Medical dry glass transition temperatures in the presence of

an Biomedical relevance

PU foam
materials have the biocompatibility and biodegrability that promote their
utility both in vivo and in vitro. PU foams have been reported that used in
nerve agent hydrolyzing enzyme, bone tissue engineering, absorption of
biological fluids, biocatalytic air filtering, injectable delivery systems, and
several other applications 36. Rodriguez et al 43 used polyurethane-based
shape memory polymer (SMP) foams in a porcine aneurysm model to determine
biocompatibility, localized thrombogenicity, and their ability to serve as a
stable filler material within an aneurysm. The results showed clotting was
initiated within the SMP foam at time 0, partial healing was observed at 30

days, and
almost complete healing had occurred at 90 days in vivo, with minimal
inflammatory response. SMPs have
been shown to actuate below their dry glass transition temperatures in the
presence of moisture due to plasticization. This behavior has been proposed as
a self-actuating mechanism of SMPs in water/physiological media. Singhal et al.44 designed low-density SMPU foam for
biomaterial application. Nakhoda et al 45
developed a new class of polyurethane (PU)
biocomposites reinforced with green biocellulose nanofibers (BC) for
application in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
SEM images results confirmed the formation of
the targeted interconnected porous structure with pore size in the range of 125–355mm and final porosity between 57–75 %. This porous structure allows for the
penetration of cells and helps with the bulk degradation of the scaffold for
potential applications in regenerative medicine.

Kaur et
al. 46 prepared hydrogel impregnated antimicrobial
polyurethane foam for absorption of radionuclide contaminated blood and
biological fluids using polyacrylamide (PAM) and
polyacrylamide-co-sodiumpolyacrylate (PAM-co-NaPA). The result showed PAM-impregnated-PUF of 910, 605, and
172% absorption

in water,
saline, and blood, respectively, whereas PAM-co-NaPA-impregnated-PUF absorption
of 1545, 1395, and 269% in water, saline, and blood, respectively in 24 h.

displayed 97% absorption of Tc99 and PUF sheets showed only 1%
absorption of Tc99 from whole blood. Therefore,
PAM-co-NaPA-impregnated-PUF sheets have strong potential to be used as matrices
for carrying the injured patients, from field conditions to hospitals expose to
nuclear, biological, and chemical environment.

et al 47 developed a polyurethane
foams scaffolds which can supported attachment of viable (>95%) MG-63 cells
under dynamic seeding conditions. The author considered this type PU will be
available as a consequence of the favorable biological and physical properties
of injectable polyurethane foam.

Cross-linked 3D biodegradable polyurethane
foams have been synthesized from biocompatible reactants as bone graft
substitutes by Gorna and Gogolewski 48. This porous
biodegradable PU foam scaffolds combined with the patient’s own bone marrow
could be such bone substitutes. The foams absorbed water and degrade in vitro
under controlled conditions. The polyurethane scaffolds obtained were used as
cancellous bone graft substitutes for soft tissue defects and treatment of
articular cartilage defects. The author optimised solvent-nonsolvent mixture to
have elastomeric biodegradable polyurethanes with an enhanced affinity toward
cells and tissues. 49 The PU foam scaffold had
regular interconnected pores, high water permeability, and a pore-to-volume
ratio of 90%, and can be additionally promoted by loading calcium phosphate
salts, then to make them become promising candidates for bone graft substitutes.
The author also studied the possibility of this biodegradable polyurethane
cancellous bone graft substitutes using in the treatment of iliac crest defects

Guelcher 51 summarized tissue-engineered scaffolds the methods
of synthesis of biodegradable PURs, including thermally induced phase
separation, salt leaching, wet spinning, electrospinning, and carbon dioxide
foaming, and the application of these materials as scaffolds for regenerative
medicine. These materials have been reported to support the ingrowth of cells
and tissue in vitro and in vivo, and undergo controlled degradation to
noncytotoxic decomposition products.

With is resulted in online flight reservation system. It

With the increased use of technology in every industry, Airline industry has an innovative product for making every activity easier. This innovation is Online Flight Reservation System, which has made flight ticket booking much easier than it was earlier.

Flight Reservation System has helped Airline companies to maximize sales of tickets, increased number of happy and satisfied customers and also improving the brand image of company. In this era of globalization most travelers use flight as a means of transport. This has changed the demands of airline industry. Now airline industry needs a platform which gives prompt response and user-friendly. These all demands are met by flight reservation system.

Airline industry has been transformed in the last few years. This transformation is resulted in online flight reservation system. It is supported by Amadeus, Galileo, Sabre and Worldspan which are the most used GDS systems. GDS system helps to enable a transaction between an Airline Company and travel agencies. Hence, it can be said that online flight reservation system has made the work easier of traveler and travel agencies.

Most of the airline companies have embraced this technology in the form of flight reservation software. Flight reservation software allows to book flight ticket online and payment on the same platform. It also allows comparing prices of different airline companies.

Salient Features of a Flight Reservation System are as follows:

Automated flight booking system with 24/7 support

Easy to use and user-friendly interface

Accepts Multiple Currencies

Multiple Language Support

Integration of multiple payment gateways with the airline company

Multiple mediums of payments

Immediate process of searching flight and booking

Social media sharing feature for online marketing

Mobile and tablets responsive ticket booking system

Flight reservation system has increased growth in generating for online travel booking portals. With the advent of technology flight reservation system couldn’t be ignored. Top GDS such as Galileo, Sabre, Amadeus flight booking has become really convenient for end users and travel agents. Also increased number of online bookings and increased profits of travel agencies are the key factors for the increased demand of flight reservation software.

Nowadays, That, in turn, may break down their sleep

Nowadays, an entire diversity of
pernicious factors that severely affect human body can be observed, such as, depletion
of the environment, rapid pace of modern life, malnutrition, constant stress
and consistent disturbance of the daily regime. These factors may induce one to
feel depressed, emotionally unstable and cause overall health deterioration.
Ever-changing life circumstances do not provide a modern individual with a full
sense of what could help to alleviate this strain. Very often, due to a
significant lack of time, people tend to interfere with their sleep regimes,
which has a truly detrimental effect on the body and its functioning. The
modern youth, students, in particular, are relatively unconscious about their
health. That, in turn, may break down their sleep cycles, causing nervousness,
lack of attention, irritation and continuous fatigue, whilst not even suspecting
the reason for such inferior conditions. Scientific studies prove that sleep
deprivation has a significant impact on student’s efficiency and negative
substantial decrements brought to their lifestyle and health.  (Léger et al. 2006) Many students report on sleep disruption, as well as
frequent use of recreational psychoactive drugs to shift their sleep cycle and
raise alertness. Students who are classified as poor-sleepers are also noticed
with several physical and psychological problems, stating that academic stress
negatively impacted their sleep quality (Lund, Reider, Prichard, 2010). For
adolescents, sleep is an imperative part of life. During sleep, all the
essential information received during classes is absorbed and processed by brain
that is why young adults need more physical rest in order to effectively
accomplish their daytime tasks. Therefore, it is essential for students to
obtain energy from so-called short-term naps, helping students to retain as
much knowledge as possible during education encounters. 

