Str?ss Int?nsityFact?rs in PMMA Mat?rials. ?ngin??ring, T?c?n?l?gyand Appli?d Sci?nc? R?s?arc?, V?l. 4(3), 2014.

10    .     N.R. M??sin. Static and Dynamic Analysis ?f C?nt?r Crack?d Finit? Plat? S?bj?ct?dt? ?nif?rm T?nsil? Str?ss ?sing Finit??l?m?nt M?t??d.

Int?rnati?nal J??rnal ?f M?c?anical?ngin??ring and T?c?n?l?gy (IJM?T), V?l. 6, (1), pp. 56-70, 2015.11    .

     N.R. M??SIN.

C?mparis?n b?t???n T???r?tical and N?m?rical S?l?ti?ns f?r C?nt?r,Singl? ?dg? and D??bl? ?dg? Crack?dFinit? Plat? S?bj?ct?d t? T?nsi?n Str?ss. Int?rnati?nalJ??rnal ?f M?c?anical and Pr?d?cti?n ?ngin??ring R?s?arc? and D?v?l?pm?nt (IJMP?RD),V?l. 5(2), pp. 11-20, 2015.12    .     M.

Patr ici and R. M. M. Ma? ??ij. Crack Pr?pagati?n Analysis, ?? p://???.?in.t??.

nl/analysis/r?p?rts/rana07-23.pdf.13    .

     T.L.And?rs?n.Fract?r? M?c?anics F?ndam?ntals and Applicati?ns. T?ird ?diti?n, Tayl?r Gr??p, CRC Pr?ss,    2005.14    .     L.

S. Jab?r and N. R. M??sin. Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?r f?r D??bl? ?dg? Crack?dFinit? Plat? S?bj?ct?d t? T?nsil? Str?ss. T?i_Qar               ?niv?rsity J??rnal f?r ?ngin??ring Sci?nc?s, V?l.7, N?. 1,pp.

101-115,  2016.15    .     C.Ra?.

Nat?ral Sci?nc?s Trip?s Part II- MAT?RIALS SCI?NC?- C15: Fract?r? and Fatig??.?? ps://???

ac.?k/t?ac?ing/partII/c??rs?C15/C15?.pdf.16    .

     ?.C. Y??ng and R. G. B?dynas. R?ark’s F?rm?las f?r Str?ss and Strain. McGra?-?illc?mpani?s, S?v?nt? ?diti?n, 2002.17    .

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18    .     ANSYS??lp.

The Palestine had normalized. However after the war hundreds

The Middle east has been in constant turmoil since before I was born and pretty much has been since the end of the Second World War, However the powderkeg was set after World War One. Before World One the Ottoman Empire Held control Over most of the Middle East. The Empire was in decline before the war and had recently lost most of its European territory in the First Balkan war and lost its Libyan territories in the Italo-Turkish War. However at the end of the war the empire was divided between the Entente powers and the new Turkish state. The problem with this is that the British Promised that the Arabs would gain independence if they decided to fight for the British which they did in various battles (Yanbu, Mecca, Medina) and ended up only getting a fraction of lands that they were promised. Of the land of this Palestine was promised not only to the Arabs, but Jews the land.

The British ended up establishing  the British Mandate of Palestine and under it the Jewish Population grew by 320,000. The Jews then proceeded to buy the land from Arabs and evicted the people who lived and worked there only fanning the flames of ethnic tension as both groups believed the lands were their own and leading to a revolt against the British by the Arabs in 1936 which was put down by British forces and Jewish Militias and lead to a restriction of Jewish Immigrants to the Mandate. Though This was the only conflict that was the only conflict between Arabs and Jews before World War 2 ended, this is an important event foreshadowing how the 20th century would play out.

During World War 2 the relations between Arabs and Jews in the British Mandate of Palestine had normalized. However after the war hundreds of thousands of Jews were left homeless due to having their property stripped away by the Nazis. Left with nothing they applied for asylum in Britain and those that were accepted were settled in the British Mandate of Palestine. This reopened the wounds between Arab and Jew that had only recently healed. Fearing conflict the British handed the mandate over to the newly formed United Nations along with creating several Arab states along with France.

