Primarily, school’s macro environment. It is, therefore, impractical to

Primarily, this research paper seeks to
analyze the impact of a decentralized system of educational management (UK)
towards a centralized system such as that of Greece. With a background in
History and Archaeology, an analysis of middle-leadership of UK school relating
to the Greek academic system would enable a deeper identification of the issues
affecting the latter. This scenario would create a solution towards quelling
these issues and moving Greek education at par with the British system
regarding middle management. It has been proven that middle management has an
integral impact upon schooling such as the fact that OECD data in the UK
displays a 75% achievement disparity between the advantaged and disadvantaged
children may be attributed to their performance levels within a school
(Dimmock, 2012). This discrepancy is edged out through greater focus on each
student conducted through an exemplary focus on learning and teaching for every
department trickling down to every subject. These intricate details are
exceptionally high for the upper management such as the head teacher to deal,
and thus it is charged with middle-level management.

There is also an incremental need for
middle-leadership within educational facilities as they have been realized to
be the backbone of improved educational performance in the UK and thus should
transcend to Greece for the enhancement of their educational system. The Greek
system lacks strong middle management, and their system emphasizes the role of
the headmaster who is charged with a myriad of responsibilities. Thus, the
headmaster would not be in a position to handle duties that are supposed to be
in the hands of middle management. In general, the Greek educational system is
bureaucratic, and thus the roles of the headmaster are; establishing and
ensuring that the school’s vision is realized. Additionally, this method also
identifies and forms a school culture, to teach and tutor students, imparting a
good relationship between the school and the parents among other individuals
within the school’s macro environment. It is, therefore, impractical to expect
that a Greek headteacher would be in a position to conduct both middle and
upper-level management (Gravani & John, 2005). Consequently, it is
imperative to establish a middle-management structure as strong as that in the
UK.

 

The thermal and mechanical shock resistance. Due to Vantablack’s

The complex structure of carbon nanotubes
allows it to maintain certain properties such as electrical and thermal
conductivity as well as mechanical strength. In order to obtain these complex
structures and properties, however, the carbon tubes need to be synthesized into
their according structures. Chemical vapor deposition is the most common
technique, although other synthesis methods such as arc discharge and laser ablation
can be used. In chemical vapor deposition, vaporized hydrocarbons are heated
and decomposed by a metal catalytic substrate which serves as a template for
nanotube formation. The uniqueness of carbon nanotubes extends far beyond their
structures and properties, as their level of compliance with different fields
is vast. From building the darkest color to providing a medium for tissue
regrowth, there seems to be few boundaries for these nanomaterials.

 

            Vantablack is a material created by
Surrey Nanosystems which was originally created for satellite-borne blackbody
calibration systems6. Vantablack is currently being recognized as
one of the darkest man made materials as it reflects only 0.036% of light6.  When it is applied to a 3D surface, the
object appears to lose its dimension to the darkness and resembles a black hole
in space (Image 26). Its
high absorption extends from the UV spectrum, into the visible, and also the
infrared (>16microns)6. The reason it absorbs such a large range
of light is because of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VANTA). The
arrays contain spacing which permit the entrance of a photon, however, the light/radiation
reflects between the tubes and eventually becomes absorbed as it is converted
to heat. The heat is then transferred to the nanotubes’ substrate which can be made
of aluminum alloys, cobalt, copper, nickel, sapphire and more. Besides optical
properties, Vantablack contains other properties make it an extraordinary
material. For example, it is very hydrophobic and therefore prevents water from
interfering with optical properties and it also has high thermal and mechanical
shock resistance. Due to Vantablack’s properties, it can be applied to various
pieces of technology to enhance data collection and imaging. Some applications
include its incorporation into IR imaging, Spectroscopy, telescopes, sensors,
and calibration sources.

INFL??NC? and s??ar tracti?n and r?m?t? ?xt?nsi?n l?ads ?sing

INFL??NC? T?? L?CATI?N AND
CRACK ANGL?
?N T?? STR?SS INT?NSITY FACT?R

Naja? R?st?m M??sin

 

 

 

 

Abstract: T?is
pap?r d?als ?it?
t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack ?bliq?? and its l?cati?n ?n t?? str?ss int?nsity fact?r m?d? I (KI) and II (K11) f?r a finit? plat? s?bj?ct?d t? ?niaxial
t?nsi?n str?ss. T?? pr?bl?m is s?lv?d n?m?rically ?sing
finit? ?l?m?nt s?ft?ar? ANSYS R15 and t???r?tically ?sing
mat??matically ?q?ati?ns.
A g??d agr??m?nt is ?bs?rv?d b?t???n t?? t???r?tical and
n?m?rical s?l?ti?ns in all st?di?d cas?s. ?? s??? t?at incr?asing t?? crack
angl? f l?ads t? d?cr?asing t?? val?? ?f K1and
t?? maxim?m val?? ?f K11 ?cc?rs at f=45?. F?rt??rm?r?, K11 ?q?al t? z?r? at f
= 0? and 90? ??il? K1?q?al t? z?r? at f
= 90?. ????v?r, t??r? is n? s?nsitiv? ?ff?ct t? t?? crack l?cati?n
??il? t??r?  is a c?nsid?rabl? ?ff?ct ?f t?? crack ?bliq??.

K?y ??rds: Crack,
angl?, l?cati?n, t?nsi?n, KI, K11, ANSYS R15.

I.                        
INTR?D?CTI?N

Fract?r?
can b? d?fin?d as t?? pr?c?ss ?f fragm?ntati?n ?f a s?lid int? t?? ?r m?r?
parts ?nd?r t?? str?ss?s acti?n. Fract?r? analysis d?als ?it? t?? c?mp?tati?n ?f
param?t?rs t?at ??lp t? d?sign a str?ct?r? ?it?in t?? limits ?f catastr?p?ic
fail?r?. It ass?m?s t?? pr?s?nc? ?f a crack in t?? str?ct?r?. T?? st?dy ?f crack
b??avi?r in a plat? is a c?nsid?rabl? imp?rtanc? in t?? d?sign t? av?id t??
fail?r? t?? Str?ss int?nsity fact?r inv?lv?d in fract?r? m?c?anics t? d?scrib?
t?? ?lastic str?ss fi?ld s?rr??nding a crack tip.