This paper is intended to address to the readers
from education and health sectors. The framework of the paper is bearing an
argumentative character that will enable to demonstrate the significance of the
dispute and determine the core ideas of the solutions. The following paper outlines
the decisive causes and considerable consequences of sleep deprivation amongst
students, analysing how educational institutions are able to aid young adults
in order to enhance their interest in studies and overall academic performance
as, the encouragement of university and college policies
along with study curriculum that would reinforce the concept of adequate and
healthy sleep regime, may have a profound positive impact on mental and
physical health, learning dexterity, and general productivity of students.



Body paragraph 1: What is sleep à

Sleep is a natural
physiological process of being in a state at a minimum level of the brain
activity and reduced response to the outside world, concisely, called as general
inhibition. On a regular basis, a healthy human-being spends almost a third of the
lifetime in sleep that represents a cyclic phenomenon, taking 7 to 9 hours per
day. (Watson et al. 2012) During sleep, in the state of a complete rest, the
level of all anabolic processes rises. The onset of sleep is eminently
dependent on many aspects such as, the lighting and place. With darkness, the
human body produces the crucial hormone melatonin stimulating an irresistible
desire to sleep. Therefore, Ivan Pavlov, Russian physiologist, called sleep a
protective inhibition for the human. Sleep is the prime help for human’s nervous
system, as it largely protects body from fatigue and mental load. (Pilkington
2018) It is an absolutely unique state of human consciousness that includes a
number of stages regulated by discrete brain structures, systematically
repeated throughout the night. Despite the fact this phenomenon, which is requisite
for every living creature that has been experimentally researched for decades,
so far scientists have not been able to entirely reveal why do people need


Body paragraph 2: Why do we need sleep? à

The primary reason for all human beings to be in need of consistent
sleep lies in restoring of the energy spent within the daylight hours. During
sleep, the body itself turn on recovery processes, gradually withdrawing
substances that stimulate the feeling of fatigue and energizing muscles. The human
body has distinctive mechanisms of self-recovery that are launched at these crucial
stages of sleep cycle, sustaining natural conditions of health and state of mind.
During the daytime, brain cells create networks with other units of the brain
by virtue of the new knowledge input. Whereas during sleep, imperative networks
are strengthened, and insignificant are pruned. Latter experiments with sleep –
deprived rats have demonstrated that the process of strengthening and pruning
occurs essentially in the course of sleep, where the brain has a great chance
to eliminate the unnecessary waste. (Ghosh 2015) However, if one fails to
obtain a sufficient amount of vital rest, causing sleep deprivation, the body
cells can behave in an utterly altered manner influencing overall wellness.


Body paragraph 3: Sleep deprivation causes à

people may consider sleep as a sheer misuse of time and deprive themselves of
sleep on purpose in pursuance of important life priorities as, for instance,
entertainment, career commitment, and educational objectives. Nevertheless, the
main underlying issue of disrupted sleep patterns for most people is insomnia,
such intentional sleep deprivation is most common amongst teenagers and young adults as, for instance, university
students. The causes of sleep disruption include physiologic,
environmental and behavioral factors. Sleep cycle stages change over the
course of a lifetime, from childhood through old age. A broad range of climate
and lifestyle factors, as light or noise, anxiety or nutrition, have a direct
consequential impact on lives of the young population. (Sleep
Architecture 2017)


Body paragraph 4: Sleep
deprivation causes of students à

sleep insufficiency is primarily associated with chronic deprivation caused by
habitual patterns of sleep. This particularly may occur as students are often substantially
ignorant of the system’s natural demand for sleep, preferring wakefulness, thus
restricting the sleep time. (Yolanda Smith 2017) Inadequate sleep hygiene of young
people is one of the main motives. This
involves regulation of intake of caffeine and energy stimulants, which is as well
associated with the higher consumption of alcohol and use of energizing drugs. Furthermore, technology is highly
impactful towards irregular sleep routines of students, as generation-Y are known to be exceedingly active gadget users
taking the most advantage of the use of hi-tech advancements. According to
science, it has been evidenced that melatonin, responsible for sleep cycle
control, is drastically suppressed by the light coming from electronics that in
turn dramatically interrupts with normal sleeping schedule. (McCabe et al.
2005) Consistent sleep and wake
patterns of going to bed late, frequent nighttime arousals or getting up too
early may lead to sleep deprivation and accumulation of the sleep debt.
Therefore, life-threatening causes of irregular sleep regime can be observed in
form of chronic sleep disorders.


Body paragraph 5:
Sleep disorders among students à

The abundance of
sleep disorders amongst student population has not been completely recognized
and it is indefinite whether the pervasiveness and high level of sleepiness is
caused by the insufficient amount of sleep or some undiagnosed sleep disorder. Although reported sleep disorders in adults tend to
increase with age, these may also occur among students. Moreover, disorders amid students may vary in
sex, ethnicity and culture aspects. (Avidan 2005) Studies suggest that more
than 30 percent of students are at risk of sleep disorders that in turn may
have highly negative implications on their life-cycles. These disorders involve:
sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs disorder, circadian
rhythm sleep disorders and hypersomnia. (Gaultney 2010) A number of factors that may cause these are identified
as anxiety and misbalance, psychiatric issues and the environment.


Body paragraph 6: Sleepiness
amongst students à

According to the
National Sleep Foundation, so-called ‘night owl’ phenomenon is extremely prevalent amongst young
adults and arises in conjunction with the processes of maturity. (Ojile
2017) Physiological delay in circadian preference is exceptionally characteristic to
adolescents, as students demonstrate roughly a 1 to 3 hours sleep deficit on
study nights as well as extended sleeping hours during weekends. (Jenni
and Carskadon 2007) For some students, sleep deprivation is termed as ‘all-nighter’,
implying to that one stays aroused for twenty-four hours or else more in order to accomplish a particular
objective. Thus, many modern
university students harshly underestimate the great importance of adequate amount
of sleep and are still confronting the physiology of adolescence that may have compound adverse consequences.


Body paragraph 7: Consequences
of disrupted sleep schedule on healthà

quality and amount of sleep have a direct relation to human’s overall ability
to function throughout the light hours. The most frequent effects of irregular
sleep involve continuous fatigue, deficiency of concentration, frequent mood
swings, and instability. Nevertheless, sleep deprivation is also linked to a
range of more severe long-term health effects. These include chronic medical
conditions as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart diseases, which
accordingly might lead to reduced life expectancy. (Sleep And Disease
Risk 2007)
Sleep is a crucial process for healthy diet maintenance, as deficiency of sleep
along with lack of physical activity and overeating are recognized as the
fundamental causes of obesity. Furthermore, functioning of the memory and
learning abilities are directly interrelated with the regulation of sleep
schedules.  Continuous sleep deprivation
may have an immense significance deleteriously affecting the performance quality
of cognitive tasks involving logical reasoning, recognition of
assumptions, and deduction in students. (Pilcher
and Walters 1997) Major Scientific findings suggest that sleep has a
primary role in consolidation of the normal memory functioning.