In 1947 the UN made a proposal for 2 seperate states but the Palestinian Arabs didn’t take too kindly to this and with the support of the new Arab states; Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Yeman, and Saudi Arabia launched an attempted invasion of Israel. The fighting lasted just under 10 months and against all odds Israel managed to defeat the Arab forces. To stop Israel from annexing all of the palestinian lands Jordan occupied the West Bank and Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip however Israel annexed much of the territory. In the same way that Canada won its independence in Vimy Ridge Israel won its independence in the First Arab-Israeli War, However this was not the last conflict between Israel and the Arab states.For 9 years after the First Arab-Israeli war the middle east was relatively peaceful, the most that happened was minor skirmishes on the Jordan-Israeli border and General Gamal Abdel Nasser taking power in Egypt with his military Junta. However a powderkeg was set with Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected president and nationalized the Suez Canal that was controlled by a joint British-French company. At this point, the British and French Empires being eclipsed by the 2 emerging superpowers of the United States and The Soviet Union.

So in a final attempt to stay attempt to stay relevant on the world stage they made an alliance with Israel and plotted to how to respond while in the Meantime the USSR started supplying Egypt with Arms. On October 29th Israel invaded and occupied the Sinai peninsula and Gaza Strip and advanced to within 42km of the Suez Canal. France and Britain ordered both Israel and Egypt to withdraw from the Suez (this was planned with the Israelis) but the Egyptians didn’t back down, because of this Britain and France started to bomb the canal.

Since Egypt had good relations with the Soviets the US urged the British and French to make peace as to avoid being drawn into a war. This caused the biggest rift between the two allies in the 20th Century. Before the bombing started Canada’s foreign minister and UN delegate Lester B. Pearson tried to resolve the situation diplomatically but once things heated up he instead pushed for a larger peacekeeping force.

On November 4th the motion passed and in the UN with 57 votes for and 19 abstaining with no countries voting against it, the first time something passed this unanimously in the UN. Two days later a ceasefire was agreed upon and UN Peacekeeping forces and allowed the “Britain, France and Israel to withdraw their forces without giving the appearance of having been defeated.”1 This ended what we know now as the Suez Crisis or the Second Arab-Israeli War. This resulted in Sinai being occupied for 4 months, the end of the United Kingdom’s rule of Superpower with the resignation of the British Prime Minister Anthony Eden. Pearson’s success in bringing peace led him to win the Position of Prime Minister 1963.

Though the crisis only lasted 9 days, it sent ripples across global politics forever changing not only the middle east, but the world.2 Years after the Suez Crisis Pan-Arabism; an ideology espousing unification of the Arab world was popular across the middle east. With the recent Israeli aggression, Syria pushed for a political union with Egypt due to Egyptian President Nasser being viewed as a hero, the shared border with Israel and the political instability of the nation following the coup in 1954. Due to this Egypt and Syria offered referendums to unite the countries under the political union of the United Arab Republic. Though the union only lasted 3 years, with only minor socialist reforms being passed, it was the first step in setting Syria down a path that would eventually lead the 2011 civil war that is still raging today.There wasn’t any big conflicts in the middle east after the Second Arab-Israeli War (Suez Crisis) for a while, the small conflicts that did break out were mainly due to ethnic conflicts that resulted in skirmishes or civil wars to oust monarchs.

However in 1967 another powder keg between Israel and Egypt was set. Disputes over land and water between Israel and her neighbours had only increased after the Second Arab-Israeli war and Israel threatened war if Egypt were to bad Israeli ships from the Strait of Tiran. The Egyptians ignored the Israeli threats and banned Israeli shipping anyways and mobilized its Army on the Israeli border in late May. This prompted Israel to launch what they deem as preemptive strikes catching the Egyptians by surprise which gave Israel Air Superiority while simultaneously launching a suprsie offensive into the Gaza strip.

In a web series program can be called an

In the rapidly changing globalenvironment, Media set the level of innovation and creation. Before you getbored of any content or format of media you will be amazed by brand new type ofmedia. With the help of new technologies and freedom of people to show theircreativity media is changing day by day. With society moving into theelectronic age, more people are communicating in cyberspace not only to accessmore information, but also to create a reality of their own. Using media nowdepends on the comfort of the audience. That’s why media giants choose theirmedium and content wisely to match the access and the expectation of theaudiences. The new popular addition of entertainment for this sub-continent bynew media is Web Series. With the emergence of online streaming servicesincluding the likes of Netflix, Hotstar and Amazon Prime, millenials witnesseda major shift in the entertainment business realm.