?as?b?
and In??ara 1 analyz?d t?? r?lati?ns b?t???n t?? str?ss int?nsity fact?rs and
t?? angl? ?f t?? ?bliq?? ?dg? crack f?r a s?mi-infinit? plat?. T???caris
and Papad?p??l?s 2 ?s?d t?? ?xp?rim?ntal m?t??d ?f r?fl?ct?d ca?stics t? st?dy
t?? infl??nc? ?f t?? g??m?try ?f an ?dg?-crack?d plat? ?n str?ss int?nsity
fact?rs K1and Kn. Kim and L?? 3 st?di?d K1and K11 f?r an ?bliq??
crack ?nd?r n?rmal and s??ar tracti?n and r?m?t? ?xt?nsi?n l?ads ?sing ABAQ?S s?ft?ar?
and analytical appr?ac? a s?mi-infinit? plan? ?it? an ?bliq?? ?dg? crack and an
int?rnal crack act?d ?n by a pair ?f c?nc?ntrat?d f?rc?s at arbitrary p?siti?n
is st?di?d by Qian and ?as?b? 4. Kim?ra and Sat? 5 calc?lat?d K1and K11 ?f
t?? ?bliq?? crack initiat?d ?nd?r fr?? ing fatig?? c?nditi?ns. F??  and Rizzi 6 d?scrib?d t?? str?ss int?nsity
fact?rs ?nd?r vari??s crack s?rfac? tracti?ns ?sing an ?bliq?? crack in a s?mi-infinit?
b?dy. C??i 7 st?di?d t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack ?ri?ntati?n angl? f?r vari??s mat?rial
and g??m?tric c?mbinati?ns ?f t?? c?ating/s?bstrat? syst?m ?it? t?? grad?d int?rfacial
z?n?. G?k?l ?t al 8 calc?lat?d t?? str?ss int?nsity fact?r ?f m?ltipl? straig?t
and ?bliq?? cracks in a riv?t ??l?. K??lil ?t al 9 ?val?at?d K1n?m?rically ?sing
lin? strain m?t??d and t???r?tically. R?c?ntllty, M??sin 10 and 11 st?di?d t???r?tically
and n?m?rically t?? str?ss int?nsity fact?rs m?d? I f?r c?nt?r, singl? ?dg? and
d??bl? ?dg? crack?d finit? plat? s?bj?ct?d t? t?nsi?n str?ss .

Patr ici
and Ma? ??ij 12 m?nti?n?d t?at, ?? can disting?is? s?v?ral mann?rs in ??ic? a
f?rc? may b? appli?d t? t?? plat? ??ic? mig?t ?nabl? t?? crack t? pr?pagat?. Ir?in
pr?p?s?d a classificati?n c?rr?sp?nding t? t?? t?r?? sit?ati?ns r?pr?s?nt?d in Fig.1.
Acc?rdingly, ?? c?nsid?r t?r?? distinct m?d?s: m?d? I, m?d? II and m?d? III. In
t?? m?d? I, ?r ?p?ning m?d?, t?? b?dy is l?ad?d by t?nsil? f?rc?s, s?c? t?at t??
crack s?rfac?s ar? p?ll?d apart in t?? y dir?cti?n. T?? m?d? II , ?r sliding m?d?,
t?? b?dy is l?ad?d by ?rc?s parall?l t? t?? crack s?rfac?s, ??ic? slid? ?v?r ?ac?
?t??r in t?? x dir?cti?n. Finally, in t?? m?d? III , ?r t?aring m?d?, t?? b?dy
is l?ad?d by s??ar f?rc?s parall?l t? t?? crack fr?nt t?? crack s?rfac?s, and t??
crack s?rfac?s slid? ?v?r ?ac? ?t??r in t?? z dir?cti?n.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

str?ss fi?lds a??ad ?f a crack tip (Fig.2) f?r
m?d? I and m?d? II in a lin?ar ?lastic, is?tr?pic mat?rial ar?
as in t?? f?ll??, And?rs?n 13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In many sit?ati?ns, a crack is s?bj?ct t? a c?mbinati?n
?f t?? t?r?? diff?r?nt m?d?s ?f l?ading, I, II and III. A simpl? ?xampl? is a
crack l?cat?d at an angl? ?t??r t?an 90° t? a t?nsil? l?ad: t?? t?nsil? l?ad C?, is r?s?lv?d int? t?? c?mp?n?nt p?rp?ndic?lar
t? t?? crack, m?d? I, and parall?l t? t?? crack, m?d? II as s???n in Fig.3. T??
str?ss int?nsity at t?? tip can t??n b? ass?ss?d f?r ?ac? m?d? ?sing t?? appr?priat?
?q?ati?ns, Ra? 14,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Str?ss int?nsity s?l?ti?ns ar? giv?n in a vari?ty
?f f?rms, K can al?ays b? r?lat?d t? t?? t?r??g? crack t?r??g? t?? appr?priat?
c?rr?cti?n fact?r, And?rs?n 13

 

 

???r? ?: c?aract?ristic str?ss, a: c?aract?ristic
crack dim?nsi?n and Y: dim?nsi?nl?ss c?nstant t?at d?p?nds ?n t?? g??m?try and
t?? m?d? ?f l?ading.

?? can g?n?raliz?
t?? angl?d t?r??g?-t?ickn?ss crack ?f Fig.4 t? any planar crack ?ri?nt?d 90° –
p fr?m t?? appli?d n?rmal str?ss. F?r ?niaxial l?ading, t?? str?ss int?nsity
fact?rs f?r m?d? I and m?d? II ar? giv?n by K1=

 

 

 

 

???r? KI0 is t?? m?d?
I str?ss int?nsity ???n ? = 0. T?? crack-tip str?ss fi?lds (in p?lar c??rdinat?s)
f?r t?? m?d? I p?rti?n ?f t?? l?ading ar? giv?n by

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

II.                       
Mat?rials and M?t??ds

Bas?d ?n
t?? ass?mpti?ns ?f Lin?ar ?lastic Fract?r? M?c?anics L?FM and plan? strain pr?bl?m,
K1and K11 t? a finit? crack?d plat? f?r diff?r?nt angl?s and l?cati?ns ?nd?r ?niaxial
t?nsi?n str?ss?s ar? st?di?d n?m?rically and t???r?tically.

A.                  
Sp?cim?ns Mat?rial

T?? plat?
sp?cim?n mat?rial is St??l (str?ct?ral) ?it? m?d?l?s ?f ?lasticity 2.07?5 Mpa
and p?is?n’s rati? 0.29, Y??ng and B?dynas 15. T?? m?d?ls ?f plat? sp?cim?ns ?it?
dim?nsi?ns ar? s???n in Fig.5.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.              T???r?tical S?l?ti?n

Val??s ?f
K1and K11 ar? t???r?tically calc?lat?d bas?d ?n t?? f?ll??ing pr?c?d?r? 1)D?t?rminati?n
?f t?? KI? (K1???n
p = 0) bas?d ?n (7), ???r? (Tada ?t al 16 )

 

 

 

2)                  
Calc?lating K1and K11 t? any plan?r crack ?ri?nt?d
(P) fr?m t?? appli?d n?rmal str?ss ?sing (8) and (9).

 

C.                  
N?m?rical S?l?ti?n

K1and K11 ar? calc?lat?d n?m?rically ?sing
finit? ?l?m?nt s?ft?ar? ANSYS R15 ?it? PLAN?183 ?l?m?nt as a discr?tizati?n ?l?m?nt.
ANSYS m?d?ls at P=0? ar? s???n in Fig.6 ?it? t?? m?s?, ?l?m?nts and
b??ndary c?nditi?ns.

