Exposure on health, particularly CVS. It can precipitate AMI,


Exposure to smog can lead to several
different types of short-term health problems due to its ozone content. These
include following Health Problem:

Coughing and throat or chest irritation: High levels of ozone can irritate your respiratory
system, generally lasting for a few hours after you’ve been exposed to smog.
However, ozone can continue to harm your lungs even after symptoms disappear.

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Worsening of asthma symptoms: If you suffer from asthma, exposure to high
levels of ozone from smog can trigger asthma attacks.

Difficulty breathing and lung damage: Smog can make it feel difficult to breathe
deeply, especially during exercise, according to the Mayo Clinic. This is
because of the effects of ozone on lung function.

Smog disasters
are becoming more and more frequent and may cause severe consequences on the
environment and public health, especially in urban areas. High death rates were observed in
areas with elevated ambient pollution levels. It was estimated that more than
2million premature baby deaths in China and in India are caused by smog. The immediate effect was
an increase in pneumonia deaths. The terms “acute respiratory distress syndrome” or “acute lung
injury” are often used to describe many pneumonia deaths. Numerous well-studied
cases, including diseases of the heart, lung, skin and eye, reproduction,
nervous system, inflammatory response and cancer are strongly related to smog exposure. (L, J, X, A, & ME)

Quantitative research and
exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to contribute to the
literature on risk perception by developing dimensions of smog risk perception,
namely, physical health risk perception,mental health risk perception, living
cost perception and government control perception.  I am engaged in the logistics industry. Poor
visibility in the smog weather conditions not only affect the work enthusiasm
but also increase
the risk of job-related injuries, thereby affecting work efficiency. Pungent
smell on the way to work makes me feel so depressed that I can’t have a
positive work status. I feel depressed easily in the smog weather conditions
resulting in negative work status and low work efficiency. (Yue, Chen,
& Long)

Great smog of 1952 also
known as Big Smoke was an episode of severe air-pollution that affected London
in December 1952. It was really a collection of airborne particles, arising
mostly from the use of coal, culminating in a thick layer of smog over the
city, lasting 5days (from 5–9 December 1952) and then dispersing as quickly as
it came Several cardiovascular
diseases are associated with pollution acute myocardial infarction, heart
failure, cardiac arrhythmias, atherosclerosis and
cardiac arrest Air
pollution has adverse effects on health, particularly CVS. It can precipitate
AMI, heart failure, arrhythmia and even cardiac arrest. Air pollution with
particulate matter (both fine and coarse) has been correlated to both CVS and
total mortality. While intervention at societal level is most effective some
personal steps can be taken to reduce its risk. (WP & J)

The acute health effects
of exposure to a short summer smog episode, with 8-hours average ozone levels
exceeding 120 c(glm3, were investigated in 212 primary school children. Field studies at children’s
summer camps failed to find increases in symptoms despite decrements in lung
function, which were proportional to ambient O3 concentrations. The results of
the present study are similar although we observed a slightly increased number
of children reporting eye irritation. It has been demonstrated that
photochemical air pollution is a causative factor in eye irritation. However
this has been ascribed to non-ozone components of the photochemical mixture and
occurs when ozone levels are about 200 (0.1 ppm) 25, thus somewhat
higher than they were in this study. ( Cuijpers, Swaen, &


Hydrocarbon components (propylene, simulated auto exhaust, or authentic
auto exhaust) were irradiated in the presence of nitric oxide in large chambers
instrumented for measurements of numerous variables. Eye irritation was
measured using a selected panel of human subjects. The various dependent
variables are presented as functions of the reactant concentrations by means of
contour diagrams derived by computer treatment. The effect of
“hydrocarbon” and nitric oxide levels on smog effects are discussed;
the observed
relationships between end effects and reaction rates are considered. The study
simulated the effects of varying degrees of vehicular emissions control over
one or both reactants and has a bearing on the establishment of vehicle
emission standards in California. Ozone may characterize
photochemical smog, but the eye irritation which tends to accompany it is the
feature which the public finds most objectionable. The concentration
dependence of
ozone and, hence, the effects of various control regimes may be seen from the combined
propylene study chart. ( J. GORDON, CYRIL ROMANOVSKY,


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