Even in Bangladesh audiencehave streaming channels like BioscopeBeta and popular YouTube channels like CMVand Dhruba for their entertainment.   A web series is designed like atelevision series. But a series of episodes which can be watched on the web.

The term “Web” potentially refers totwo things. How content isconsumed. Where the content originated.If the audience watching a video on his/her computer, iPad, ormobile phone and connected to the web there’s a god chance it’s a web series.

but not necessarily. You can download a feature on the web and watch it on youriPad. Web series is a number of related scriptedor non-scripted videos arranged or occurring in succession,generally in episodicform,released on the Internetand part of the web televisionmedium. A single instance of a web series program can be called an episode or”webisode”,however the latter term is not often used. In general, A web series is simplyjust a series of videoepisodes that is released over time in order to tell astory. Sometimes creators use popular video sharing platforms like YouTubeor Vimeo to host their shows so that they attract as manyviewers as possible.

Web series can be watched on a range of platforms,including desktop,laptop,tabletsand smartphones.They can also be watched on television.  The main difference between TV seriesand web series is a TV series usually requires big production costs, celebrityTV stars, and large media companies, a web series doesn’t have to have all thatstuff. As long as you have a camera and a creative idea for a show, anyone cancreate their own show for the web. Some web series shows are created by totalamateurs but creative young peoples who require little cost for equipment andsupport.

TV episodesare mandated due to advertising and range from either 22-30 minutes or 44-60minutes depending on the advertising needs of the network or cable station. Theweb has no restriction because there’s no reason to constrict what is possibleat this point. A few years ago, some important suit-wearing executive at someimportant company decided that attentions span of laptop viewers should bearound 3-15 minutes per episode. Sometimes web series originate on the web andlater that same material is repurposed as a feature or as episodes of a TVseries and sometimes it’s the other way around.  Web Series firstemerged in the late 1990s and become more prominent in the early 2000s.

InApril 1995, Rox, a small public access program from Bloomington, Indiana, became the first TVseries distributed via the web, with an episode titled “Global VillageIdiots”(Stelter : 2013). Later the same year, New York advertisingcreative Scott Zakarin persuaded his employers Fattaland Collins to finance an online television drama along the lines of thecontemporary television drama Melrose Place.The Spotbecame the first episodic fiction website, the first web soap opera.Fattal and Collins asked their Vice President, Sheri Herman, to obtain venturecapital to finance it, because it was draining the resources of thisboutique agency. In January 1999, Showtime licensed the animated sci-fi webseries WhirlGirl,making it the first independently produced web series licensed by a nationaltelevision network. A month later, the series, created by David B. Williams andproduced by his Visionary Media studio, premiered on Showtime in a first-eversimultaneous web/telecast.

1 In2000,The Raven started Daytona Beach Live. Thestation showed video about life, events, and attractions in the Daytona Beacharea for up to 17,000 viewers (Cheng:2009). As broadband bandwidth began toincrease in speed and availability, delivering high quality video over theInternet became a reality. Web Central TV, YouTube,Vimeoand Daily Motionlaunched their services to deliver original video. Shows such as Rocket boomappeared and post-dot-com-bust video networks such as ManiaTV!,iSTATION TV and the Ripe Digital Entertainment networkslaunched. In 2003, The Spot executive producer and head writer Stewart St. John revivedthe brand for online audiences with a new cast, and created a separate mobileseries to air on Sprint PCS Vision-enabled phones (Park :2004).

Inmid-2006, several independent Web series began to achieve popularity, mostnotably lonelygirl15 (created by Miles Beckett, MeshFlinders and Greg Goodfried),Soupof the Day (Zakarin and Rob Cesternino), California Heaven(St. John and Todd Fisher), “The Burg”(Dinosaur Diorama) and SamHas7Friends(BigFantastic). These series were distributed independently, often using onlinevideo portals YouTubeand Revver. Allseries acquired audiences in the millions, led by lonelygirl15sover 100 million views during its 26-month run. The series was so successfulthat it secured a sponsorship deal with Neutrogena.