Body paragraph 8: How
education institutions are able to help students? à

Healthy lifestyle trends
as well as active engagement in sports towards students have been encouraged
and promoted in universities for a long time now. Nevertheless, today’s 21st
century students are facing the fundamental problem of dramatically widespread unhealthy
sleep deprivation pattern. In accordance with this fact, the modern education
may have to take into consideration the essential needs of the students in
order to optimize their productivity in line with today’s life challenges that students are forced
to overcome during their studies. Taking into account, numerous negative effects
of irregular sleep schedules, some educational interventions may be generated
enabling to uncover solutions
of the problem. Despite the fact,
there is an intense scarcity in information sources accessible for examination
on the efficient measures for improvement of sleep within students, some
primary data recommend several major solutions. (Blunden SL 2012)


One of the primary objectives for effective
education system, lies in improvement of sleep hygiene in students’ lifestyle
that is highly valuable in construction of the potential study programs, as decent
sleep hygiene practices are interconnected with the sleep quality. Recent research,
held in clinical environment, have demonstrated that improving sleep hygiene
knowledge and practices is an effective treatment for insomnia of the students. (Brown et al. 2002) Therefore,
taking into account this data, it still may be problematical to achieve the
suitable conditions and amend the environments within university campuses and student
residences into focus on sleep hygiene factors. Nevertheless, providing the
students with sleep educating information through university’s press or radio,
with signals on sleep regulations targeted at subconscious stimuli would have
an effect on a larger amount of student population. Furthermore, short educational
sessions that would aim at supportive interaction would enable students to
evaluate and analyze their own quality of sleep stimulating towards improvement.


The number of sleep hours amongst students is also
vastly influenced by the studies scheduling and curriculum. Modification of the course
starting time to later hours may also have a positive effect on the mood and alertness decreasing the general
sleepiness. Hence, daytime naps integrated into the study schedules may become
a prospective resolution in facilitation of greater academic performance
results of students. Regular 10 to 20 minutes naps are able to enhance attentiveness and memory
processes throughout the daytime, affecting the body system better than caffeine
in terms of improved recall memory, emotional stability and efficiency in task
accomplishment. As a matter of fact, students
with rather higher grades are taking systematic naps while lower performance is
shown by those students, who do not sleep during the day. (Eliasson
et al. 2009)


In addition to the traditional methods of sleep
regulation, education institutions may also need to look into more advanced
technology-based behavioral sleep therapies for students. Getting to know self-sleep-IQ
and how to manage regimes on electronic platforms would be an engaging way for
modern students to find a subtle decision for a major problem. Some of the therapies,
involve personalized e-mail delivery with attached content on sleep stabilisation,
methods of recreation harmless for sleep cycles and recommendations for sleep
hours, according to the curriculum. Such programs in line with advanced gadget
software would enable reduction of depression and stress signals. Such innovative
solutions are highly promising for the students of the future, as it would be
extensively comprehensible and economically effective for universities’ budget,
giving out the benefit to both content and energized students, and high
academic performance scores of educational institutions. 

My always known that I want to make a

My desire to study Optometry stems from the fact that one’s eyes are vital to maintaining a healthy and happy lifestyle. Your eyesight shapes a very personal, tangible view of the world around you, remaining unique to you as no two people have the same perception. Those who have deteriorating eyesight deserve the chance to better it as I cannot fathom what it would be like to be unable to see nor comprehend the simple sights around us that we take for granted. Thus, urging me to understand the complexity of the eye as it plays such an integral role in our daily lives. Having always known that I want to make a positive impact in someone’s life, no matter how small would truly be the most gratifying part of my job as I will be able to improve an individual’s quality of life and perhaps give back a part of themselves lost in their sight.Academically, I have developed and enhanced my skill set. Biology has allowed me to refine my practical skills through experiments and research projects. For example, I was required to read around habituation behaviour in microorganisms in order to investigate why certain factors affect a system. This relates to optometry, as it will help me utilise equipment and effectively diagnose patients. In addition, biology has developed my understanding of physiology so I am aware of how the human body works and environmental or genetic factors that can affect an individual, such as visual pathways and reflexes. Furthermore, English constantly makes use of my oral and written communication skills so I can accurately portray my ideas, which will help me communicate with my patients and provide the best care. Finally, Psychology prompts me to take a comprehensive approach to understanding how miniscule factors can affect complex theories, which is important to understanding ailments and making informed clinical decisions on the best way to treat them. Psychology also teaches ethics and how to stick to these in order to value and respect each individual despite and religious, social or racial background.At school, I was a member of the senior prefect team, pushing me into an active role in helping younger students that were nervous or worried about any issues at school to find ease. So I was able to respond compassionately to even make the smallest change to better a student’s experience. My role required me to work in a team of peers who helped solve issues, so I will be able to liaise with other medical practitioners and share patient care. This also proved that I am able to perform well in a high-pressured environment, which is required to help prioritise work in both university and as an optometrist. I also demonstrated leadership skills when asked to help manage events at school such as, parents evening or school trips. Outside of academia, I mentor children across the range of subjects that I study. This requires me to have excellent time management skills and flexibility so I can balance out my time, which is important for meeting course deadlines. This also integrated my work skills into a professional environment, for example using my interpersonal skills when helping students.I am keen to go into practice management because I feel it fits well with my personal interests. I will be able to manage practice direction and business management, whilst simultaneously being a practicing optometrist. Therefore, reiterating my desire to help individuals who suffer with ophthalmic conditions. Embarking on the science foundation year will equip me with the skills and knowledge required to study Optometry, where I will develop the professional skills needed to be a successful Optometrist. For the future, I acknowledge that the degree will provide me with a multitude of career options.

Humankind (2 Timothy 3:16). Peter states that “prophecy never

Humankind has searched for truth since its existence. The truth may vary for many but the thing about truth is that it is true and thus an absolute truth. God is truth but where is  this truth found? The Bible has influenced a great portion of humankind through the ages. The Bible speaks of an all powerful God and how one shall live accordingly to the creator making The Bible the most important book ever. One must then know why The Bible is true. The Bible states that it is inspired by God “all Scripture is God-breathed” (2 Timothy 3:16). Peter states that “prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2 Peter 1:21). Implying that humans would have never been able to acquire the wisdom contained in the Bible if it were not for God’s revelation. Therefore, it is safe to say that the Bible is God’s word. Although, one should not believe a book because it tell you to so one must know why the Bible is truth. First, the Bible describes man as evil and deserving of eternal death if the Bible were made by mere humans it would likely be more optimistic about humankind. Second, The Bible was written over a span of 1,500 years with 40 different writers from several backgrounds and that did not mostly know each other. Still, the Bible remains consistent all the through. Third, the Bible has proven science wrong. The Bible explained the water cycle before science found out about it. In the times of the Bible doctors would try to cure a patient by bleeding them and getting rid of the “bad blood” yet, the Bible taught that “the life of a creature is in the blood” (Leviticus 17:11). The Bible is a historical book and it has also proven history researchers wrong. The Bible has yet to be subject of doubt based on its scientific and historical claims. Another place where one can find the truth about God is in His creation.  God created everything that is made. A starry night or a sunset can be all it takes to find God’s truth. “7 But ask the animals, and they will teach you, or the birds in the sky, and they will tell you; 8 or speak to the earth, and it will teach you, or let the fish in the sea inform you. 9 Which of all these does not know that the hand of the LORD has done this? 10 In his hand is the life of every creature and the breath of all mankind” (Job 12:7-10). The world speaks for itself “1 The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of  His hands” (Psalms 19:1).  There is no way of explaining the wonders of the world without acknowledging its creator. 14 “Listen to this, Job; stop and consider God’s wonders. 15 Do you know how God controls the clouds and makes his lightning flash?16 Do you know how the clouds hang poised, those wonders of him who has perfect knowledge? (Job 37:14-16). Humankind is also part of God’s creation and that is were we can find the truth about the creator.  Our inner selves know the truth. Things such as the natural law described by C.S Lewis demonstrate that there is a strong bond between our creator and us and His righteousness. Once one sees and their inner selves are reborn the truth is clear as water. “and have put on the new self who is being renewed to a true knowledge according to the image of the One who created him” (Colossians 3:10). One can find the absolute truth if we surrender to that truth and accept and see its wonders. Our so called “moral awareness” show our true nature that the creator has set for humankind. God is truth and he is found in many places. All it takes to know the truth is to be willing to find it.

