EXS physiologic systems of the human body. Describe their

EXS – 1000 Personal


Anatomy and
Physiology Worksheet

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What do each of the following contribute to body’s motion
or stability: How? Why? Be complete in your answers.


Muscle –
pulls on the joints, allowing us to move. They make half of a person weight.
They are masses of tough, elastic tissue that pull our bones when we move.


Tendon –
A flexible elastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue that attaches a
muscle to a bone.


– A fibrous connective tissue that attaches bone to bone.


What are three ways to strengthen bone? 


1. Eating
vegetables, protein, calcium, vitamin D and K

2. Maintaining a
healthy weight and having Omega-3

3. Performing
strength training


Three ways to weaken bone?


1. Not doing
strength training

2. Smoking

3. Not eating
enough calories and nutrients


What are fast twitch muscle fibers?  Why are they important to performance?

Skeleton muscle fibers fatigue faster but are
used in powerful bursts of movements for example sprinting or jumping.


What are slow twitch muscle fibers?  Why are they important to performance?

Skeleton muscle fibers that help enable long-endurance feats such as distance running or
walking. Doing slower things that don’t require much force.


Name 5 fast twitch predominant sports. How is this so?


1. Jumping/ Basketball

2. Sprinting/ Soccer

3. Swimmer (can be both)

4. Jumping/ Volleyball 

5. Tackles and speed/ Football


Name 5 slow twitch predominant sports. How is this so?


1. Walking/ Bowling

2. Cycling

3. Swimmer (can be both)

4. Slow walking/ Golf

5. Just walking

Name 5 key terms or components for each of the following
physiologic systems of the human body. Describe their importance. How do they work?
Why are they important to overall health? 




1. Cell body- structure of the neuron that have the
nucleus and organelles.


2.  Dendrites- Cytoplasmic projections that carry
impulses to the cell body.


3. Axons- carry impulses from the cell body.


4. Neurons- Transmit impulses identified by the
direction the impulse travels.



5. Synapse- Small space between the axon terminal of
one neuron and the dendrite of another.





1. Vision- eyes- lets you see

2. Hearing- Ears- You can hear

3.Smell- Nose- What you smell

4. Taste- Tongue- Mouth taste

5.Toutch- hands- what you can feel when touching




1. Nerves-
Controls the contraction of skeletal muscles, interpret sensory information,
and coordinate the activities of the body’s organ systems.


2. Cartilage- This is a
type of connective tissue. It is a firm gel-like substance.


3. Ligaments- These attach bone to bone.


4. Tendons- These attach muscle to bone.


5. Joints- These are
where two bones interconnect.





1. Artery- one of the
tubular vessels that conveys blood from the heart to the tissues of
the body.


2. Capillary- one of the minute blood vessels that form the
connection between the arteries and the veins.


3. Veins- are blood vessels that return blood to the
heart from other parts of the body.


4. Heart- pump blood out to
every part of your body.


5. Lungs- take care of both jobs.
Carbon dioxide from your blood goes into your lungs. Your lungs get rid of the
carbon dioxide when you breathe out.






Erythrocytes contain the pigment hemoglobin, which imparts the red color to
blood, and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues.


2. Leukocytes
(white blood cells defend the body against microorganisms that cause
infection and remove debris, including dead or injured cells of all kinds


3. Granulocytes have many membrane-bound granules in
their cytoplasm. These granules contain enzymes capable of killing
microorganisms and catabolizing debris ingested during phagocytosis. 


4. Eosinophil secondary granules contain toxic chemicals
(e.g., major basic protein, eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil peroxidase,
eosinophil-derived neurotoxin) that are highly destructive to parasites and


5.  lymphocytes
transiently circulate in the blood and eventually reside in secondary lymphoid
tissues as mature T cells, B cells, or plasma cells.









1. Stomach-
an empty organ, that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes that
continue the process of breaking down food into a usable form.


2. Small
intestine- a long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by
the pancreas and bile from the liver. 

3. Esophagus- Located in your throat near your trachea
(windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow. 

4. The
pancreas- secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment of
the small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates.


5. The
gallbladder- stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into the
duodenum to help absorb and digest fats.





1.Mouth- is
the secondary external opening for the respiratory tract.


2. Pharynx-
also known as the throat, is a muscular funnel 


3. Larynx- also known as the voice box, is a short section of the airway that
connects the laryngopharynx and the trachea.


Trachea, or windpipe, is a 5-inch long tube made of C-shaped hyaline cartilage
rings that allows air to pass through the neck and into the thorax. 

