————— emphasis to its role as facilitator of social

————— University
College of ————– 
————- Department

Project Outline
Human-Computer Interaction

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December 11, 2017

On the modern age, the human-computer interaction (HCI) has highly shown and presented several and various influences on our life in different fields such as business field, entertainment field, education field, medical field, and space exploration field. issues and problem. Additionally, the current research will propose and illustrate some human issues and problems and shed light on computer solving with supporting examples such as video games, schools, university, and design regarding the human-computer interaction (HCI). As a result, computer action tends to obscure consideration of the contribution of the computer interface to the service interaction in our life. 2
The main purpose of the present research is to examine and illustrate how computer influences on our life in different fields, and how it disciplines and contributes to human-computer interaction (HCI) and some human issues and problems. The interaction between humans and computers is evolving rapidly, impacting every aspect of human and organizational life. The current paper presents and illustrates the latest developments in this field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). It discusses issues related End User Computing, as well as issues related to the human side of IT. This book will set a framework for the social and organizational issues related to IT, giving emphasis to its role as facilitator of social relationships, enabling the development of the organizational and individual intelligence and helping to improve human conditions. In Issues of Human Computer Interaction, models and theories are presented together with practical cases that will help students, lecturers, researchers and managers to have a clear idea of what is going on in HCI, today.2

Some of Human Issues of HCI
There are many issues that have slowed the adoption of mobile computing. One reason is that mobile technology has lagged significantly behind desktop computing in terms of processing power, power availability, and network speed. Additionally, the rapidly changing pace of mobile computing has reduced the ability for business professionals to keep up with, understand, and utilize the available technology. Another concern is whether or not future technology will meet customer demands (Kentrick, 2002). Mobile computing can, however, lead to a competitive advantage in some industries (Varshney, 1999). It can help improve workflow and efficiency as well as reduce costs and risk management (Miah and Bashir, 1997; Turisco, 2000; Porn and Patrick, 2002). This is true, only if the mobile computing architecture chosen compliments the work scenario and is understood by management so that it can be fully exploited. The human–computer interaction (HCI) considerations needed in mobile computing as well as possible design and implementation solutions. These HCI issues include use and context of computers, human characteristics, computer systems and interface architecture, and the development process. By understanding the nature of the circumstances and problems mobile workers face and the possible resources available to resolve their issues, designers and developers are better able to respond to their needs (Kristoffersen and Ljungberg, 1999; Perry et al., 2001). 3
Most studies about computing for mobile workers in a variable work context centers around HCI issues—how the field worker interacts with the mobile computing device. There is a drive to move away from the concept of a PDA as a miniature workstation, which has been driven by the portable computing business traveler segment. Studies have found that concepts in desktop computing are not scaleable and do not fit the mobile computing environment (Bertelsen and Nielsen, 2000). The new direction is a mobile computing interaction paradigm that takes into account the diverse environments and tasks mobile users face. The field of HCI is concerned with the “design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use” (Hewett et al., 1996). Studies in HCI consider four areas of research: use and context of computers, human characteristics, computer systems and interface architecture, and the development process (Hewett et al., 1996). 3

The Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Its Various Influences on our Life in Different Fields
The current research demonstrates a great number of various influences on our life in different fields according to human-computer interaction (HCI). Computers are commonly used items in many fields in our present world as will be in the future. Since the ages of the fathers of computers seem to be existing like Blaise Pascal and Charles Babbage. These machines have proven to be very essential or important and significant especially for people who run large organizations and industries, but also to the individuals themselves. 1
Computers have affected our lives in a great deal in that almost every thing now is either run by or made by computers. For instance, in large industries, cars and space exploration devices and machines are designed by the use of computers, in hospitals where medical billings, patient admittance and other medical equipments are run and made by computers; traffic lights that run the city traffic are run by computers. One of the major impacts of computer is communication. The level of communication has gone higher through computer as now you can be connected with friends and family around the world, many business deals and conference is now made through the help of computer. Nevertheless the entertainment world would not have been as successful as it is if it weren`t for computers, because movies these days require a lot of animations and use of graphics to create effects. So basically the whole universe is a computerized universe as it is right now.1
Even back in the late years of 1600 to 1800, the people saw that life was becoming complex and so they needed to create something that would help them solve the complex problems and mathematics so they wouldn`t have to solve them manually. And so they came up with calculators which could only add and subtract mathematical problems. And the more the technology grew the more computers became important in their daily lives to the present. Computers have changed man a lot. It has helped man to step in to the future. Though computers have been said to take away man power, still computers have managed to make the impossible possible. 1

