Enzymes are biological catalysts, they can speed up the

Enzymes
are biological catalysts, they can speed up the reaction time of something
without the reaction consuming them. Most enzymes are proteins, which means they
can speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy that the reaction
needs to begin. Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed to
cause a reaction. When an enzyme is involved in a reaction, it helps the
reactant get past the activation energy barrier much easier because the enzyme
helps reduce it.  In the lab that was
performed in class, students were using potato cells that were acting as
catalysts(enzymes) to speed up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide(substrate)
into water and oxygen gas.

To test the concentration of the enzyme
catalase, there were crushed potatoes placed into test tube one, and cubed
potatoes placed into test tube two. Hydrogen peroxide(substrate) was added to
both test tubes to form a reaction. The reaction rate of test tube one was
two(moderate) and the reaction rate of test tube two was one(slow). The reaction
rate for test tube one was higher because since the potato was ground there was
an increased concentration of the enzyme catalase, compared to test tube two.

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To continue, to test whether room
temperature or boiling temperature sped up the enzyme catalase, grounded potato
was added into test tubes one and two. Test tube two was added into a hot water
bath for five minutes, then taken out of the water bath and rested for an
additional five minutes. After five minutes two milliliters of hydrogen peroxide
was added to both test tubes. Test tube one (room temperature) had a reaction
rate of two(moderate) and test tube two had a reaction rate of zero (no
reaction). The reaction rate for test tube two was lower than test tube one
because the temperature of the boiling potato destroyed the enzymes, which
means no reaction will take place.

To test the pH levels, pieces of
grounded potatoes were added to test tubes one, two, and three. Two milliliters
of water were added to test tube one with an additional two milliliters of
hydrogen peroxide. Two milliliters of acetic acid were added to test tube two
along with two milliliters of hydrogen peroxide. Two milliliters of sodium
hydroxide were added to test tube three, along with two milliliters of hydrogen
peroxide. Test tube one had a reaction rate of three (fast reaction) along with
a pH level of eight. Test tube two had a reaction rate of one (slow reaction)
along with a pH level of three. And test tube three had a reaction rate of one
(slow reaction) along with a pH level of thirteen. According to these results
enzymes function more efficiently at neutral pH levels.

 

            In conclusion, according to the lab
results the grounded potatoes had higher reaction rates. The catalase’s
functioned more effectively at room temperature since the boiled potato’s catalases
were basically degraded. And if the temperature were lower than room
temperature the reaction would have been slower. Finally, the catalase’s had
the highest reaction rates with a neutral pH level. Which means if the pH
levels are to basic or acidic than the reaction rate will be slower.

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