Soup of the Day was later re-crafted andedited as a feature-length film, making it the first web series distributed ondisc by distribution company Echo Bridge Entertainment. SamHas7Friendswas nominated for an Emmy and temporarily removed from the Internetwhen it was acquired by Michael Eisner. March 2006 also saw the debut of GoodnightBurbank (created and (Hayden Black) as a “webisodic” series. Theoriginal series was named one of iTunes best podcasts of 2006. Also hitting thescene during the summer towards the end of the year was FeedMe Bubbe which ended up showcasing that even a Grandmother and Grandson canachieve internet celebrity status. Fortuna TV Channel isthe first web TV in Turkey (Lieberman:2007) In 2007, Beckett and Goodfriedfollowed up their lonelygirl15 success with Kate Modern,a series which debuted on social network Bebo, and took place inthe same fictional universe as lonelygirl15.

Big Fantasticcreated and produced Prom Queen, which was financed anddistributed by Michael Eisner’s nascent online studio Vuguru,and debuted on My Space.These web serials highlighted interactivity with the audience in addition to thenarrative on relatively low budgets (Shields:2007). Established creators alsostarted producing high profile original web series in 2008. Joss Wheldoncreated, produced and self-financed. Dr. Horrible’s Sing-Along Blogstarring Neil Patrick Harris and FeliciaDay.  BigFantastic wrote and produced ForeignBody, a mystery web series that served as a prequel to Robin Cook’snovel of the same name.

Beckett and Good fried founded a new Internet studio,EQAL, and produced a spin-off from ‘”lonelygirl15″entitled “LG15: TheResistance”. Dedicatedmedia coverage of the web television space debuted with organizations such as GigaOm’s NewTeeVee and Tube filter News. Mainstream press also began converted.

Inthe UK, Kate Modern ended its run on Bebo. That sitealso hosted a six-month-long reality/travel show, The Gap Year, produced by Endemol UK, who also made Kirill, a drama for MSN (Brand:2009).Australia emerged separate market for online series. Most notable was themade-for-MySpaceseries the MySpace Road Tour produced by FremantleMedia Australia. The first series, which ran from July to October 2008 drewthe MySpace audience and the show received positive press. During MipCom inOctober 2008 MySpaceannounced plans for a second series and indicated that it was in talks withcable network Foxtelto distribute series 1 on network television. Additionally MySpace spoke oftheir plans to produce versions of the MySpaceRoad Tour in other countries (Apostolou: 2008).

 In 2009, Sony’s online division, Crackle,became one of the few companies who figured out a business model for the Webseries. They did this by treating their Web series like an independent film.First they would fund a low-budget genre movie and structure the script so thatit can air online in 10-minute segments. Later they edited the series into a 2-hourDVD. They sold ads against the first online airing of the content, they mademoney from DVD sales and rentals, finally, they sold both the internet versionand DVD to international markets. In 2009, Sony’s online division, Crackle,became one of the few companies who figured out a business model for the Webseries. They did this by treating their Web series like an independent film.

First,they would fund a low-budget genre movie and structure the script so that itcan air online in 10-minute segments. Later they edited the series into a 2-hourDVD. They sold ads against the first online airing of the content, they mademoney from DVD sales and rentals, and finally, they sold both the internetversion and DVD to international markets. So far, 2010 has seen more expansion,more production and further monetizing of original Web series.

Larger brandsare showing up to the table looking to invest in their own Web series. They’rerealizing that for a fraction of a traditional media buy, brands get to be muchmore involved in a new media production. An annual festival and awardspresentation dedicated exclusively to digital series. The festival justcompleted its 6th annual event in 2017, and always occurs during  April in Hollywood, California. Holly Web was thefirst digital content exclusive festival in Hollywood (Payne:2017).

 A number of web series incorporateinteractive Web 2.0 features on theirproducer’s websites, the show website, or other online fora. These Web 2.0features enable viewers and fans to post comments online about episodes andlink or “tag” favorite shows, episodes or video clips. Theseactivities help to build viewer and fan engagement. Some producers use socialmedia and social networking websites to market their web series and seek newviewers.

As well, some producers monitor social media and networking commentsas a way to obtain fan feedback on their shows. First emerged in the end of 2016, webseries became more prominent In Bangladesh in 2017. The year 2017 can be markedas a momentous for significant rise both in the quality and quantity off webseries. Web series like Feluda,Baghbondi, List, Admission Test, palabi kothay, Illegal Affairs get instantpopularity among young generation. In 2016 Web Series Kali had a great Impact on the audience because it’s content andmaking. The concept of superhero series has quite a grip on the globalentertainment scene in both big and small screen.