Various Influences on our Life in Different Fields
In today`s life computers have impacted many fields such as the business fields. Many business organizations need computer to keep track of accounts, money and other stuff that they need. It has been noticed that business people use computers a lot both at their homes and at their working places. One may see that these people make pie charts and graphs that they use for presentations during business meetings where most of these charts were made by the help of computers. The business field uses computers a lot in their activities. 1
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Nevertheless, business organization now a day & a circ; €™s use online marketing to advertise and contact with their consumers from different parts of the world without direct contact. For instance in www.amazon.com, this is an efficient way of business since it does not limit the area of supplies and consumers. It is through the use of computers that they are able to perform these activities.
Another area that computers have impacted is the entertainment area. It has been seen that most of the people love science fiction and action movies and those that have neat effects like Matrix or Harry Potter. Well the graphics and animations used in those movies were done by computers themselves. Most of the movies today use these graphics to make movie effects look realistic. For instance in Harry Potter where Harry has to fight dragons and big snakes, all those effects look real but they are not realistic and some movies where we see aliens, space ships, monsters or flying men. Some movies are even made by computers from top to bottom like toy story and wall E. 1
Not only movies but also game consoles use computer animations like the Play Station, PC and Nintendo. And it has been seen that games made by 3D graphics have been big breakthrough in gaming. All thanks to the awesome computer graphics. Even the music industry has been impacted in its way. Since music editing and video making all require computers to create effects or edit videos. Thus computers have a great deal of effect in the entertainment industry today. 1

Educational field has been impacted by computers as well in its own way. Like in universities computers help students a lot with their assignments and presentations. For instance a student had to do a project on World Religions; he would use the encyclopedia to search for information. Even when presenting their works like for presentations one would use Microsoft power point and writing of essays would require Microsoft word. 1
Even teachers themselves use computers as well. They use computers to keep track of grades or prepare notes and presentations for their students. Through servers/networks educational institutes can share and control resources, by connecting computer devices together which saves a lot of time and money. For lecturers it becomes easy when a lecturer is giving a lecture then students can just take note rather than printing out pages and pages of notes. Nevertheless e-learning is also a product of computer`s development. Thus computers have a great deal of importance in the educational field. 1
This is one important field that computer have impacted. Computers help in hospitals and even in small pharmacies. Doctors and nurses use computers to make records on medication of patients and in what amount so they wouldn`t lose track. But in big hospitals computers are also used to keep records of every patient. They also keep records on medical bills and equipments. Nevertheless scientists need computers so they could find cures to different diseases that keep erupting every day. If it wasn`t for computers these cures wouldn`t have been found. Therefore, computers are important since they help us maintain our health. 1 
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Computers have had a great deal of impact in this area. Computers help in designing the right kinds of equipments and ships that are used nowadays for most exploration. For instance a large organization like NASA needs these kinds of machines for space exploration. In space, small errors or miscalculations can create serious problems that cannot be easily corrected. Computers provide faster and more accurate handling of data, both in planning a mission and in analyzing parameters during a mission. Without them, effective space exploration would be nearly impossible. This has proven to be successful since everyday huge deal of inventions and discoveries from these explorations, like life in mars. And now scientists are trying to find if there is another life form on other planets. Computers also help them to solve complex mathematics such as from which degree/angle should the rocket be launched, which would be quite difficult for humans to calculate. 1
Computer Solving Problems
Human-computer interaction data pose interesting challenges to data mining efforts. One difficulty arises from the fact that humans are inconsistent in their ways of approaching a task, and often introduce extraneous and irrelevant actions, resulting in data with a large amount of noise and large variations. Also, HCI data often contain rich contextual information but, as suggested by Hilbert and Redmiles 2000, to analyze such data automatically, it is generally necessary to transform the data and abstract away detailed contextual information in order to obtain general trends. This brings up two problems—first, finding the right level of abstraction can be difficult, and second, interpreting data mining results without proper contextual information can be problematic. In this article, we describe a data mining system to mine a set of HCI log data collected in a particular problem-solving setting: end users debugging spreadsheet formulas. Our system aims to automatically extract high-level behavioral patterns that contribute evidence of the users’ problem-solving strategies. The system consists of two major parts: the first part mines basic low-level behavioral patterns from the log data, and the second part organizes these patterns into groups and extracts high-level strategies from them. The system was successful at discovering interesting strategic patterns. Among its successes were: (1) discovery of patterns that matched the verbalizations of users regarding strategies in a separate user study with an independent data set Subrahmaniyan et al. 2008, (2) discovery of a strategic phenomenon that had been hypothesized but not yet statistically verified by HCI researchers in more than three years of empirical work, and (3) discovery of two new strategic patterns that were highly correlated with user success and had not been revealed in more than nine years of empirical work. 4