 

D.                              
PLAN?183 D?scripti?n

PLAN?183 is ?s?d in t?is pap?r as a discr?tizati?n
?l?m?nt ?it? q?adrilat?ral s?ap?, plan? strain b??avi?r and p?r? displac?m?nt f?rm?lati?n.
PLAN?183 ?l?m?nt typ? is d?fin?d by 8 n?d?s ( I, J, K, L, M, N, ?, P ) ?r 6 n?d?s
( I, J, K, L, M, N) f?r q?adrilat?ral and triangl? ?l?m?nt, r?sp?ctiv?ly ?aving
t?? d?gr??s ?f fr??d?m (?x , ?y) at ?ac? n?d? (translati?ns in t?? n?dal X and
Y dir?cti?ns) 17. T?? g??m?try, n?d? l?cati?ns, and t?? c??rdinat? syst?m f?r
t?is ?l?m?nt ar? s???n in Fig.7.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E.                  
T?? St?di?d Cas?s

T? ?xplain
t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack ?bliq?? and its l?cati?n ?n t?? K1and K11, many cas?s (r?p?rt?d
in Tabl? 1) ar? st?di?d t???r?tically and n?m?rically.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III.              
R?s?lts
and Disc?ssi?ns
K1and K11 val??s ar? t???r?tically calc?lat?d by (7 – 10) and n?m?rically ?sing
ANSYS R15 ?it? t?r?? cas?s as
s???n in Tabl? 1.

A. Cas? St?dy I
Figs. 8a, b, c, d, ?, f, g, ? and i ?xplain t??
n?m?rical and t???r?tical variati?ns ?f K1and K11 ?it? diff?r?nt
val??s ?f a/b rati? ???n ? = 0?, 15?, 30?, 40?, 45?, 50?, 60?, 70? and 75?, r?sp?ctiv?ly.
Fr?m t??s? Figs., it is t??
?asy t? s?? t?at t?? K1> K11 ???n ? < 45? ??il? K1< K11 ???n ? > 45? and K1? K11
at ? = 45?.

 

 

 

 

 

B.                   
Cas? St?dy
II

A c?mpr?ssi?n
b?t???n K1and K11 val??s f?r diff?r?nt crack l?cati?ns (m?d?ls b, ? and ?) at
p=30?, 45? and 60? ?it? variati?ns ?f a/b rati?
ar? s???n in Figs. 9a, b, c, d, ?, f, g, ? and i. Fr?m t??s? Figs., it is cl?ar
t?at t?? crack angl? ?as a c?nsid?rabl? ?ff?ct ?n t?? K1and K11 val??s b?t t?? ?ff?ct
?f crack l?cati?n is insignificant.

 

 

Fig.9: Varia ti?n ?f K1N?m., K1T?., K11 N?m.
and K11 T?. ?it? t?? variati?n ?f a / b f?r b, ? and ?
m?d?l
at P = 30, 45 and 60.

 

 

 

C.   
Cas? St?dy
III

Figs.
10a, b, c and d ?xplain t?? variati?ns ?f K1and K11 ?it? t?? crack angl? P = 0?,
15?, 30?, 45?, 60?, 75? and
90? f?r m?d?ls b, ? and ?. Fr?m t??s? Figs., ?? s??? t?at t?? maxim?m
K1and K11 val??s app?ar at P=0? and P=45?, r?sp?ctiv?ly.
F?rt??rm?r?, K11 ?q?al t? z?r? at P = 0? and P = 90?. G?n?rally,
t?? maxim?m val??s ?f t?? n?rmal and s??ar str?ss?s ?cc?r ?n s?rfac?s ???r? t??
P=0? and P=45?, r?sp?ctiv?ly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fr?m all Figs., it can b? s??n t?at t??r? is n?
significant diff?r?nc? b?t???n t?? t???r?tical and n?m?rical s?l?ti?ns.

 

F?rt??rm?r?,
Figs. 11 and 12 ar? grap?ically ill?strat?d V?n._Mis?s str?ss?s c??nt?r pl?ts ?it?
t?? variati?n ?f l?cati?n and angl? ?f t?? crack, r?sp?ctiv?ly. Fr?m t??s? Figs.,
it is cl?ar t?at t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack angl? and t?? ?ff?ct ?f crack l?cati?n ar?
inc?mparabl?.

 

Fig.12: C?? nt?r pl?ts ?f V?n._Mis?s str?ss ?it?
t?? variati?n ?f crack angl? at sp? cific l?cat i?n.

 

 

IV.                        
C?ncl?si?ns

1)                 
A g??d agr??m?nt is ?bs?rv?d b?t???n t?? t???r?tical
and n?m?rical s?l?ti?ns in all st?di?d cas?s.

2)                 
Incr?asing t?? crack angl? p l?ads t? d?cr?as?
t?? val?? ?f K1and t?? maxim?m val?? ?f K11 ?cc?rs at p=45.

3)                 
K11 vanis??d at p = 0? and 90?
??il? K1vanis??d at p = 90?.

4)                 
T??r? is n? ?bvi??s ?ff?ct t? t?? crack l?cati?n
b?t t??r? is a c?nsid?rabl? ?ff?ct ?f t?? crack ?bliq??.

 

 

 

R?f?r?nc?s

 

1    
.      N. ?as?b?
and S. In??ara. Str?ss Analysis ?f a S?mi-Infinit? Plat? ?it? an ?bliq?? ?dg?
Crack. Ing?ni??r-Arc?iv, V?l?m?

49(1),
pp. 51-62, 1980.

2    
.      P.
S. T???caris and G. A. Papad?p??l?s. T?? Infl??nc? ?f G??m?try ?f ?dg?-Crack?d
Plat?s ?n K1and K11 C?mp?n?nts ?f t??

Str?ss
Int?nsity Fact?r. J??rnal ?f P?ysics D: Appli?d P?ysics. V?l. 17(12), pp.
2339-2349, 1984.

3    
.      ?.K.
Kim and S.B. L??. Str?ss int?nsity fact?rs ?f an ?bliq?? ?dg? crack s?bj?ct?d t?
n?rmal and s??ar tracti?ns. T???r?tical and

Appli?d Fract?r? M?c?anics, V?l?m? 25(2), pp.
147-154, 1996.

4    
.      J.
Qian and N. ?as?b?. An ?bliq?? ?dg? Crack and an Int?rnal Crack in a S?mi-Infinit?
Plan? Act?d ?n by C?nc?ntrat?d

F?rc? at Arbitrary P?siti?n. ?ngin??ring
Analysis ?it? B??ndary ?l?m?nts, V?l. 18, pp. 155-16, 1996.

5    
.      T.
Kim?ra and K. Sat?. Simplifi?d M?t??d t? D?t?rmin? C?ntact Str?ss Distrib?ti?n
and Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?rs in Fr?? ing

Fatig??. Int?rnati?nal J??rnal ?f Fatig??, V?l.
25, pp. 633-640, 2003.

6    
.      T.
F??  and G. Rizzi. ??ig?t F?ncti?ns f?r
Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?rs and T-Str?ss f?r ?bliq?? Cracks in a ?alf-Spac?.

Int?rnati?nal J??rnal ?f Fract?r?, V?l. 132(1),
pp. L9-L16, 2005.

7    
.      ?.
J. C??i. Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?rs f?r an ?bliq?? ?dg? Crack in a C?ating/S?bstrat?
Syst?m ?it? a Grad?d Int?rfacial Z?n?