Now they have conquered the streaming-basedservices like Netflix. Both the content and the format were somewhatunchartered territory in Bangladesh, but the sudden types of audience likedthat. But 2017 was by far most promising year for wed series in this country (Rayhan:2017). Anew adaptation of famous Satyajit Ray character, Detective Feluda was the mosttalked about web series of 2017.

Popular actor Parambrata Chatterjee fromKolkata has played the role of famous Feluda, while Riddhi Sen will be seen asTopse. Kandy Productions and TOM Creations have received the rights to work onFeluda from Satyajit Ray’s son, Sandeep Ray. The first season of the seriesfeatured four episodes and the rest of the episodes will be made later inphases. The four stories that the episodes were based on are Sheyal DebotaRahasya, Ghurghutiyar Ghatona, Golokdham Rahasya, and Gangtokey Gondogol. Oneof the hyped thriller web series of 2017 was Baghbondi.  This DhrubaEntertainment production have grabbed audience’s attention and brought exposureto the whole team, more importantly the series’ director Vicky Zahed.

SafaKabir has also kept the audience at the edge of their seats along with Baghbondi’s two other leads, Jovan andTawsif. Featuring a bunch of popular Actors, Palabi Kothay was another successful web venture of the yearincluding Mumtaheena Chowdhury Toya, Tamim Mridha, Marzuk Russell, Shamim HasanSarker, Max Rahman, Joynal Jack and Sarah Farhana, among others. Written anddirected by AK Porag and Vasker Dey Jony, PalabiKothay was released under the label of CMV. Masud Ul Hasan was theexecutive producer of the series. Another CMV venture on the list, the seriesfeatures an almost similar cast including Mumtaheena Chowdhury Toya, FarhanAhmed Jovan, Tamim Mridha, Zaki Ahmad Zarif Abdullah, Sultana Rina, TutulChowdhury, Azizur Rahman Azad, Mahmuda Akter Nisha, Pronab Ghosh Nafiz, NazmulAnisur Rahman, and Razib Abu Hosen Fahim.

Scripted and directed by Topu Khan, Admission Test also managed to attractaudience with its adult storyline and has been widely criticised for the samereason. However, the five-episode web series has received wide YouTube view. Theseries List consists of sevenepisodes which was Directed by RB Pritam. Popular TV artists, Tousif and TamimMridha, were also starred in the series. Aside from Naila, film actor TomaMirza also played a role in. Theengaging story has successfully made the audience anticipate for upcomingepisodes and eventually turned out to be a crowd-cheering production.

Anotherweb series Illegal Affairs features Jui Jannat, Kaberi, Mokbul, Shuvo, Kader,Noor and Ayan in different roles. The web series was released under CD ChoiceMusic banner. Directed by Anwar Hossain, the web series revolves around thelives of a newly married couple, Neela and Sagor, who go through a down and outcondition. Meanwhile, Neela encounters Ranjan, a pimp by profession, whoactually targets her and tries to draw her into prostitution.

 Mostof the web series contains issues and stories related to young generation, asthe medium of the contents are friendlier for them. For this reason, thecontents were more seductive and controversial. The contents were made foreasily draw the attention of the audience. Issues like psychopath or mentallyill peoples mind games, prostitutions, extramarital affairs, killing, sex gotimportance then the main storyline. Web series are easy to relies any contentas they don’t have any censor issues. For this reason, makes of web series canadd any thing to their stories to draw the attention.

But series like kali, faluda and List had chosen the way of unique concept and making for make agood impression. The benefit of making a web series is maker can proratehis/her imagination without any boundaries of censorship. So sensitive issueslike sexual education, LGBD rights, realistic problems of young generation, newformation of relationships in metro life, overgrowing frustration anddepression in human life can be focus in web series. “The medium isthe message” (Marshall :1964) is aphrase by Marshall McLuhan means Medium embeds itself in any Massage it wouldtransmit or convey, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the mediuminfluences how the message is perceived. We can see the similarities of webseries contents with this phrase. As web media is free to show creativity ofcontent the nature of the shows become more open and bold then the othermediums.

As a promising media web series has great potentialities of extend thetypes of stories and apply new and advance ways of making using current worldreality contents. 