My foundational concepts of technology. I performed well academically

My interest in communication technology bloomed when I
visited a local radio station during my high school. I was captivated by the
way my science teacher Dandushri Pilavullakandi explained how the networks and
satellites work for sending signals and data for transmission. This made me
realize the importance of technology and its role in our daily lives.

I did schooling from St.Montfort High School which is one
of the top schools in my town. Science subjects like Physics were my key
interest, as they helped me understand the basic foundational concepts of
technology. I performed well academically and earned an admission into the electronics
department of B.S. Abdur Rahman Crescent University, Chennai.

The modules of my undergraduate degree introduced me
to the core subjects such as Computer Networks, Network Analysis and Synthesis,
Computer Architecture, etc. in addition to syllabus I gained introductory
knowledge on Security and Ethical Hacking from my department senior. I really
got excited when he shared few of his codes. After that I started learning
myself about the basics of security and vulnerabilities by reading various
forums and learned about freeware tools like Burp Suite, Fiddler, etc. The
wide, multifaceted span and instrumental role of information security in our
daily lives motivated me to contest in bug bounty during leisure time.

As a part of my curriculum, I did a project titled
“Virtual Private Network implementation”. It included a demonstration on internet
privacy and data protection. The project received positive reception from my
department faculties. My final-year project was on Near Field Communication
using Arduino to establish a peer-to-peer (P2P) network for exchanging data. In
addition, I was also the executive member of IEEE student branch at my
university during the academic year 2011–2013. It was during this tenure that I
acquired enough confidence and inspiration to fulfill responsibilities my
family had on me. I secured first class in academics and along with my interpersonal
skills helped me land a job at a risk and consulting firm, named Aon Hewitt
during final year. After training, I was mapped into QA (Quality Assurance)
testing team.

At Aon, I volunteered for a meet-up event called
AON-Ithon to follow my hacking craze; the monthly event was conducted by the
information security team. Here, I exhibited my basic security knowledge and
interest which I gained, back university days. This was promptly appreciated by
a security lead, and I was offered a chance to move to my desired domain
(information security) based on the internal company change policy. It is then
my role as a security analyst began for clients like BNY Mellon and Best Buy. I
gained real-time knowledge on live projects and completed my certification on
“Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH)”. During weekends, I attend local conferences
held in the city to keep myself updated with the latest developments in the

My education provided me the base to become a
successful software professional, and I was exposed to various streams in the
IT industry. Working as a security analyst for almost two years, I am ready to
move toward the next phase of life by pursuing a master’s degree.

Being a first-generation student, does not restrict me
to go for graduate program. I believe a master’s degree will help me grow
individually in the security areas where I have limited knowledge, as a
graduate school attracts groups of like-minded people with similar interests in
specific areas, and it is a perfect place to connect with faculty, peers and
alumni to acquire additional knowledge, insight, and diversity of opinion.

After perusing through many university websites, I
feel that the program offered at your consortium accommodates my career needs
the best. Also studying in a richly diverse environment such as Canada will
enable me to become a truly global citizen. Moreover, it will be a
cross-cultural experience with an assortment of global exposure for a student
like me who comes from a small town in South India. The beautiful campus,
outstanding faculty, and wonderful state of Quebec itself are the factors that
have influenced my decision to pursue MEng in Canada.

The MEng program in Concordia will be an opportunity
to work under the supervision of adept professors and compete with
international students from all around the globe, which will prepare me to meet
the challenges in the real world. Your program’s unique internship assignment
will further hone my skills and enable me to channel the knowledge gained from
the university experience toward the successful completion of the degree.

On completion of my graduate studies, I set my sight
on utilizing my expertise into presenting international conferences in
information security and to become
an individual security researcher. I aim to establish best practices and
oversee enterprises from its conception to completion. My definite and
long-term goal is to make optimum use of my global experiences to start a
training institute in my native town. I would consider myself extremely fortunate
to get an opportunity to study at your university and will do utmost justice to
my admission.

Another was a scene in which some high-school girls

Another character in
the Tv series which  fights for equality
is Sana, the main character of season 4, a muslim girl, who had to endure
prejudices just because she is different and has another religion. She finds
herself  into a conflict between her
Muslim identity and Norwegian identity, struggling to find her place into the
world.(TV Tropes, web)

Sana becomes
cold-hearted because of the way in which people treated her and she seeks
“freedom from discrimination” .(Handout 4) For example, there was a scene in
which some high-school girls were talking about Sana, about her way of  living (she does not drink alcohol and she
does not party like other girls), about her hijab and how she does not fit into
their “ordinary” world.  Sana heard all
of their talk and she was so furious and hurt at the same time ,but she could
not do anything about it. Instead, she decided to help other people not feel
the same thing as she did. At some point she says that “Because hate doesn’t
come from religion, but from fear.”(TV series, Skam, season 4,Sana to Isak)

 And I think that she is referring to that fear,
of the unknown, the fear of other people accepting the fact that not everyone
is the same and being different can be a good thing, not a reason of prejudice
and discrimination.

Like Noora, Sana is a
strong and independent soul, but at some point she faces another type of
discrimination : “gender-based discrimination” (Handout 4). She falls in love
with a non-muslim boy, Yousef, a  kind
and beautiful person, who makes Sana feel good and special, but she cannot be
with him because religion does not allow her to have a relationship with a
non-muslim boy. She confrunts her mother, being so furious because it is not
fair for a muslim man to be able to marry a non-muslim girl, having the right
to fall in love with who they want and please and women not having the right to
choose. It was not easy for the the main character of season 4 to overcome the
prejudices and misunderstandings of her colleagues and parents ,but at the end
she chooses to remain ” kind, caring and reasonable”. (Fandom, powered by
Wikia, Skamwiki, web) (Skam, Tv series, season 4 ) (Dazed, web)

ABSTRACT: the total revenue of the industry amounted to


Digital gaming has a history of more than 50 years. The industry started in the late 1960’s when the game titles such as Pong, Centipede and Odyssey were introduced to consumer markets. Digital gaming is now a wide spread phenomenon and at least 70% of the US and Europe households say that they play video games using different consoles such as PC, Xbox, PS4, Nintendo etc. It is reported that in 2011, the total revenue of the industry amounted to about 17 billion USD. Each game is reviewed and rated on the internet by users who played the game and the reviews are often contrasting based on the sentiments expressed by the user.  Analyzing those reviews and ratings to describe the positive and negative factors of a specific game could help consumers make a more informed decision about the game.
Sentiment analysis is one of the important research area of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and have become important alternatives for automatically extracting the affective information found in reviews in the form of texts. Sentiment analysis has gain much attention from few years. Our objective is to build an NLP model to analyze gamers’ opinions expressed in games reviews. We will collect data from different gaming websites, twitter, YouTube, Facebook and many other social platforms. This study will help the game developers to identify the interest of users from a game, the users who think of buying a game after reading the reviews on different websites and it is also beneficial for parents who can restrict their children from playing different deadly games.