?nd?r Antiplan? S??ar. ??r?p?an J??rnal ?f M?c?anics
A/S?lids. V?l. 26, pp. 337-3, 2007.

8    
.      G?k?l.R
, D?ayanant?.S , Adit?ya.V, S.S?r?s? K?mar. Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?r D?t?rminati?n
?f M?ltipl? Straig?t and ?bliq??

Cracks in D??bl? C?v?r B??  Riv?t?d J?int. Int?rnati?nal J??rnal ?f Inn?vativ?
R?s?arc? in Sci?nc?, ?ngin??ring and T?c?n?l?gy, V?l. 3(3), 2014.

9    
.      F.
K??lil, M. B?l???ari, N. B?ns?ddiq, A. Tal?a. A N?m?rical Appr?ac? f?r t?? D?t?rminati?n
?f M?d? I Str?ss Int?nsity

Fact?rs in PMMA Mat?rials. ?ngin??ring, T?c?n?l?gy
and Appli?d Sci?nc? R?s?arc?, V?l. 4(3), 2014.

10    
.     N.
R. M??sin. Static and Dynamic Analysis ?f C?nt?r Crack?d Finit? Plat? S?bj?ct?d
t? ?nif?rm T?nsil? Str?ss ?sing Finit?

?l?m?nt M?t??d. Int?rnati?nal J??rnal ?f M?c?anical
?ngin??ring and T?c?n?l?gy (IJM?T), V?l. 6, (1), pp. 56-70, 2015.

11    
.     N.
R. M??SIN. C?mparis?n b?t???n T???r?tical and N?m?rical S?l?ti?ns f?r C?nt?r,
Singl? ?dg? and D??bl? ?dg? Crack?d

Finit? Plat? S?bj?ct?d t? T?nsi?n Str?ss. Int?rnati?nal
J??rnal ?f M?c?anical and Pr?d?cti?n ?ngin??ring R?s?arc? and D?v?l?pm?nt (IJMP?RD),
V?l. 5(2), pp. 11-20, 2015.

12    
.     M.
Patr ici and R. M. M. Ma? ??ij. Crack Pr?pagati?n Analysis, ?? p://???.?in.t??.nl/analysis/r?p?rts/rana07-23.pdf
.

13    
.     T.L.And?rs?n.
Fract?r? M?c?anics F?ndam?ntals and Applicati?ns. T?ird ?diti?n, Tayl?r
Gr??p, CRC Pr?ss,    2005.

14    
.     L.
S. Jab?r and N. R. M??sin. Str?ss Int?nsity Fact?r f?r D??bl? ?dg? Crack?d
Finit? Plat? S?bj?ct?d t? T?nsil? Str?ss. T?i_Qar

               
?niv?rsity J??rnal f?r ?ngin??ring Sci?nc?s, V?l.7, N?. 1,
pp.101-115,  2016.

15    
.     C.
Ra?. Nat?ral Sci?nc?s Trip?s Part II- MAT?RIALS SCI?NC?- C15: Fract?r? and Fatig??.

?? ps://???.msm.cam.ac.?k/t?ac?ing/partII/c??rs?C15/C15?.pdf
.

16    
.     ?.
C. Y??ng and R. G. B?dynas. R?ark’s F?rm?las f?r Str?ss and Strain. McGra?-?ill
c?mpani?s, S?v?nt? ?diti?n, 2002.

17    
.     ?.
Tada, P. C. Paris and G. R. Ir?in. T?? Str?ss Analysis ?f Cracks ?andb??k. T?ird
?diti?n, ASM? pr?ss?s, 2000.

18    
.     ANSYS
??lp.

The Palestine had normalized. However after the war hundreds

The Middle east has been in constant turmoil since before I was born and pretty much has been since the end of the Second World War, However the powderkeg was set after World War One. Before World One the Ottoman Empire Held control Over most of the Middle East. The Empire was in decline before the war and had recently lost most of its European territory in the First Balkan war and lost its Libyan territories in the Italo-Turkish War. However at the end of the war the empire was divided between the Entente powers and the new Turkish state. The problem with this is that the British Promised that the Arabs would gain independence if they decided to fight for the British which they did in various battles (Yanbu, Mecca, Medina) and ended up only getting a fraction of lands that they were promised. Of the land of this Palestine was promised not only to the Arabs, but Jews the land. The British ended up establishing  the British Mandate of Palestine and under it the Jewish Population grew by 320,000. The Jews then proceeded to buy the land from Arabs and evicted the people who lived and worked there only fanning the flames of ethnic tension as both groups believed the lands were their own and leading to a revolt against the British by the Arabs in 1936 which was put down by British forces and Jewish Militias and lead to a restriction of Jewish Immigrants to the Mandate. Though This was the only conflict that was the only conflict between Arabs and Jews before World War 2 ended, this is an important event foreshadowing how the 20th century would play out.During World War 2 the relations between Arabs and Jews in the British Mandate of Palestine had normalized. However after the war hundreds of thousands of Jews were left homeless due to having their property stripped away by the Nazis. Left with nothing they applied for asylum in Britain and those that were accepted were settled in the British Mandate of Palestine. This reopened the wounds between Arab and Jew that had only recently healed. Fearing conflict the British handed the mandate over to the newly formed United Nations along with creating several Arab states along with France. In 1947 the UN made a proposal for 2 seperate states but the Palestinian Arabs didn’t take too kindly to this and with the support of the new Arab states; Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Yeman, and Saudi Arabia launched an attempted invasion of Israel. The fighting lasted just under 10 months and against all odds Israel managed to defeat the Arab forces. To stop Israel from annexing all of the palestinian lands Jordan occupied the West Bank and Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip however Israel annexed much of the territory. In the same way that Canada won its independence in Vimy Ridge Israel won its independence in the First Arab-Israeli War, However this was not the last conflict between Israel and the Arab states.For 9 years after the First Arab-Israeli war the middle east was relatively peaceful, the most that happened was minor skirmishes on the Jordan-Israeli border and General Gamal Abdel Nasser taking power in Egypt with his military Junta. However a powderkeg was set with Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected president and nationalized the Suez Canal that was controlled by a joint British-French company. At this point, the British and French Empires being eclipsed by the 2 emerging superpowers of the United States and The Soviet Union. So in a final attempt to stay attempt to stay relevant on the world stage they made an alliance with Israel and plotted to how to respond while in the Meantime the USSR started supplying Egypt with Arms. On October 29th Israel invaded and occupied the Sinai peninsula and Gaza Strip and advanced to within 42km of the Suez Canal. France and Britain ordered both Israel and Egypt to withdraw from the Suez (this was planned with the Israelis) but the Egyptians didn’t back down, because of this Britain and France started to bomb the canal. Since Egypt had good relations with the Soviets the US urged the British and French to make peace as to avoid being drawn into a war. This caused the biggest rift between the two allies in the 20th Century. Before the bombing started Canada’s foreign minister and UN delegate Lester B. Pearson tried to resolve the situation diplomatically but once things heated up he instead pushed for a larger peacekeeping force. On November 4th the motion passed and in the UN with 57 votes for and 19 abstaining with no countries voting against it, the first time something passed this unanimously in the UN. Two days later a ceasefire was agreed upon and UN Peacekeeping forces and allowed the “Britain, France and Israel to withdraw their forces without giving the appearance of having been defeated.”1 This ended what we know now as the Suez Crisis or the Second Arab-Israeli War. This resulted in Sinai being occupied for 4 months, the end of the United Kingdom’s rule of Superpower with the resignation of the British Prime Minister Anthony Eden. Pearson’s success in bringing peace led him to win the Position of Prime Minister 1963. Though the crisis only lasted 9 days, it sent ripples across global politics forever changing not only the middle east, but the world.2 Years after the Suez Crisis Pan-Arabism; an ideology espousing unification of the Arab world was popular across the middle east. With the recent Israeli aggression, Syria pushed for a political union with Egypt due to Egyptian President Nasser being viewed as a hero, the shared border with Israel and the political instability of the nation following the coup in 1954. Due to this Egypt and Syria offered referendums to unite the countries under the political union of the United Arab Republic. Though the union only lasted 3 years, with only minor socialist reforms being passed, it was the first step in setting Syria down a path that would eventually lead the 2011 civil war that is still raging today.There wasn’t any big conflicts in the middle east after the Second Arab-Israeli War (Suez Crisis) for a while, the small conflicts that did break out were mainly due to ethnic conflicts that resulted in skirmishes or civil wars to oust monarchs. However in 1967 another powder keg between Israel and Egypt was set. Disputes over land and water between Israel and her neighbours had only increased after the Second Arab-Israeli war and Israel threatened war if Egypt were to bad Israeli ships from the Strait of Tiran. The Egyptians ignored the Israeli threats and banned Israeli shipping anyways and mobilized its Army on the Israeli border in late May. This prompted Israel to launch what they deem as preemptive strikes catching the Egyptians by surprise which gave Israel Air Superiority while simultaneously launching a suprsie offensive into the Gaza strip.

