Eviction(s) the cause(s) of poverty?Inductive Reasoning, is used primarily by Desmond to providespecific examples to draw and facilitate a general conclusion among thereaders. To illustrate heartbreaking and unremarkable issues among poorfamilies, Desmond does a wonderful job following each individual and theirunique stories. He gives the readers unforgettable stories, but one that he useto exemplify the struggle of a poor family and how “poor families were oftencompelled to accept substandard housing in the harried aftermath of evictions …and were also 25 percent more likely to experience long-term housing problemthan other low-income renters” (Desmond 2016;69), was when Doreen Hinkstons’suddenly got evicted and ending on one of Sherrena’s low-quality complex. As a Sociologies Desmond uses the micro-levelto represent one of the major problem in the United States. Also, it doesn’tallow the reader to oppose the giving argument and conclusion.
Evictedis an external evidence that can appeal to the audience’s rationality andreinforce the importance of eviction and housing inequality as a major factorof poverty in the United States. Also, “Evicted”could be an extended version of logos as rhetorical appeal which supports andhelps develop the author’s argumentation and the evaluation of evidence thatunderlines and upholds the author’s thesis. According to Alan G. Gross and Arthur E. Walzer, “logos is a logicalappeal, that operates under the assumption that the audience is rational, and displaythe arguments in such a way that will bring the readers to the desireconclusion” (2000;135). Therefore, Evitedis organized in a way to give the reader to the concepts needed it to fullyunderstand the argument presented. Also, by rationalizing his main argument ina logical, sound, and comprehensible way. Desmond then shows how one contentbuilds on another, displaying how evictions contribute to the endless cyclicalprocess of poverty.
Despite the improvements in todays sociologicaladvancements, Evicted is able to portraythe irrationality which still remains in our current system and why it isflawed. Desmond’s use of footnotes providedsignificant trustworthiness for his audience because it yields a real- time-fact- checker throughout the book. For instance, if the reader feels skepticalabout a claim, they can instantly be redirect to the original source.
As a result,readers doubting of such claim can easily access the footnotes for a furtherinsight on the author’s argument. According, to Sonja K. Foss, “those that usepersuasive writing from other sources but does not create or include, thetestimony of witness and documents such as contracts and letters, tend to failpersuasive to the reader to fully trust the author’s work” (2008;26). Althoughincluding footnotes is not a neoclassical rhetorical appeal, it allows theauthor to create a visual confirmation of facts. Desmond include footnotesbecause one of the essential functions that footnotes had in Evicted was to give the reader thevalidation of external proof. This helped Desmond to strengthen his argument. The Author’s Note achieves a function that isextremely important to author – reader relationship when building trust andcredibility among these two individuals.
Desmond develops his relationship whenhe said, “… all the events that occurred within that time period were witnessedfirst-hand” (20016; xi). Desmond, as theonly author of evicted, it was extremely important to show the reader that helived these experiences himself and didn’t just gather information from othersources. The way Desmond connect himself with the people in these neighborhoodsmade the reader realize that his integrity as a trustworthy advocated or sourcefor covering the issue on the minority groups and the continues cycle ofpoverty is a nonstop problem. Fundamentally, Desmond, reinforced his credibilityby putting himself in unbearable situations. In Addition, the Author’s Note further extend Desmondcredibility by illustrating his position and commitment to maintaintransparency and objectivity among his work, making the author’s note act as adisclaimer function. In order to get the reader to believe his work, Desmond isvery transparent with the sources and stories he gather during his research. “…All quotations were captured by adigital recorder or copied from official documents.
The names of tenants, theirchildren, and their relatives, as well as landlords and their workers have beenchanged to protect their privacy” (2016; xi). By reveling the specificmeasurements he used allowed Desmond established a high level of transparentlyamong his audience. Also, his measurements and sources allowed him to preventmisinterpretations of his work. The level of transparently that he createsamong him and the audience, allowed him to be a voice of honesty and revealerof truth.
In the quote, Desmond illustrates why he wrote Evicted in first person, he does it to enforce that he had noemotional stake in the issue discussed, that could lead his research andconclusion as bias.According to Alan G. Grossand Arthur E. Walzer, ethos is a type of ethical appeal that establish thespeaker’s credibility or character and expertise as persuasive techniques (2000;134).Throughout, Evicted Matthew Desmondemploys ethos to gain and reinforce his expertise and knowledge on the subject,to prove his reliability as a source and to induce readers to have similarconclusions about his argument. In fact, in his initial attempt to constructcredibility among his audience he introduces the “Author’s Note.” Although, thecredibility of an author is only the perception of the viewer and rhetor’scapacity to successfully persuade his audience. The Author’s Note acts as adisclaimer, basically introducing conditional terms, that Desmond considersnecessary for the reader to understand his field of work.
For instance, “Thisis a work of nonfiction” (Desmond 2016; xi). This quote immediately set aspecific focus and to why people should read Evicted. It also acts as a disclaimer, that stablish the reader’sinterpretation by outlining necessary evidence to successfully grip Desmond’sargument(s). “The home is the wellspring of personhood.
It is where ouridentity takes root and blossoms, whereas children, we imagine, play, andquestion, and as adolescents, we retreat and try. As we grow older, we hope tosettle into a place to raise a family or pursue work. When we try to understandourselves, we often begin by considering the kind of home in which we wereraised” (Desmond 2016, 293). Evictions! The root of poverty? Matthew Desmond’s novel “Evicted: Poverty and Profit in America City, portrays the lives oftenants, landlords, and house marketing on the poorest neighborhoods ofMilwaukee. Desmond gives the reader overwhelming evidence and revealingtestimony illustrating the major impact of inadequate housing on individuals,local, and national level. Desmond’s analysis and observation of his case studyenables him to portray the reality of poverty, and to persuade the readers thatevictions are a major consequence, and primary contributors in the unending cycleof poverty.
Desmond build his argument using two Aristotelian rhetoricalappeals, ethos, logos and inductive reasoning to illustrates the importance ofending the cycle of poverty.