The popularity of social media is increasing rapidly because it is easy in use and simple to create and share images, video even from those users who are technically unaware of social media.       There are many web platforms that are used to share non-textual content such as videos, images, animations that allow users to add comments for each item. There are many ways in which social network data can be leveraged to give a better understanding of user opinion such problems are at the heart of natural language processing (NLP) and data mining research.

Internet is a rich source for game reviews. Suppose being able to analyze the reviews and understand what exactly the liked or disliked. By using text mining, we can find the words that are mostly used in the reviews and how it affects the game reputation. We can analyze each term in the text and see which other terms is strongly related to. Doing so we can scale the customer liking or disliking with the game which may affect the revenue generated by the game either positively or negatively. Using sentiment analysis, we can build models on the existing reviews and be able to predict the new reviews as good or bad. Game developers can use this analysis to improve the quality of the games to meet the expectations of the general public and to maximize revenue. Also, parents can prevent their children from playing deadly games which might ultimately take their children to death.


1- Related Work:-

In Turney reviews are classi?ed by calculating the summation of polarity of the adjectives and adverbs contained within text. This study utilized game reviews, where text indicates positive and negative sentiment respectively. A discrepancy between the accuracy of the game reviews was observed with the game reviews getting a higher accuracy. This was attributed to the fact that game reviews, whilst being positive, can have a lot of adjectives and adverbs that do not fully relate to the overall enjoyment of the game and can actually be more a description of the scenes within the game itself. The PMI-IR (Pointwise Mutual Information – Information Retrieval) algorithm was used to classify documents. This algorithm works by taking the relevant bigrams from the document then using the near function on a search engine to see how many times this bigram appears near a word that expresses strong positive or negative sentiment, a large number of matches indicates a stronger polarity. Consider word presence vs frequency where word presence is found to be more e?ective than word frequency for sentiment analysis. Word position within a given sentence can also be e?ective, where such information can be used to decide if a particular word has more strength at the beginning or the end of a given sentence. Considers objective tweets as well as those that are positive and negative sentiment. This paper discuss the method for collecting corpus data, this again is similar to by using emoticons for positive and negative sets Generally there is a far greater di?erence in the objective and subjective texts than positive and negative sets, such di?erences show that using POS tags can be a strong indicator of the di?erence between types of text. The objective and subjective comparison shows that the interjections and personal pronouns are strong indicators of subjective texts whilst common and proper nouns are indicators of objective texts. Subjective texts are often written in ?rst or second person in past tense whilst objective texts are often written in third person. The di?erence between the positive and negative sets do not give a strong indication, however they are good indicators in the di?erence between the amount of superlative adverbs and possessive endings, both indicating positive sentiment whilst the negative set often contains more verbs in the past tense as people are often expressing disappointment. use multi nominal naive Bayes classi?er to compare unigrams, bigrams and trigrams they conclude that bigrams give the best coverage in terms of context and expression of sentiment.

2- Sentimentor: Sentiment Analysis Tool:-

Sentimentor is a web based tool which uses naive Bayes Classi?er to classify live Twitter data based on positivity, negativity and objectivity. Sentimentor has an interface which enables the user to analyze the word distributions.

3- Data Collection and Preprocessing:-

Twitter API was used for the data extraction process. Negative, positive and objective texts were collected by following the same procedures as in Tokenization process from and were followed for the data preprocessing task. The steps followed included the removal of any urls and usernames (usernames follow the @symbol) and removal any characters that repeat more than twice turning a phrase such as OOMMMGGG to OOMMGG, which is applied by a regular expression. Finally, the stopset words were removed from the data. The stopset is the set of words such as “a”, “and”, “an”, “the”, these are words that do not have any meaning on their own. The second phase is associated with determining the POS tag for each word. The OpenNLP library was used for POS tagging and the extraction of unigrams and bigrams.


4- Evaluation of the data set:-

Overall singular noun (NN) is the most common POS tag, occurring 29.08% across the whole corpus. Preposition or conjunction (IN) occur 10.28% of the time with it being clear that there is a signi?cant di?erence between the occurrences in all sets. To better understand the di?erences between sets we have calculated the percentage di?erence between the percentage distributions of each POS tag. This has been done for the di?erence between the objective and subjective sets and between the positive and negative sets. The common nouns and proper nouns are a strong indicator of the subjective set by looking at common noun plural (NNS) nouns proper singular (NNP) and noun common singular (NN). According to Pak we expect writers of subjective text to be talking in the ?rst or second person, we can partially con?rm this by looking at the di?erence of verb present tense not third person singular (VBP) and verb past tense (VPD) however verb, present participle (VBG) contradicts this as it prevails in the objective set. This could have happened because the selected news outlets might have more comment on news than original reporting or this could be a di?erence in the POS tagger, however this is of little concern because the di?erence is relatively negligible. Likewise we can expect objective texts to be in third person the results for verb present tense 3rd person singular (VBZ) can con?rm this. The List item marker (LS) has a -100% di?erence as this doesn’t occur in the objective set this tag isn’t present in Pak 3 data. The symbols that have not been removed by the tokenizer are a potential source of error as these represent signi?cant di?erence between sets. The POS tagger used can detect foreign words (FW) which have a Strong indication of the text being subjective, the reasoning for this is because news outlets would only be expected to use correctly structured English, standard user tweets may contain a mix of languages even though the Twitter search was limited to English tweets. The strongest indicators for negative sentiment is Currency ($) and quotation marks while an individual is highly likely to express their ?scal issues in a negative sentiment but as there are only 19 occurrences of currency in the system this is not a good indicator of what set the text belongs to, also the inclusion of quotation marks here is likely going to introduce error into the system. Wh-adverb – negative (WRB), particle (RB, RP) genitive marker (POS) are all strong indicators on negative sentiment state that (POS) may be an indicator of positive sentiment, the results we have collected contradict this. Superlative adverb (RBS) , proper noun singular (NNP) , adjective superlative (JJS) , Noun (NNS) common plural are all indicating strong positive sentiment.

5- Classi?cation:-

The naive Bayes classi?er was used for classi?cation this decision is primarily based on ?ndings that the naive Bayes classi?er show good performance results.

P (C|m)

:: Where C is the class positive, negative or objective sets, m is the twitter message and f is a feature. In our experiments the features are POS tags, unigrams or bigrams.