In a web series program can be called an

In the rapidly changing global
environment, Media set the level of innovation and creation. Before you get
bored of any content or format of media you will be amazed by brand new type of
media. With the help of new technologies and freedom of people to show their
creativity media is changing day by day. With society moving into the
electronic age, more people are communicating in cyberspace not only to access
more information, but also to create a reality of their own. Using media now
depends on the comfort of the audience. That’s why media giants choose their
medium and content wisely to match the access and the expectation of the
audiences. The new popular addition of entertainment for this sub-continent by
new media is Web Series. With the emergence of online streaming services
including the likes of Netflix, Hotstar and Amazon Prime, millenials witnessed
a major shift in the entertainment business realm. Even in Bangladesh audience
have streaming channels like BioscopeBeta and popular YouTube channels like CMV
and Dhruba for their entertainment. 

 

A web series is designed like a
television series. But a series of episodes which can be watched on the web. The term “Web” potentially refers to
two things. How content is
consumed. Where the content originated.
If the audience watching a video on his/her computer, iPad, or
mobile phone and connected to the web there’s a god chance it’s a web series.
but not necessarily. You can download a feature on the web and watch it on your
iPad. Web series is a number of related scripted
or non-scripted videos arranged or occurring in succession,
generally in episodic
form,
released on the Internet
and part of the web television
medium. A single instance of a web series program can be called an episode or
“webisode”,
however the latter term is not often used. In general, A web series is simply
just a series of video
episodes that is released over time in order to tell a
story. Sometimes creators use popular video sharing platforms like YouTube
or Vimeo to host their shows so that they attract as many
viewers as possible. Web series can be watched on a range of platforms,
including desktop,
laptop,
tablets
and smartphones.
They can also be watched on television.

 

The main difference between TV series
and web series is a TV series usually requires big production costs, celebrity
TV stars, and large media companies, a web series doesn’t have to have all that
stuff. As long as you have a camera and a creative idea for a show, anyone can
create their own show for the web. Some web series shows are created by total
amateurs but creative young peoples who require little cost for equipment and
support. TV episodes
are mandated due to advertising and range from either 22-30 minutes or 44-60
minutes depending on the advertising needs of the network or cable station. The
web has no restriction because there’s no reason to constrict what is possible
at this point. A few years ago, some important suit-wearing executive at some
important company decided that attentions span of laptop viewers should be
around 3-15 minutes per episode. Sometimes web series originate on the web and
later that same material is repurposed as a feature or as episodes of a TV
series and sometimes it’s the other way around.

 

