EXS physiologic systems of the human body. Describe their

EXS – 1000 PersonalHealth Anatomy andPhysiology Worksheet Use the Internet,reliable resources only, to explore and source your responses. No Wikipedia, please.

  What do each of the following contribute to body’s motionor stability: How? Why? Be complete in your answers. Muscle –pulls on the joints, allowing us to move. They make half of a person weight.They are masses of tough, elastic tissue that pull our bones when we move.

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 Tendon –A flexible elastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue that attaches amuscle to a bone. Ligament– A fibrous connective tissue that attaches bone to bone.  What are three ways to strengthen bone?   1. Eatingvegetables, protein, calcium, vitamin D and K2.

Maintaining ahealthy weight and having Omega-3 3. Performingstrength training  Three ways to weaken bone? 1. Not doingstrength training 2. Smoking3. Not eatingenough calories and nutrients  What are fast twitch muscle fibers?  Why are they important to performance?Skeleton muscle fibers fatigue faster but areused in powerful bursts of movements for example sprinting or jumping. What are slow twitch muscle fibers?  Why are they important to performance?Skeleton muscle fibers that help enable long-endurance feats such as distance running orwalking.

Doing slower things that don’t require much force.  Name 5 fast twitch predominant sports. How is this so? 1. Jumping/ Basketball2. Sprinting/ Soccer3. Swimmer (can be both)4. Jumping/ Volleyball 5. Tackles and speed/ Football Name 5 slow twitch predominant sports.

How is this so? 1. Walking/ Bowling2. Cycling3. Swimmer (can be both)4.

Slow walking/ Golf5. Just walking Name 5 key terms or components for each of the followingphysiologic systems of the human body. Describe their importance. How do they work?Why are they important to overall health?  Nervous 1. Cell body- structure of the neuron that have thenucleus and organelles. 2.

 Dendrites- Cytoplasmic projections that carryimpulses to the cell body. 3. Axons- carry impulses from the cell body. 4. Neurons- Transmit impulses identified by thedirection the impulse travels.  5. Synapse- Small space between the axon terminal ofone neuron and the dendrite of another.

  Sensory 1. Vision- eyes- lets you see2. Hearing- Ears- You can hear3.Smell- Nose- What you smell4. Taste- Tongue- Mouth taste 5.Toutch- hands- what you can feel when touching  Musculoskeletal 1.

Nerves-Controls the contraction of skeletal muscles, interpret sensory information,and coordinate the activities of the body’s organ systems. 2. Cartilage- This is atype of connective tissue. It is a firm gel-like substance. 3. Ligaments- These attach bone to bone. 4.

Tendons- These attach muscle to bone. 5. Joints- These arewhere two bones interconnect.  Circulatory 1. Artery- one of thetubular vessels that conveys blood from the heart to the tissues ofthe body.

 2. Capillary- one of the minute blood vessels that form theconnection between the arteries and the veins. 3. Veins- are blood vessels that return blood to theheart from other parts of the body. 4. Heart- pump blood out toevery part of your body. 5. Lungs- take care of both jobs.

Carbon dioxide from your blood goes into your lungs. Your lungs get rid of thecarbon dioxide when you breathe out.   Hematologic 1.Erythrocytes contain the pigment hemoglobin, which imparts the red color toblood, and transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues. 2. Leukocytes(white blood cells defend the body against microorganisms that causeinfection and remove debris, including dead or injured cells of all kinds 3.

Granulocytes have many membrane-bound granules intheir cytoplasm. These granules contain enzymes capable of killingmicroorganisms and catabolizing debris ingested during phagocytosis.  4. Eosinophil secondary granules contain toxic chemicals(e.g.

, major basic protein, eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil peroxidase,eosinophil-derived neurotoxin) that are highly destructive to parasites andviruses.  5.  lymphocytestransiently circulate in the blood and eventually reside in secondary lymphoidtissues as mature T cells, B cells, or plasma cells.      Gastrointestinal 1. Stomach-an empty organ, that holds food while it is being mixed with enzymes thatcontinue the process of breaking down food into a usable form.

 2. Smallintestine- a long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released bythe pancreas and bile from the liver. 3. Esophagus- Located in your throat near your trachea(windpipe), the esophagus receives food from your mouth when you swallow.

 4. Thepancreas- secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum, the first segment ofthe small intestine. These enzymes break down protein, fats, and carbohydrates. 5. Thegallbladder- stores and concentrates bile, and then releases it into theduodenum to help absorb and digest fats.

  Respiratory 1.Mouth- isthe secondary external opening for the respiratory tract. 2. Pharynx-also known as the throat, is a muscular funnel  3. Larynx- also known as the voice box, is a short section of the airway thatconnects the laryngopharynx and the trachea.