I I got up, had my breakfast, then proceeded

I walked around unsteadily all day sort of a lost baby, isolated from its pack. enclosed by unknown territory and uncomfortable weather, i attempted to look for any signs of similarities with my previous country.

I roamed around from place to position and affected at the side of the day, eager to simply go away and return home. This was my initial day within the u. s. of America.A few months before all of this i used to be happy with my calm life in an exceedingly native town of Taiwan. I settled there at the age of 2 with my family, and things were going well up to now.

as a result of I lived there for 10 years, the longest time that I ever spent living in one place, I had created really expert friends and wasn’t trying forward to any important changes though my mammy had told ME a protracted time past, we would move to USA to settle with our uncle and granny. My mammy conjointly told ME that the opposite reason we tend to move is for a higher education and life there however i used to be not listening at that point. i believed she was simply humourous around as a result of my brother and that i have continually expected to own a vacation to alternative countries.

By the time I finished my initial year of secondary school I knew that this was nearly not possible. My family was already packing up, cleanup out the house, and reserving four heavier-than-air craft tickets to USA.The day that I discovered my parents’ future plans was one that appeared like a standard day for a twelve-year previous. I got up, had my breakfast, then proceeded to hold around with my friends.

afterward that day I went resolute play basketball at the college at the side of my older brother. when we tend to went home, my mammy was creating dinner and reproof our uncle. when my mammy finished the decision, she tried to nonchalantly approach ME then aforementioned in Taiwanese, ?Judy, we tend to square measure occupation Jan,? i used to be riant therefore onerous and attempting to assume is nowadays my birthday or what however momma looked in my eyes decisively and aforementioned, “we square measure getting to USA,” whereas giving ME a somewhat curious look and awaiting my reaction.At first, my reaction was somewhat neutral, not even panic or shivering. I didn?t savvy to feel. I didn?t now understand the consequences that this major amendment would wear ME.

I mean that I cannot believe at once

Setup also done with the help of RSA algorithm

Setup Module : This is the first module in whichuser first needs to register all their details including username and passwords. These are first checked whether it is original or not , if it is original theuser have successfully created the identity required . Later they can use thesame id and password to login to their home page , where they access all thefunctions provided to them like uploading the files , downloading them and manymore .-> This setup module gives a certain authority tothe data owners which has to be the main thing under certain policies .

Thereis a setup module for the third party also in case there is no key escrowproblem . 2.Encrypt Module : This is the next module in theCiphertext Policy attribute based encryption in which the data owners canupload their files and encrypt them as per the policies . By doing this processit will very helpful for data owners to secure the data .

-> The encrypt module follows different sets ofalgorithm depends upon the usage . In our proposed system we have used RSAalgorithm which asymmetric cryptography technique . This algorithm is proved tobe one of the better versions of the attribute based encryption .   3.

Key Generation : This is third module in the CiphertextPolicy attribute based encryption in which the data owners can generate thesecret keys from the third party in order access those files . The keys arefirst matched if they satisfies the attribute then they can access their files.->key generation is also done with the help ofRSA algorithm , the generated key from the master key will also be in encryptedformat such that the attackers will take a lot of time to hack the accounts . 4.

Decrypt Module : This is the fourth and lastmodule in the Ciphertext Policy attribute based encryption in which the dataowners download all the files with the help of the key generated . The generatedkey will helps the user to decrypt their particular files without causing anyproblem to the other files which are on the same access structure . -> The decryption process generally takes a goodamount of time and hence to save that we providing with a better technique  . The decryption module gives the user thefinal result they were looking for .  

THE Java run time system has predefined features which

THE JAVA LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENT(A WHITE PAPER) CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO JAVANow we have systems which can work with multiple O.S. dealing with multiple frameworks .Earlier languages (like C or C++) had dependencies with reference to different architectural properties or different software in the system .For example: In C language, different memory size is allocated to integer (int) data type for 32 bit and 64 bit systems.

Needs were required to build application which can work on heterogeneous environment anytime anywhere. Internet connecting people worldwide, making data available for all to use also led to urge of developing improved versatile applications which can work without any complications on each and every system. In order to solve the older problems OOPS brought more other complications. So we needed to deal with this all which brought the Java programming language into picture by Sun Microsystems.It would include:Programming language which is simpler includes more speed due to interpretation part (saving time of compilation, linking, loader, testing, crashing of program and error resolving).Transfer of programs in systems with different O.S is easier now and applications can run without any dependency (increasing portability).