Web Series first
emerged in the late 1990s and become more prominent in the early 2000s. In
April 1995, Rox, a small public access program from Bloomington, Indiana, became the first TV
series distributed via the web, with an episode titled “Global Village
Idiots”(Stelter : 2013). Later the same year, New York advertising
creative Scott Zakarin persuaded his employers Fattal
and Collins to finance an online television drama along the lines of the
contemporary television drama Melrose Place.
The Spot
became the first episodic fiction website, the first web soap opera.
Fattal and Collins asked their Vice President, Sheri Herman, to obtain venture
capital to finance it, because it was draining the resources of this
boutique agency. In January 1999, Showtime licensed the animated sci-fi web
series WhirlGirl,
making it the first independently produced web series licensed by a national
television network. A month later, the series, created by David B. Williams and
produced by his Visionary Media studio, premiered on Showtime in a first-ever
simultaneous web/telecast.1 In
2000,The Raven started Daytona Beach Live. The
station showed video about life, events, and attractions in the Daytona Beach
area for up to 17,000 viewers (Cheng:2009). As broadband bandwidth began to
increase in speed and availability, delivering high quality video over the
Internet became a reality. Web Central TV, YouTube,
Vimeo
and Daily Motion
launched their services to deliver original video. Shows such as Rocket boom
appeared and post-dot-com-bust video networks such as ManiaTV!,
iSTATION TV and the Ripe Digital Entertainment networks
launched. In 2003, The Spot executive producer and head writer Stewart St. John revived
the brand for online audiences with a new cast, and created a separate mobile
series to air on Sprint PCS Vision-enabled phones (Park :2004). In
mid-2006, several independent Web series began to achieve popularity, most
notably lonelygirl15 (created by Miles Beckett, Mesh
Flinders and Greg Goodfried),Soup
of the Day (Zakarin and Rob Cesternino), California Heaven
(St. John and Todd Fisher), “The Burg”
(Dinosaur Diorama) and SamHas7Friends
(Big
Fantastic). These series were distributed independently, often using online
video portals YouTube
and Revver. All
series acquired audiences in the millions, led by lonelygirl15s
over 100 million views during its 26-month run. The series was so successful
that it secured a sponsorship deal with Neutrogena.
Soup of the Day was later re-crafted and
edited as a feature-length film, making it the first web series distributed on
disc by distribution company Echo Bridge Entertainment. SamHas7Friends
was nominated for an Emmy and temporarily removed from the Internet
when it was acquired by Michael Eisner. March 2006 also saw the debut of Goodnight
Burbank (created and (Hayden Black) as a “webisodic” series. The
original series was named one of iTunes best podcasts of 2006. Also hitting the
scene during the summer towards the end of the year was Feed
Me Bubbe which ended up showcasing that even a Grandmother and Grandson can
achieve internet celebrity status. Fortuna TV Channel is
the first web TV in Turkey (Lieberman:2007) In 2007, Beckett and Goodfried
followed up their lonelygirl15 success with Kate Modern,
a series which debuted on social network Bebo, and took place in
the same fictional universe as lonelygirl15.
Big Fantastic
created and produced Prom Queen, which was financed and
distributed by Michael Eisner’s nascent online studio Vuguru,
and debuted on My Space.
These web serials highlighted interactivity with the audience in addition to the
narrative on relatively low budgets (Shields:2007). Established creators also
started producing high profile original web series in 2008. Joss Wheldon
created, produced and self-financed. Dr. Horrible’s Sing-Along Blog
starring Neil Patrick Harris and Felicia
Day.  Big
Fantastic wrote and produced Foreign
Body, a mystery web series that served as a prequel to Robin Cook’s
novel of the same name. Beckett and Good fried founded a new Internet studio,
EQAL, and produced a spin-off from ‘”lonelygirl15″
entitled “LG15: The
Resistance”. Dedicated
media coverage of the web television space debuted with organizations such as GigaOm’s NewTeeVee and Tube filter News. Mainstream press also began converted. In
the UK, Kate Modern ended its run on Bebo. That site
also hosted a six-month-long reality/travel show, The Gap Year, produced by Endemol UK, who also made Kirill, a drama for MSN (Brand:2009).
Australia emerged separate market for online series. Most notable was the
made-for-MySpace
series the MySpace Road Tour produced by Fremantle
Media Australia. The first series, which ran from July to October 2008 drew
the MySpace audience and the show received positive press. During MipCom in
October 2008 MySpace
announced plans for a second series and indicated that it was in talks with
cable network Foxtel
to distribute series 1 on network television. Additionally MySpace spoke of
their plans to produce versions of the MySpace
Road Tour in other countries (Apostolou: 2008).  In 2009, Sony’s online division, Crackle,
became one of the few companies who figured out a business model for the Web
series. They did this by treating their Web series like an independent film.
First they would fund a low-budget genre movie and structure the script so that
it can air online in 10-minute segments. Later they edited the series into a 2-hour
DVD. They sold ads against the first online airing of the content, they made
money from DVD sales and rentals, finally, they sold both the internet version
and DVD to international markets. In 2009, Sony’s online division, Crackle,
became one of the few companies who figured out a business model for the Web
series. They did this by treating their Web series like an independent film. First,
they would fund a low-budget genre movie and structure the script so that it
can air online in 10-minute segments. Later they edited the series into a 2-hour
DVD. They sold ads against the first online airing of the content, they made
money from DVD sales and rentals, and finally, they sold both the internet
version and DVD to international markets. So far, 2010 has seen more expansion,
more production and further monetizing of original Web series. Larger brands
are showing up to the table looking to invest in their own Web series. They’re
realizing that for a fraction of a traditional media buy, brands get to be much
more involved in a new media production. An annual festival and awards
presentation dedicated exclusively to digital series. The festival just
completed its 6th annual event in 2017, and always occurs during  April in Hollywood, California. Holly Web was the
first digital content exclusive festival in Hollywood (Payne:2017).

 

A number of web series incorporate
interactive Web 2.0 features on their
producer’s websites, the show website, or other online fora. These Web 2.0
features enable viewers and fans to post comments online about episodes and
link or “tag” favorite shows, episodes or video clips. These
activities help to build viewer and fan engagement. Some producers use social
media and social networking websites to market their web series and seek new
viewers. As well, some producers monitor social media and networking comments
as a way to obtain fan feedback on their shows.

 

First emerged in the end of 2016, web
series became more prominent In Bangladesh in 2017. The year 2017 can be marked
as a momentous for significant rise both in the quality and quantity off web
series. Web series like Feluda,
Baghbondi, List, Admission Test, palabi kothay, Illegal Affairs get instant
popularity among young generation. In 2016 Web Series Kali had a great Impact on the audience because it’s content and
making. The concept of superhero series has quite a grip on the global
entertainment scene in both big and small screen. Now they have conquered the streaming-based
services like Netflix. Both the content and the format were somewhat
unchartered territory in Bangladesh, but the sudden types of audience liked
that. But 2017 was by far most promising year for wed series in this country (Rayhan:2017).

 

A
new adaptation of famous Satyajit Ray character, Detective Feluda was the most
talked about web series of 2017. Popular actor Parambrata Chatterjee from
Kolkata has played the role of famous Feluda, while Riddhi Sen will be seen as
Topse. Kandy Productions and TOM Creations have received the rights to work on
Feluda from Satyajit Ray’s son, Sandeep Ray. The first season of the series
featured four episodes and the rest of the episodes will be made later in
phases. The four stories that the episodes were based on are Sheyal Debota
Rahasya, Ghurghutiyar Ghatona, Golokdham Rahasya, and Gangtokey Gondogol. One
of the hyped thriller web series of 2017 was Baghbondi.  This Dhruba
Entertainment production have grabbed audience’s attention and brought exposure
to the whole team, more importantly the series’ director Vicky Zahed. Safa
Kabir has also kept the audience at the edge of their seats along with Baghbondi’s two other leads, Jovan and
Tawsif. Featuring a bunch of popular Actors, Palabi Kothay was another successful web venture of the year
including Mumtaheena Chowdhury Toya, Tamim Mridha, Marzuk Russell, Shamim Hasan
Sarker, Max Rahman, Joynal Jack and Sarah Farhana, among others. Written and
directed by AK Porag and Vasker Dey Jony, Palabi
Kothay was released under the label of CMV. Masud Ul Hasan was the
executive producer of the series. Another CMV venture on the list, the series
features an almost similar cast including Mumtaheena Chowdhury Toya, Farhan
Ahmed Jovan, Tamim Mridha, Zaki Ahmad Zarif Abdullah, Sultana Rina, Tutul
Chowdhury, Azizur Rahman Azad, Mahmuda Akter Nisha, Pronab Ghosh Nafiz, Nazmul
Anisur Rahman, and Razib Abu Hosen Fahim. Scripted and directed by Topu Khan, Admission Test also managed to attract
audience with its adult storyline and has been widely criticised for the same
reason. However, the five-episode web series has received wide YouTube view. The
series List consists of seven
episodes which was Directed by RB Pritam. Popular TV artists, Tousif and Tamim
Mridha, were also starred in the series. Aside from Naila, film actor Toma
Mirza also played a role in. The
engaging story has successfully made the audience anticipate for upcoming
episodes and eventually turned out to be a crowd-cheering production. Another
web series Illegal Affairs features Jui Jannat, Kaberi, Mokbul, Shuvo, Kader,
Noor and Ayan in different roles. The web series was released under CD Choice
Music banner. Directed by Anwar Hossain, the web series revolves around the
lives of a newly married couple, Neela and Sagor, who go through a down and out
condition. Meanwhile, Neela encounters Ranjan, a pimp by profession, who
actually targets her and tries to draw her into prostitution.