 4.Trachea, or windpipe, is a 5-inch long tube made of C-shaped hyaline cartilagerings that allows air to pass through the neck and into the thorax. 5. Lungs- is a pair of large,spongy organs found in the thorax lateral to the heart and superior to thediaphragm.   Endocrine 1.

Hypothalamus- is aportion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a varietyof functions. 2.Pituitary Gland- It is partof the endocrine system and produces critical hormones 3.Tyroid- Controlhormones essential to your metabolism 4. Parathyroid Glands-Control the body’s calcium levels 5. Adrenal Glands- Producehormones that help the body control blood sugar which also helps to burn proteinand fat.

  Immune 1.Tonsils- Make antibodies. 2.Thymus- Helps tonsils make antibodies. 3. Spleen- Filters theblood by removing old or damaged blood cells and platelets and helps the immunesystem by destroying bacteria  4.Lymph nodes- throughout the body carries lymph fluid, nutrients,and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream.

  5. Vessels-Throughout the body carries lymph fluid, nutrients,and waste material between the body tissues and the bloodstream.   Terms to define. Superior- used to refer to what is above something.  Inferior- below or toward the feet.  Anterior- something is towards the front of thebody.

  Posterior- something is towards the back of thebody.  Medial- something that is closer to the midline  Lateral- somethingthat is farther away from the midline  Proximal- Towardthe beginning, the nearer of two (or more) items.  Distal- Situatedaway from the center of the body, or from the point of origin  Tendons- a cordor band of strong white fibrous tissue that connects a muscle to a bone.  Ligaments- atough band of tissue that serves to connect the articular extremities of bonesor to support or retain an organ in place  Joints- Thearea where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts tomove.

  Origin- thepoint at which something begins or rises or from which it derives.   Insertion- Thepart of a muscle by which it is attached to the part to be moved — compareorigin  Motor Unit Recruitment- refers to the activation of additional motor units to accomplish an increase incontractile strength in a muscle.   Red Fibers- Amuscle in which small dark fibers predominateand in which myoglobin and mitochondria are abundant.  White Fibers- White mammalianmuscle fibers; greater in diameter than red fibers they have less myoglobin,sarcoplasm, and mitochondria, and contract more quickly  Glucose- Asimple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is acomponent of many carbohydrates.   Adipose- usedfor the storage of fat.  Human Physiology- is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions ofnormal humans or human tissues or organs.   Pathophysiology- Thedisordered physiological processes associated with disease or injury.  More terms to define.

What do these contribute to overallhealth? Be complete. Arteries- anyof the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by whichblood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to allparts of the body.  Veins- any ofthe tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying inmost cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart.  White Blood Cells- Any of various nearly colorless cells of the immune system that circulate mainly in the blood and lymph and participate in reactions to invading microorganisms or foreign particles, comprising the B cells, Tcells, macrophages, monocytes, and granulocytes.  Red Blood Cells-One of the cells of the blood, which in mammals areenucleate disks concave on both sides, contain hemoglobin, and carryoxygen to the cells and tissues and carbon dioxide back to therespiratory organs.  Hormones- any of various internally secreted compounds, as insulinor thyroxin, formed in endocrine glandsthat affect the functions of specifically receptive organs or tissues when transportedto them by the body fluids.  Sweat Glands- one of the minute, coiled, tubular glands of the skin that secretesweat.

  Bone Marrow- a soft fattysubstance in the cavities of bones, in which blood cells are produced (oftentaken as typifying strength and vitality).  Kidneys and bladder- The kidneys andurinary tract filter and eliminate these waste substances from our blood.  Antibodies and lymph nodes- Bcells produce antibodies. Each antibody has a singlepredetermined target. These antigen-presenting cells enter the lymph systemand then lymph nodes.    Mouth, esophagus, stomach- Inthe mouth, saliva acts to start to break down carbohydratesthanks to an enzyme called amylase.

The esophagus is a tube,controlled by muscles and autonomic nerves that help food to travel from themouth to the stomach.  Lactic acid- a colorless syrupy organic acid formed in sourmilk and produced in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise.  Platelets and clotting- Platelets, also called thrombocytes,which are a component of blood whose function is to stop bleeding by clumpingand clotting blood vessel injuries.  Skull- the skeleton of the head.

 Sternum- a plate of bone forming the middle of the anterior wall of the thorax and articulating with the clavicles and the cartilages of thefirst seven ribs. Rib-paired bones, 12 on either side, extending from the thoracic vertebrae toward the median line on the ventralaspect of the trunk  pelvic girdle- structureformed by the pelvis, providing attachment for the hind limbs or pelvic fins.  Pituitary, thyroid and adrenals- Stimulation of the pituitary by the hypothalamus  will signal the adrenal glandsto release the stress-buffering hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid torelease T4  Brain and spinal cord- The brain functionsto receive nerve impulses from the spinal cord. The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between the brain andthe body.

   Sources cited: 1.2.3.