With efficient memory management and automatic garbage collection technique will add robust feature to our applications.Multithreading featured more enhancements to GUI based applications as they can now have greater performance rate. Applications are adaptable to changes now and any set of working segments can be loaded into our system through network.As Internet world is taken as a place full of data as well as insecurities due to its open channel but efficient Java run time system has predefined features which adds secure environment to it.

Thus these features are now available with Java Programming Language.Also the very first attention gaining application made using Java is HotJava which is WWW browser where java build fragments can be downloaded and run dynamically.With involvement of least resources, java can provide secure applications which are platform-independent. Java found its roots with a starting of research work. Main idea with the beginning of development of this language was providing a light weight, more secure, can work distributed and real time systems. Initial steps started with improvements in C++ but it involved many problems which could be best treated by developing a new language itself. It involved features of Eiffel, Smalltalk, Objective and Cedar/Mesa which overall resulted in secured, platform independent, network compatible environment.

Java was developed with a picture in mind to make it hardware independent, easily transferrable and runtime adaptability.As it included some features of C++ too so did not come as a wholly new thing difficult to understand and developers found it familiar, simpler and easier to learn. So this simple object oriented programming language did not demand large-scale training requirements.Architectural neutral and portable feature comes in java by the Byte code generated by Java compiler. This code makes java WORA (Write once Run anywhere).The byte code generated is same for every system irrespective of differences in hardware and software resources. There is no data type dependency in java from system to system.

This all is done by Java Virtual Machine (JVM) based on POSIX interface.High performance is maintained by automatic garbage collector that runs with less priority as a background process, thus making more space available for major processes leading to higher performance. Java is robust and secure as it has two levels for executing a program-first compilation and then interpretation. There is no use of pointer here as was in C++ which reduces the risk of dangling pointers and program crash.

 Java applications are secure which restricts entry of illegal intrusions.Java is interpreted, threaded and dynamic. On compilation of Java programs, Byte code is generated which java interpreter can further interpret ,with respect to,particular O.S. of the system. JVM has built in feature to provide interpreters for different operating system and pre-interpreted code (Byte code) is same for all machines so this makes java platform –independent.

Network applied browsers like WWW , HotJava has to perform multiple tasks interaction with the end-user which becomes possible with multi-threading feature of Java. Its language library supplies thread class and run-time module gives condition lock built-ins. Static compilation, dynamic run-time environment and classes linking are only made when needed. There is on-line  services feature in java which means that any library class can be imported anytime needed.Java Base System : Java has many libraries to perform various functions such as java.

lang which is required wherever we have need of creating class-object structure. Also exceptions,wrapper classes etc are added onto it. works as standard I/O Library. provides features for sockets, telnet , interfaces etc. java.util contains utility classes. Dictonary, Hash Table, Stack, Date, Time and encoder-decoder methods are found here. java.

awt – Abstract Windowing Toolkit helps in increasing portability feature of java programs.The most important feature which makes Java different from other languages is its platform-independent code with its run-time environment provided by JVM which makes java code portable and has same functionality on every system.CHAPTER-2 JAVA-SIMPLE AND FAMILIARJava looked familiar to earlier languages like C and C++ because it includes many features of these languages and looks similar to them and it’s simple because it has removed many complications from the previous languages. The simplest program in java can be as follows:HelloWorld program which prints HelloWorld            class HelloWorld{                        public static void main(String args){                        System.out.

println(“Hello World!”);                        }                        }Here HelloWorld is a class name , class keyword is used for declaring a class .main() method is used for start of execution of program and there string HelloWorld is printed by calling println() method of out object which is class variable of System class.Primitive Data Types in Java : Java has three divisions for primitive data types-numeric, Boolean and arrays. The difference here from earlier languages include that everything in  java is treated as object .Even encapsulation of primitive data types are also possible within library supplied objects.Numeric Datatype: byte(8 bit),short(16 bit),int(32 bit),long(64 bit).

char in C or C++ was the smallest size datatype but here it is replaced by byte. No unsigned type in integer data types. Real numeric data types include float(32 bit),double(64 bit)  

9.0 test phase. Close project management is crucial to

9.0 RESOURCES/ROLES& RESPONSIBILITIES The Test Lead and Project Managerwill determine when system test will start and end.