 

Most
of the web series contains issues and stories related to young generation, as
the medium of the contents are friendlier for them. For this reason, the
contents were more seductive and controversial. The contents were made for
easily draw the attention of the audience. Issues like psychopath or mentally
ill peoples mind games, prostitutions, extramarital affairs, killing, sex got
importance then the main storyline. Web series are easy to relies any content
as they don’t have any censor issues. For this reason, makes of web series can
add any thing to their stories to draw the attention. But series like kali, faluda and List had chosen the way of unique concept and making for make a
good impression. The benefit of making a web series is maker can prorate
his/her imagination without any boundaries of censorship. So sensitive issues
like sexual education, LGBD rights, realistic problems of young generation, new
formation of relationships in metro life, overgrowing frustration and
depression in human life can be focus in web series.

 

“The medium is
the message” (Marshall :1964) is a
phrase by Marshall McLuhan means Medium embeds itself in any Massage it would
transmit or convey, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium
influences how the message is perceived. We can see the similarities of web
series contents with this phrase. As web media is free to show creativity of
content the nature of the shows become more open and bold then the other
mediums. As a promising media web series has great potentialities of extend the
types of stories and apply new and advance ways of making using current world
reality contents.

 

I I got up, had my breakfast, then proceeded

I walked around unsteadily all day sort of a lost baby, isolated from its pack. enclosed by unknown territory and uncomfortable weather, i attempted to look for any signs of similarities with my previous country. I roamed around from place to position and affected at the side of the day, eager to simply go away and return home. This was my initial day within the u. s. of America.A few months before all of this i used to be happy with my calm life in an exceedingly native town of Taiwan. I settled there at the age of 2 with my family, and things were going well up to now. as a result of I lived there for 10 years, the longest time that I ever spent living in one place, I had created really expert friends and wasn’t trying forward to any important changes though my mammy had told ME a protracted time past, we would move to USA to settle with our uncle and granny. My mammy conjointly told ME that the opposite reason we tend to move is for a higher education and life there however i used to be not listening at that point. i believed she was simply humourous around as a result of my brother and that i have continually expected to own a vacation to alternative countries. By the time I finished my initial year of secondary school I knew that this was nearly not possible. My family was already packing up, cleanup out the house, and reserving four heavier-than-air craft tickets to USA.The day that I discovered my parents’ future plans was one that appeared like a standard day for a twelve-year previous. I got up, had my breakfast, then proceeded to hold around with my friends. afterward that day I went resolute play basketball at the college at the side of my older brother. when we tend to went home, my mammy was creating dinner and reproof our uncle. when my mammy finished the decision, she tried to nonchalantly approach ME then aforementioned in Taiwanese, ?Judy, we tend to square measure occupation Jan,? i used to be riant therefore onerous and attempting to assume is nowadays my birthday or what however momma looked in my eyes decisively and aforementioned, “we square measure getting to USA,” whereas giving ME a somewhat curious look and awaiting my reaction.At first, my reaction was somewhat neutral, not even panic or shivering. I didn?t savvy to feel. I didn?t now understand the consequences that this major amendment would wear ME. I mean that I cannot believe at once

Setup also done with the help of RSA algorithm

Setup Module : This is the first module in which
user first needs to register all their details including username and passwords
. These are first checked whether it is original or not , if it is original the
user have successfully created the identity required . Later they can use the
same id and password to login to their home page , where they access all the
functions provided to them like uploading the files , downloading them and many
more .

-> This setup module gives a certain authority to
the data owners which has to be the main thing under certain policies . There
is a setup module for the third party also in case there is no key escrow
problem .

 

2.Encrypt Module : This is the next module in the
Ciphertext Policy attribute based encryption in which the data owners can
upload their files and encrypt them as per the policies . By doing this process
it will very helpful for data owners to secure the data .

-> The encrypt module follows different sets of
algorithm depends upon the usage . In our proposed system we have used RSA
algorithm which asymmetric cryptography technique . This algorithm is proved to
be one of the better versions of the attribute based encryption .  

 

3. Key Generation : This is third module in the Ciphertext
Policy attribute based encryption in which the data owners can generate the
secret keys from the third party in order access those files . The keys are
first matched if they satisfies the attribute then they can access their files
.

->key generation is also done with the help of
RSA algorithm , the generated key from the master key will also be in encrypted
format such that the attackers will take a lot of time to hack the accounts .

4. Decrypt Module : This is the fourth and last
module in the Ciphertext Policy attribute based encryption in which the data
owners download all the files with the help of the key generated . The generated
key will helps the user to decrypt their particular files without causing any
problem to the other files which are on the same access structure .

-> The decryption process generally takes a good
amount of time and hence to save that we providing with a better technique  . The decryption module gives the user the
final result they were looking for .  

THE Java run time system has predefined features which

THE JAVA LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENT

(A WHITE PAPER)

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO JAVA

Now we have systems which can work with multiple O.S. dealing with multiple frameworks .Earlier languages (like C or C++) had dependencies with reference to different architectural properties or different software in the system .For example: In C language, different memory size is allocated to integer (int) data type for 32 bit and 64 bit systems.

Needs were required to build application which can work on heterogeneous environment anytime anywhere. Internet connecting people worldwide, making data available for all to use also led to urge of developing improved versatile applications which can work without any complications on each and every system. In order to solve the older problems OOPS brought more other complications. So we needed to deal with this all which brought the Java programming language into picture by Sun Microsystems.

It would include:

Programming language which is simpler includes more speed due to interpretation part (saving time of compilation, linking, loader, testing, crashing of program and error resolving).

Transfer of programs in systems with different O.S is easier now and applications can run without any dependency (increasing portability).With efficient memory management and automatic garbage collection technique will add robust feature to our applications.

Multithreading featured more enhancements to GUI based applications as they can now have greater performance rate. Applications are adaptable to changes now and any set of working segments can be loaded into our system through network.

As Internet world is taken as a place full of data as well as insecurities due to its open channel but efficient Java run time system has predefined features which adds secure environment to it.

Thus these features are now available with Java Programming Language.

Also the very first attention gaining application made using Java is HotJava which is WWW browser where java build fragments can be downloaded and run dynamically.

With involvement of least resources, java can provide secure applications which are platform-independent. Java found its roots with a starting of research work. Main idea with the beginning of development of this language was providing a light weight, more secure, can work distributed and real time systems. Initial steps started with improvements in C++ but it involved many problems which could be best treated by developing a new language itself. It involved features of Eiffel, Smalltalk, Objective and Cedar/Mesa which overall resulted in secured, platform independent, network compatible environment. Java was developed with a picture in mind to make it hardware independent, easily transferrable and runtime adaptability.

As it included some features of C++ too so did not come as a wholly new thing difficult to understand and developers found it familiar, simpler and easier to learn. So this simple object oriented programming language did not demand large-scale training requirements.

Architectural neutral and portable feature comes in java by the Byte code generated by Java compiler. This code makes java WORA (Write once Run anywhere).The byte code generated is same for every system irrespective of differences in hardware and software resources. There is no data type dependency in java from system to system. This all is done by Java Virtual Machine (JVM) based on POSIX interface.

High performance is maintained by automatic garbage collector that runs with less priority as a background process, thus making more space available for major processes leading to higher performance.

Java is robust and secure as it has two levels for executing a program-first compilation and then interpretation. There is no use of pointer here as was in C++ which reduces the risk of dangling pointers and program crash.  Java applications are secure which restricts entry of illegal intrusions.