5. Lungs- is a pair of large,
spongy organs found in the thorax lateral to the heart and superior to the





1. Hypothalamus- is a
portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety
of functions.


Pituitary Gland- It is part
of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones


3.Tyroid- Control
hormones essential to your metabolism


4. Parathyroid Glands-
Control the body’s calcium levels


5. Adrenal Glands- Produce
hormones that help the body control blood sugar which also helps to burn protein
and fat.





1.Tonsils- Make antibodies.


Thymus- Helps tonsils make antibodies.


3. Spleen- Filters the
blood by removing old or damaged blood cells and platelets and helps the immune
system by destroying bacteria 


Lymph nodes- throughout the body carries lymph fluid, nutrients,
and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream. 


5. Vessels-
Throughout the body carries lymph fluid, nutrients,
and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream. 



Terms to define.


Superior- used to refer to what is above something.



Inferior- below or toward the feet.



Anterior- something is towards the front of the



Posterior- something is towards the back of the



Medial- something that is closer to the midline



Lateral- something
that is farther away from the midline



Proximal- Toward
the beginning, the nearer of two (or more) items.



Distal- Situated
away from the center of the body, or from the point of origin



Tendons- a cord
or band of strong white fibrous tissue that connects a muscle to a bone.



Ligaments- a
tough band of tissue that serves to connect the articular extremities of bones
or to support or retain an organ in place



Joints- The
area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to



Origin- the
point at which something begins or rises or from which it derives.



Insertion- The
part of a muscle by which it is attached to the part to be moved — compare



Motor Unit Recruitment- refers to the activation of additional motor units to accomplish an increase in
contractile strength in a muscle. 



Red Fibers- A
muscle in which small dark fibers predominate
and in which myoglobin and mitochondria are abundant.



White Fibers- White mammalian
muscle fibers; greater in diameter than red fibers they have less myoglobin,
sarcoplasm, and mitochondria, and contract more quickly



Glucose- A
simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a
component of many carbohydrates.



Adipose- used
for the storage of fat.



Human Physiology- is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of
normal humans or human tissues or organs. 



Pathophysiology- The
disordered physiological processes associated with disease or injury.



More terms to define. What do these contribute to overall
health? Be complete.


Arteries- any
of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which
blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all
parts of the body.



Veins- any of
the tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying in
most cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart.



White Blood Cells- Any of various nearly colorless cells of the immune system that circulate mainly in the blood and lymph and participate in reactions to invading microorganisms or foreign particles, comprising the B cells, T
cells, macrophages, monocytes, and granulocytes.



Red Blood Cells
-One of the cells of the blood, which in mammals are
enucleate disks concave on both sides, contain hemoglobin, and carry
oxygen to the cells and tissues and carbon dioxide back to the
respiratory organs.



Hormones- any of various internally secreted compounds, as insulin
or thyroxin, formed in endocrine glands
that affect the functions of specifically receptive organs or tissues when transported
to them by the body fluids.



Sweat Glands- one of the minute, coiled, tubular glands of the skin that secrete



Bone Marrow- a soft fatty
substance in the cavities of bones, in which blood cells are produced (often
taken as typifying strength and vitality).



Kidneys and bladder- The kidneys and
urinary tract filter and eliminate these waste substances from our blood.



Antibodies and lymph nodes- B
cells produce antibodies. Each antibody has a single
predetermined target. These antigen-presenting cells enter the lymph system
and then lymph nodes.





Mouth, esophagus, stomach- In
the mouth, saliva acts to start to break down carbohydrates
thanks to an enzyme called amylase. The esophagus is a tube,
controlled by muscles and autonomic nerves that help food to travel from the
mouth to the stomach.



Lactic acid- a colorless syrupy organic acid formed in sour
milk and produced in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise.



Platelets and clotting- Platelets, also called thrombocytes,
which are a component of blood whose function is to stop bleeding by clumping
and clotting blood vessel injuries.



Skull- the skeleton of the head.


Sternum- a plate of bone forming the middle of the anterior wall of the thorax and articulating with the clavicles and the cartilages of the
first seven ribs.


Rib-paired bones, 12 on either side, extending from the thoracic vertebrae toward the median line on the ventral
aspect of the trunk



pelvic girdle- structure
formed by the pelvis, providing attachment for the hind limbs or pelvic fins.



Pituitary, thyroid and adrenals- Stimulation of the pituitary by the hypothalamus  will signal the adrenal glands
to release the stress-buffering hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid to
release T4



Brain and spinal cord- The brain functions
to receive nerve impulses from the spinal cord. The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between the brain and
the body.




Sources cited:






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