6- Results:-

We have tested our classi?er against a training set which contains 216 manually tagged tweets. We have provided the test results for unigrams and bigrams both with and without the use of POS tags previously mentioned tests. The test with the highest accuracy is the one using bigrams without POS tags with an accuracy of 52.31% and the lowest is Unigrams without POS tags at 46.76%. Accuracy would be far higher if we were to carry out these tests using binary classi?cation and it should be stated that this is one of the further complexities of using microblogging data as appose to using reviews as these are not expected to be objective. The use of bigrams has show an increase in performance with or without the use of POS tags. This also reduces the amount of false positives in the objectivity classi?er however there is also notable increase in false positives by the positive classi?er, the negative classi?er does not seem to be e?ected much by this. Overall the use of POS tags has had a negative e?ect on the accuracy of the calssi?cation proccess, this is caused by the Ambiguity of POS tag occurances across sets this is most likely also the case because we using the summation of POS tags in a given phrase and not looking for binary occurance. It may potentially beni?t the classification proccess to give less weighty to the POS tags or to experiment with di?erent n-grams of POS tags. We have con?rmed previous works ?nding to be correct in there conclusion that bigrams give better results than unigrams. The overall performance of the system is satisfactory, however we would still like to further improve this as outlined in our future work section.


7- Conclusion and Future Work:-

In this paper we have presented a way in machine learning techniques can be applied to large sets of data to establish membership, in this case positivity, negativity and objectivity. We have looked at common process in NLP that can help us derive the meaning or context of a given phrase. We have demonstrated how to collect an original corpus for sentiment classi?cation and the re?nement that is needed with such data. We have applied a naive Bayes classi?er to this set conduct sentiment analysis and have found this process to be successful. On analysis of our results we have con?rmed that bigrams o?er better performance when conducting the classi?cation process. We has also con?rmed some of  ?ndings when looking at the di?erences between the objectivity and subjectivity set, the same can’t be be said for the positive and negative sets which prove to be far more ambiguous. We have discovered that collecting data across a short amount of time may be a potential source of error when determining sentiment this is due to the fact that opinions can shift over time as can the meaning of words. The classi?cation process itself has been successful with and accuracy of 52.31% however it is felt that this could be further improved, this is outlined in future work. One of our future works is to experiment with di?erent classi?ers on our dataset. We also intend on developing an application which carries our textual analysis on movies analyzing what an audience is expressing and adjusting the enviroment accordingly.

This best suit the reputation the company or business

This book is a good read for people
who would like to educate themselves about how companies, medical researchers,
and really any business, use tricks or “statistics” to sell their products or
get a good reputation for them. The author can really elaborate on his subjects
he touches on, including details that make the information easier to consume.
Sometimes data can be selectively chosen to best suit the reputation the
company or business would like to achieve. This knowledge can help you
understand the news or media more intelligently by revealing how data can be
compiled and interpreted.

Businesses can advertise their
products to be the best for every human but not every human can react to
certain medicines the same. Their sample sizes could also be small or even
biased at times. It’s not always a bad idea to question certain things you hear
or read. For example, everything on the internet was written by another human
being just like you who is also capable of making mistakes. I’m not saying that
everything on the internet is wrong, just that it doesn’t hurt to question
things you are trying to educate yourself on.

It is also possible that data could
be discarded until the business achieves the desired results. The experiment conducted
could be performed several times until results are perceived to be great or
excellent. The way the data is compiled could affect the way it is interpreted.
There are 3 different ways to collect data for an average. Those being mean,
median, and mode. These 3 ways can lead to very different results and even if
they were close together, the business can still choose the one that appears
best for them. They could reduce their sample sizes to increase their chances
of reaching better results.

In certain paragraphs or subjects
the author talks about, he includes a little too many details that derails the
reader from their train of thought causing them to reread the details over to
see how exactly it fits into the subject at hand. Although, in some cases the
author does include not only his information or perspective, but he also gives
you the questions you should be asking yourself, so you wouldn’t be dependent
on his information alone. This way you can start making your own decisions and
you can lead yourself down the path to interpreting the information and forming
your own opinion.

MV Blogging / Media Sharing-. 5 Use of emails.


MV Deepak (PGP/21/152)
mADHURA mODI (pgp/21/153)
Mondrathi Abhilash
Karan Patira (PGP/21/148)
Anukhta NAYAK (PGP/21/135)
sAI GANGA R (PGP/21/174)


Company name | Company address


Table of Contents
Abstract. 3
Introduction. 3
Literature review.. 3
Present Role of IT/IS
systems. 4
Health care. 4
Communication. 4
Video Conferencing. 4
Social Media Platform.. 4
Blogging / Media Sharing-. 5
Use of emails. 5
Invoicing/ Text Message
Service. 5
Internet of things-. 5
Habits. 5
Entertainment. 6
Gaming. 6
Sports. 6
Movies. 6
Travel 6
Home. 6
Purchases. 6
Workspace Transformation. 7
Collaboration. 7
Automation. 7
Integrated Technologies. 7
Purchase. 8
Ecommerce. 8
Digital Payments. 8
UPI Architecture. 8
Role of IT/IS for the
Future. 9
Immortality. 9
Cyborgs. 9
Implantations. 9
Augmented Reality. 9
Automation. 9
Artificial Intelligence. 9
Discussions. 10
Conclusion. 10
References. 11



IT/IS (Information technology and Information systems) have
become an important tool in our day to day activities. The information
technology plays an important role in various walks of life. The employment of
IT has enabled people to access, analyze and store information.


IT has evolved to be the single most disruptive element of
the present. Everything starting from home, school, office, government and
research highly depends on technology. The famous author Yuval Noah Harari
explains in his book Homo Deus how information is critical and changed the way
of life. He in facts attributes information flow to the success of democracies.
For a better future, information flow should be more rampant and this will lead
a more connected society.

IT has affected multiple areas of our lives. It has enhanced
communication between people, travel has now become a lot easier now and less
strenuous. Purchasing has been aided via digital transactions, we now have
smarter homes and offices. The lifespan of humans has increased with top notch healthcare.
The entertainment industry has reached new heights with better quality pictures
and ways to convey message. Human habits are being shaped by the upcoming
gadgets. The socializing and interaction part of our lives has also undergone
tremendous change. The method of acquiring skill and the thinking process has
become easier and more diverse at the same time.

In this report, different areas of life are taken up and the
role of technology in influencing it are discussed.

Literature review

Information Technology is not used to its full capacity in
hospitals and related sectors. The use of IT can improve the situation of the
hospitals by improving drug safety. The use of integrating data of the results
of the tests and previous or historical data of the patient as well as the
bloodline of the patient can go a long way in helping the doctor choose the
right medicine. In the future, a doctor would place orders online for the
patient, a robot would process the order and deliver it to the patient and a feedback
mechanism would be incorporated to ensure further data for the doctor, the next
time the same patient falls ill.

Technology has advanced very rapidly and people will really
benefit from these advancements. Augmented Reality would change the way we learn
( Halolens ), change the way we behave (pokemon go) . Cyborgs are going to
exist in the future with the ability to process data and take action
instantaneously and it might even feel like we have super powers. Holographic
data input would make more space at our home, life will be digitized soon.