Java is interpreted, threaded and dynamic. On compilation of Java programs, Byte code is generated which java interpreter can further interpret ,with respect to,particular O.S. of the system. JVM has built in feature to provide interpreters for different operating system and pre-interpreted code (Byte code) is same for all machines so this makes java platform –independent.Network applied browsers like WWW , HotJava has to perform multiple tasks interaction with the end-user which becomes possible with multi-threading feature of Java. Its language library supplies thread class and run-time module gives condition lock built-ins. Static compilation, dynamic run-time environment and classes linking are only made when needed. There is on-line  services feature in java which means that any library class can be imported anytime needed.

Java Base System : Java has many libraries to perform various functions such as java.lang which is required wherever we have need of creating class-object structure. Also exceptions,wrapper classes etc are added onto it. Java.io works as standard I/O Library.java.net provides features for sockets, telnet , interfaces etc. java.util contains utility classes. Dictonary, Hash Table, Stack, Date, Time and encoder-decoder methods are found here. java.awt – Abstract Windowing Toolkit helps in increasing portability feature of java programs.

The most important feature which makes Java different from other languages is its platform-independent code with its run-time environment provided by JVM which makes java code portable and has same functionality on every system.

CHAPTER-2 JAVA-SIMPLE AND FAMILIAR

Java looked familiar to earlier languages like C and C++ because it includes many features of these languages and looks similar to them and it’s simple because it has removed many complications from the previous languages. The simplest program in java can be as follows:

HelloWorld program which prints HelloWorld

            class HelloWorld{

                        public static void main(String args){

                        System.out.println(“Hello World!”);

                        }

                        }

Here HelloWorld is a class name , class keyword is used for declaring a class .main() method is used for start of execution of program and there string HelloWorld is printed by calling println() method of out object which is class variable of System class.

Primitive Data Types in Java : Java has three divisions for primitive data types-numeric, Boolean and arrays. The difference here from earlier languages include that everything in  java is treated as object .Even encapsulation of primitive data types are also possible within library supplied objects.

Numeric Datatype: byte(8 bit),short(16 bit),int(32 bit),long(64 bit).char in C or C++ was the smallest size datatype but here it is replaced by byte. No unsigned type in integer data types. Real numeric data types include float(32 bit),double(64 bit)

 

9.0 test phase. Close project management is crucial to

9.0 RESOURCES/ROLES
& RESPONSIBILITIES

The Test Lead and Project Manager
will determine when system test will start and end. The Test lead will also be
responsible for coordinating schedules, equipment, & tools for the testers
as well as writing/updating the Test Plan, Weekly Test Status reports and Final
Test Summary report. The testers will be responsible for writing the test cases
and executing the tests. With the help of the Test Lead, the Booking System/POS
Manager and cashiers will be responsible for the Beta and User Acceptance
tests.

9.1.
Resources

The test team will consist of:

·        
A Project Manager

·        
Developer

·        
A Test Lead

·        
Testers

·        
Booking System/POS Manager

·        
Cashiers

 

9.2
Responsibilities

Project
Manager

Responsible
for Project schedules and the overall success of the project. Participate on
CCB.

Lead
Developer

Serve as a
primary contact/liaison between the development department and the project
team.
Participate
on CCB

Test Lead

Ensures
the overall success of the test cycles. He/she will coordinate weekly
meetings and will communicate the testing status to the project team.
Participate
on CCB.

Testers

Responsible
for performing the actual system testing.

Booking
System/POS Manager

Serves as
Liaison between customer and project team. He/she will help coordinate the
Beta and User Acceptance testing efforts. Participate on CCB.

Cashier

Will
assist in performing the Beta and User Acceptance testing.

 

13.0
RISKS/ASSUMPTIONS

13.1. Schedule

The schedule for each phase is very aggressive and could
affect testing. A slip in the schedule in one of the other phases could result
in a subsequent slip in the test phase. Close project management is crucial to
meeting the forecasted completion date.

13.2. Management

Management support is required so when the project falls
behind, the test schedule does not get squeezed to make up for the delay.
Management can reduce the risk of delays by supporting the test team throughout
the testing phase and assigning people to this project with the required skills
set.

13.3.
Personnel

Due to the aggressive schedule, it is very important to have
experienced testers on this project. Unexpected turnovers can impact the
schedule. If attrition does happen, all efforts must be made to replace the
experienced individual

13.4
Requirements

The test plan and test schedule are based on the current
Requirements Document. Any changes to the requirements could affect the test schedule
and will need to be approved by the CCB.

14.0 Documentation

The following documentation will be available at the end of
the test phase:

·        
Test Plan

·        
Test Cases

·        
Test Case review

·        
Requirements Validation Matrix

·        
Defect reports

·        
Final Test Summary Report

 

15.0 APPROVALS

Name (In Capital Letters)

Signature

Date

1. MATTHEW
BALLINGER

 

 

2. RICHARD
IRWIN

 

 

3.

 

 

4.

 

 

Introduction: patients. So, appropriate AED use, along with monitoring

Introduction:

 

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, occurring
due to uncontrolled neuronal discharge. There are about 70 million cases of
epilepsy all over the world, and out of those, approximately 12 million cases
are lodged in India; which is about one-sixth of the global load 1. There are
over 20 anti-epileptic drugs and 2 implantable anti-epileptic devices available
commercially in the United States 2. This list is extensive and non-inclusive
of the extended release formulations 3, the newer vagus nerve stimulation
technology 4, and dietary therapies modifications.

Among the currently available anti-epileptic drugs
(AED), conventional AEDs include Phenytoin, Phenobarbital, Carbamazepine,
Valproic acid, Ethosuximide, Trimethadione and newer AEDs include Vigabatrin, Tiagabine,
Gabapentin, Topiramate, Zonesamide, Lamotrigine, Felbamate, Levetiracetam,
Lacosamide. 5

The increasing possible treatments for epilepsy are a
boon for patients. A number
of newer anti-epileptic drugs have been developed in the last few years to
improve the treatment outcomes in epilepsy. They will provide more options to
achieve a good outcome and better quality of life and can be challenging to the
doctors.

None
of the newer AEDs have been found to be better than the conventional AEDs.
However, the “2004 American Academy of Neurology report” 6 suggested that newer
generation AEDs have almost same efficacy but better tolerability than
conventional drugs.

Epilepsy is a social stigma 7 as
epileptic patients face many psychosocial problems (like anxiety, difficulty in
driving, unemployment) that can deteriorate the HR-QOL. Increasing awareness
about it has led to the need to quantify HR-QOL in epileptic patients. So,
appropriate AED use, along with monitoring of adverse effects, and assessment
of HR-QOL as an outcome measure are important in the management of epilepsy.

Demographic characters, seizure frequency,
and extended period of the disease are related with poor HR-QOL 8. There are lesser studies examining the
impact of AED pharmacotherapy on HR-QOL 9.

Keeping this rationale in mind we decided
to go for this particular research study which will not only inform us
regarding the AEDs prescribed conventional or newer, and will give us a
baseline data on the quality of life in such patients.

 

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