The Test lead will also beresponsible for coordinating schedules, equipment, & tools for the testersas well as writing/updating the Test Plan, Weekly Test Status reports and FinalTest Summary report. The testers will be responsible for writing the test casesand executing the tests. With the help of the Test Lead, the Booking System/POSManager and cashiers will be responsible for the Beta and User Acceptancetests.

9.1.ResourcesThe test team will consist of:·        A Project Manager·        Developer·        A Test Lead·        Testers·        Booking System/POS Manager·        Cashiers 9.2Responsibilities Project Manager Responsible for Project schedules and the overall success of the project. Participate on CCB. Lead Developer Serve as a primary contact/liaison between the development department and the project team. Participate on CCB Test Lead Ensures the overall success of the test cycles.

He/she will coordinate weekly meetings and will communicate the testing status to the project team. Participate on CCB. Testers Responsible for performing the actual system testing. Booking System/POS Manager Serves as Liaison between customer and project team. He/she will help coordinate the Beta and User Acceptance testing efforts. Participate on CCB.

Cashier Will assist in performing the Beta and User Acceptance testing.  13.0RISKS/ASSUMPTIONS 13.1.

ScheduleThe schedule for each phase is very aggressive and couldaffect testing. A slip in the schedule in one of the other phases could resultin a subsequent slip in the test phase. Close project management is crucial tomeeting the forecasted completion date.13.2. ManagementManagement support is required so when the project fallsbehind, the test schedule does not get squeezed to make up for the delay.

Management can reduce the risk of delays by supporting the test team throughoutthe testing phase and assigning people to this project with the required skillsset.13.3.PersonnelDue to the aggressive schedule, it is very important to haveexperienced testers on this project. Unexpected turnovers can impact theschedule.

If attrition does happen, all efforts must be made to replace theexperienced individual13.4RequirementsThe test plan and test schedule are based on the currentRequirements Document. Any changes to the requirements could affect the test scheduleand will need to be approved by the CCB.14.0 DocumentationThe following documentation will be available at the end ofthe test phase:·        Test Plan·        Test Cases·        Test Case review·        Requirements Validation Matrix·        Defect reports·        Final Test Summary Report 15.0 APPROVALS Name (In Capital Letters) Signature Date 1.

MATTHEW BALLINGER     2. RICHARD IRWIN     3.     4.    

Introduction: patients. So, appropriate AED use, along with monitoring

Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, occurringdue to uncontrolled neuronal discharge. There are about 70 million cases ofepilepsy all over the world, and out of those, approximately 12 million casesare lodged in India; which is about one-sixth of the global load 1. There areover 20 anti-epileptic drugs and 2 implantable anti-epileptic devices availablecommercially in the United States 2.

This list is extensive and non-inclusiveof the extended release formulations 3, the newer vagus nerve stimulationtechnology 4, and dietary therapies modifications. Among the currently available anti-epileptic drugs(AED), conventional AEDs include Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Carbamazepine,Valproic acid, Ethosuximide, Trimethadione and newer AEDs include Vigabatrin, Tiagabine,Gabapentin, Topiramate, Zonesamide, Lamotrigine, Felbamate, Levetiracetam,Lacosamide. 5The increasing possible treatments for epilepsy are aboon for patients. A numberof newer anti-epileptic drugs have been developed in the last few years toimprove the treatment outcomes in epilepsy.

They will provide more options toachieve a good outcome and better quality of life and can be challenging to thedoctors. Noneof the newer AEDs have been found to be better than the conventional AEDs.However, the “2004 American Academy of Neurology report” 6 suggested that newergeneration AEDs have almost same efficacy but better tolerability thanconventional drugs.Epilepsy is a social stigma 7 asepileptic patients face many psychosocial problems (like anxiety, difficulty indriving, unemployment) that can deteriorate the HR-QOL. Increasing awarenessabout it has led to the need to quantify HR-QOL in epileptic patients.

So,appropriate AED use, along with monitoring of adverse effects, and assessmentof HR-QOL as an outcome measure are important in the management of epilepsy.Demographic characters, seizure frequency,and extended period of the disease are related with poor HR-QOL 8. There are lesser studies examining theimpact of AED pharmacotherapy on HR-QOL 9.

Keeping this rationale in mind we decidedto go for this particular research study which will not only inform usregarding the AEDs prescribed conventional or newer, and will give us abaseline data on the quality of life in such patients.