The way we live our life is dependent on the technology we
have, the future is going to be an exciting place which would simplify everyday
monotonous work and would pave the way for a vivid new life which is beyond
expectations. Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence are the next big
revolutionary waves after the Internet.

Present Role of IT/IS systems

Health care

Technology has reshaped lifestyle a great deal. It has made
our work so much easier for us. Though this has had negative implications as we
tend to sit more and human activity has reduced, it has also given us a number
of new inventions that help us take control of our lives. Fitbit, pedometer are
some of the gadgets in vogue right now. A timepiece has gotten so much smarter
today that it has several features including heart beat measurement built into
it. Our habits are being molded by these gadgets. These gadgets count our every
beat and step keeping us aware of our daily exercise thereby influencing our

Specifically, technology has changed the medical industry.
Doctors are now able to monitor their patients continuously through the use of
RFID tags. Patients can easily reach the doctors anywhere and anytime. All this
has enhanced the lifespan of an average human. People with chronic heart
problems or organ failures continue to live because of artificial organs being
implanted into their bodies. IT has greatly helped in the field of research as
we now have more data to work with. Humans now understand the body and mind in
a better manner. Surgery required dexterous doctors and even the smallest of
mistakes could have spelled disaster. Now, machines and robots are already
being deployed in major hospitals to carry out these surgeries. With more data
being collected, cures for many diseases and vaccines have been developed.


Video Conferencing

Apple’s FaceTime, Google’s Hangouts and Microsoft’s Skype facilitate
video conferencing on desktops and mobile devices. Video conferencing uses the
technology of Voice over IP, which harnesses the underlying IP infrastructure
of the Internet to make free communication possible. Packets of video data,
along with packets of voice and other types of data, are carried on the
Internet. It has several applications like organizing meetings at a low cost,
teleworking or telecommuting.

Social Media Platform

Social media
platforms like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn etc. has significantly boosted the
communication channels all over the world and has helped people to build social
networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or
career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. Also,
social media acts as a marketing platform for many firms and appropriate marketing
is done for different users by analyzing the click through rate. Social media
works on technologies like Big Data and real time Data Analytics.

Blogging / Media Sharing-

YouTube: Videos are recorded and posted on YouTube.

Flickr: It’s Yahoo’s social network wherein photographs can be

Soundcloud: Here you can upload your tracks, follow other artists, leave
comments on tracks, and join groups of artists in the same genre for
music-related (and other, miscellaneous) discussion.

Use of emails

 Email services like Gmail, Yahoo
Mail work on cloud computing and provide end to end encryption. This ensures
security and ease of operation.



Invoicing/ Text Message Service

 Information Technology is used to
maintain huge databases (For e.g.- Amazon databases for Google search, bank
records) of background information of users using software technologies like
SQL, Oracle etc. and these databases are utilized at server end of any
organization to
generate invoice messages. For e.g.- account balance statement of bank,
package tracking at Amazon etc.

Internet of things-

It has a huge number of applications like transportation, healthcare,
smart cities etc.

Internet of Things (IoT) consists of smart devices that
communicate with each other. It enables these devices to collect and exchange
data. The IoT device is connected to an IP network which in turn interacts with
global network. It uses technologies like big data, Internet Protocol Version 6
(IPv6), Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN), ZigBee, Bluetooth.

E.g.- Smart glasses, smart doorbells, smart watch everything
is connected to a mobile device via IP.


Mobile phones proved to be the most disruptive technology of
the 20th century. A single device changed the way the world is perceived. With
apps and the social media, the habits of individuals took a drastic turn. When
compared to our parents’ generation, we can see the stark differences. In the
same manner we can clearly anticipate major changes in the habits of an
individual in the upcoming future.

In the book Homo Deus by Yuval Noah Harari, the author
explains how the world of tomorrow would be shaped by information. People would
be more connected and information would flow more easily. The concept of
privacy would diminish and everyone would have a robot as a guide. Even today
we can see how much we rely on google for information. We google if we need to
know something be it food or medicine. In the future, our decisions would be
taken by AI bots which would be connected to one another and would help us make
the best decision. IoT would make our lives much easier. Be it work or personal
time, our routine would be hassle-free with a lot of technological
interventions. With Elon Musk pioneering space travel the day we travel to
different planets for various purposes may not be far away.



Gaming industry has taken huge strides with the advent of
IT. IT enables programmers to enhance the gaming experience of the users by
offering the gaming package in HD packages. Gaming consoles have been equipped
with technologically superior hardware to run processing intensive games.
Flexibility in terms of screen is also enabled by connecting the consoles to


 A couple of decades
ago sports enthusiasts across the world had to wait until the next morning for
newspapers to know the results of their favorite sports. But today, fans can
watch their favorite sports with little or no delay on their TV screens. IT is
also enabling recording and replaying the sport in various angles to the users.


 Folklore, fairytales
and such earlier narratives had elements of fantasy and fiction which were
difficult to film.IT/IS enabled usage of VFX and motion capture technologies to
make such things possible.


Booking & reservation: Earlier, people used
to stand in queues at the reservation centers or pay heavy brokerage to book
tickets and make reservations. IT enables users to make direct reservations
through online ticketing platforms.

Real time update of running status so that the
users can plan their travel accordingly.


Smart TVs and internet aids connectivity of
households with the outside world.

 Wi-Fi systems
ensures connectivity of all devices in the household to a single network.

Households use cloud services to back up their


Purchases are made easy with various payment
options like internet banking, e-wallets.

A number of transactions can be made with just a
single click.

Automatic generation and payment of bills.

Track and record transactions easily.

Firms can automate payments/refunds to
stakeholders by keeping a tab on the transactions.

IT systems at the kiosks or checkout counters
ease the payment process by scanning the barcodes and speeding up the purchase


IT has played a phenomenal role in workspace

A case in point is the increasing workplace
productivity seen around the globe. The present-day workforce is relying
on more intelligent technologies to streamline everyday workflows.
Technology is not only improving physical work environments but has extended
workplaces to a boundless virtual setting, creating unlimited opportunities for
businesses to happen anytime, anywhere, and with anyone.

The following are the three ways
information technology is redefining productivity in the workplace.


Collaboration itself has been
transformative and has taken a new avatar in our technologically advanced
society. Online meetings have become the method of choice for many companies,
doing away with logistical barriers like meeting room capacity, or the
geographical location of its participants. By virtual meetings, more workers
can take part from wherever they are, while remaining active through
screen-offer and talk capacities. Innovation has empowered more intuitive and
comprehensive gatherings. Virtual gatherings have turned into the go-to
cooperation strategy for meeting with customers and for taking interviews. In
spite of the fact that workforces have never been more dispersed than they are
today, coordinated effort has never been more optimal in the working


There are devices that can
mechanize pretty much anything nowadays, wiping out a significant part of the
tedious work from ordinary operations. From web-based social networking
schedulers to auto specialists that will answer and direct your telephone
calls, proficiency has arrived on account of capable computerization devices.
With dynamic human oversight and computerization of the correct procedures,
organizations can see a reduction in failure, enhanced quality and an increase
in execution and general efficiency.


Companies are currently looking
for better approaches to use advances that will empower them to work all the
more productively, while bringing down their expenses. Arrangements like CRMs
and telephone, video conferencing, fax are presently being coordinated together
to offer a more cohesive approach to get to basic information and frameworks.
These incorporations are streamlining ordinary capacities, wiping out
redundancies and making a more gainful working environment.

As innovation keeps on changing
how we convey and function, customary work environment challenges are being
overhauled by arrangements that give improved cooperation, adaptability and
general effectiveness. As the work environment keeps on advancing into a more
virtual and robotized condition, the people involved are in a better position
to focus on their competence and derive the optimal results and enjoy a better
life as a result.



Increase in internet and smart phone penetration,
availability of wide variety of products online and development of user friendly
online interface has led to a shift from retail stores to Online platforms like
Amazon, Flipkart, eBay, Snapdeal.

Different segments of E-commerce include Online Ticketing, Online
retail, online marketplace and other portals.

Digital Payments

Proliferation of e-commerce has resulted in development of digital
payment applications like Paytm, BHIM, and United Payments Interface for
various banks. This has reduced the demand for cash and increased the use of
debit cards and online banking.

UPI Architecture


Online Groceries like Walmart, BigBasket,
Groffers have beome popular

Companies like Shoppers Stop, Bombay Dyeing and
Future Retail have also launched online platforms to sell products. This has
led to a significant increase in sales.  

Role of IT/IS for the Future

Continuing in the same pace, we can expect mind blowing
changes in the field of healthcare in the future due to the impact of IT. The
most significant problem in the current years is with medication errors.
Research done by David W Bates in the work titled- “Using Information to reduce
rates of medication errors in hospitals” explains how the future of medicine
would be a lot more effective due to better data gathering and comparing
equipment. Computerization, automation, bar coding etc will drastically enhance
treatment methods in hospitals. Some of the new technologies which can be
expected in the future are:


Humans are
nothing but information and algorithms. If a medium exists to store all this
data, the human can be recreated and thereby continue to live forever.


 Half human and half robot is not something
uncommon in the present age. With prosthetics and artificial limbs being a
common sight the time when people deliberately opt for these mechanical addons
is but a few years away.


 People even to this day suffer from polio.
With implants, abilities be it to walk or read etc. can all be learnt merely by
the insertion of implants.

Augmented Reality

This technology
is fast becoming mainstream with Google contact lens and Microsoft HoloLens. In
this technology, digital information is projected onto the device and gives
better visibility. Deep incisions and surgical cuts can be evaded through the
use of this technology.

Although we have explored AR (Augmented Reality), we have
just touched the periphery of the opportunity it presents. AR will be
introduced in schools for better education. People could click pictures without
using cameras. It being used in lenses will open up a foray of opportunities,
through which everything can be connected like mobile phones; internet of
things comes into play and life becomes much simpler. A tap would move, start
and make things happen.


Automation is scary for most, people fear that automation
would cause them to lose their jobs. While this will happen eventually, people
would find better opportunities too and a lot of jobs, businesses would require
excess man power. Also, people would become more creative and leave the
mechanistic tasks to the automated robots. Automation can soon be adopted by
sectors such as consulting. 

Artificial Intelligence

The hottest topic in town, AI (Artificial Intelligence) has
grown exponentially over the last few years and can be deployed in all most any
task a human does. UAE recently gave citizenship to an AI supported robot.
Thus, in the future, it can be that the humans and the robots live together in
a collaborative world. The uses are as extensive as translation to cooking,
recognizing facial signatures to strategizing a merger. The future is going to
be vivid and truly unknown.


A fundamental change is taking place in the nature and
application of information technology with profound and far-reaching
implications for companies and society as a whole. Information technology is
going through a revolutionary shift driven by the demands of the competitive
business environment and profound changes in the nature of computers. In this
report, we have analyzed the current scenario and future scope of IT on the
quality of human life.

There are some major disruptive developments happening in
the present era. One of them being Immersive Reality including Virtual and
Augmented Reality (VR/AR). Some of the recent developments in VR include
Microsoft HoloLens, Amazon Alexa, HTC Vive etc. Augmented reality could be used
to gain insights and solutions in the field of surgery.

Another technology that we discussed is Artificial
Intelligence and Machine learning. Artificial intelligence is a computer
program which is able to perform tasks of human intelligence, like speech
recognition and decision making. Machine learning is a type of AI where
computer systems are capable of learning, improving, and “evolving” when
exposed to new data. They process new information following a train of thought
like human beings. AI would be used for a huge range of applications in the
field of education (employing robots as teachers along with smart classrooms,
overcoming learning obstacles for disabled students), healthcare (robotic
surgery, organ replacement using 3D printing), transportation (self-driven
cars), financial services and business and marketing.

There will be massive changes that IoT and Big Data would
bring to current markets and industries and household sector such as health
care, public utilities, and other industries and firms. Patients can be
monitored 24 hours a day with sensors attached to the pacemaker. Traffic can be
regulated effectively using vehicles as IOT nodes. IOT can also be used for
target based marketing using the GPS location of cell phones.

Hence, we infer that these technologies would create
unmatched benefits in the quality of human life and industries, and these
revolutionary developments would be disruptive in nature resulting in
replacement of the existing processes. However, there may be some implications
for privacy and security of individuals. Data security and network reliability
are some of the important concerns. Also, the algorithm governing the actions
of a robot must be written carefully as too much reliance on AI might prove as
a threat to humanity.


IT plays a crucial role in improving the way people live,
affecting all aspects of living. Be it communication, healthcare, entertainment
or any other sector, IT has had its impact. In healthcare, it gave us
inventions which help in monitoring patients, surgeries and which measure our
exercising habits. With the advancement of IT, it is now possible even for
robots to carry out surgeries. IT has completely changed the communication
sector. It paved the way for new applications like Skype, FaceTime and for new
technologies. Social Media Platform has further revolutionized communication by
helping people all over the world connect and communicate. IT provides
technologies like Big Data and real time Data Analytics for Social Media
Platforms. Apps like YouTube, Flickr and Soundcloud enhanced blogging and media
sharing experience. Email service providers use cloud technology for
information storage. Large amount of data is stored in databases using cloud.
Software technologies like SQL, Oracle help extract useful information from
this. IoT is the latest technology helping people to live in a smart way by
integrating all the above said technologies. Mobile phone is another such
invention which emerged as the most disruptive technology by employing IT. IoT
and mobile phones make life easier and make information flow smooth. Nut, at
the same time, they should be used constructively. In entertainment, IT
enhanced gaming, sports and movie experiences. Travel has become much simpler
by using IT. Homes are becoming smart, purchasing has got a new meaning and
workplaces are getting transformed with the advancement of IT. IT has helped
people and organizations to collaborate leading to better results. Virtual
gatherings are examples for this. Automation has relieved us from tedious work,
thanks to IT again. Integrated technologies which use IT also help in making
lives easier. In the future, IT grants us immorality in the form of data.
Cyborgs which are half humans and half robots are a step away. Implantations
will become much better. Augmented reality and artificial intelligence will be
the future trends opening a world of opportunities


‘Homo Deus’ by Yuval Noah Harari



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