Examples on Human-Computer Interaction

Human-Computer Interaction HCI Design

The present research proposes the concept of service-oriented HCI in which HCI design is derived from service design, dialog is driven by customer needs and perceptions, activities that have led up to the service encounter are considered, and the service interaction dialog is aligned with the computer dialog. As part of service-oriented HCI, the chapter illustrates the use of scripting to examine ex-post the role of a computer interaction in a service encounter. It demonstrates that the computer dialog can drive the service interaction in such a way that the quality of the interaction is reduced and customer satisfaction affected. It concludes that the role of the computer system in a service interaction is an area for further research. Furthermore, script analysis may enable the development of human-computer dialogs that meet some of the criteria of service-oriented HCI. 2

The immediate research presents some examples of human-centred use of information technology, applied in the subject of Human—Computer Interaction. Examples include the Open Source Learning Management System Moodle, video based lecturing, remote laboratory of intelligent house and an age simulator – Age Sim. Finally we show some benefits and weaknesses that arose during the use of the Moodle environment.

The Open Source Learning Management System Moodle

Due to its simplicity and multi-language support, the Moodle environment has been chosen to be used by students of Computer-Human Interaction student as option to gain additional knowledge via either classical or interactive e-material. Material exchange and communication tools, such as emails, chat rooms and video web lecturing, as well as remotely controlled laboratory experiments are just few of the benefits of such a system. 5

Video Based Lecturing

Our motivation was to provide additional information and materials for students to enable them to acquire deeper knowledge with the aid of ICT, including students with special needs. One of the possibilities is to develop a video-based system, adapted to their needs, which combines, on a web site, a video and audio of the lectures, presentation slides, subtitles, transcriptions, additional documents, and a table of contents 24. Because of the complexity of the process of live streaming video and video on demand, the trend towards simplification of the necessary procedures and shortening the implementation times of the video based lectures is evident. 5

The Hypermedia Classroom includes one or more mobile systems (trolleys), with video and audio equipment suitable for recording the lecture. In case of using more mobile systems it is possible to simultaneously record additional streams, for example sign language interpreter, audio subtitles and live subtitling. The server side consists of two servers, for storing data (Microsoft SQL Server 2005) and for streaming videos (Windows Media Services). The user side presents the client side, where the end-users interact with the web portal and have different roles (student, administrator and lecture roles). 5
Remote Laboratory of Intelligent House
Having in mind the possibility of using remote laboratories as a base for designing and implementing of graphical user interface systems remotely, we decided to test the possibility of using a small laboratory house model, which we could control at a distance. 5
We designed and developed a system, named m-house. The system consists of a wooden model of a house (Fig. 2), which includes a micro-controlled system for control and inspection of devices, connected to the Internet. User interfaces for web sites and for a Personal Digital Assistance device (PDA) were implemented in Lab View. Using an appropriately adapted user interface, devices, which are integrated in the house model (e.g. lights, windows, doors, ventilation) can be remotely controlled via web pages and via mobile access to Internet. 5

An Age Simulator – Age Sim
Improving the quality of life of elderly people is another issue within Human-Computer Interaction study and research. Devices and user interfaces must be designed in a way to enhance the quality of life of the growing number of elderly people. The main problem is that most of the young students of software engineering are not aware of the constraints and restrictions which elderly people are facing. Students and researchers must be given the possibility of simulating certain physical constraints of the elderly. A good example is Age Sim 7, which is a simulation suit designed to permit a developer to experience the restrictions caused by various types of impairments, whether from age or other causes (Fig. 3). We are of the opinion that, in order to actually understand the difficulties of elderly people, it is of vital importance for the developers to feel and experience these difficulties during the first design iteration. 5

Summary and Conclusion
The primary objective of this research was to summarize how computer influences on our life in different and various fields, and how it disciplines and contributes to human-computer interaction (HCI) and some human issues and problems. In this research we have presented and demonstrated a huge number of HCI issues, computer solving problems and examples related to many human issues and different areas of life. The results of our study indicate that the primary HCI issues, computer solving problems and examples have greatly impact on our life in different and various fields. Finally, we can conclude by saying that the increased use of information computer technology ICT will force all educational, political, economical, social, literary, psychological, and medical bodies to include ICT in the future processes and interactions. 

1. The Impact of Computers In Our Daily Lives Computer Science Essay
Essays, UK. (November 2013). The Impact Of Computers In Our Daily Lives Computer Science Essay. Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/computer-science/the-impact-of-computers-in-our-daily-lives-computer-science-essay.php?cref=1

2. Service-Oriented Human Computer Interaction and scripting
Neil McBride (De Montfort University, UK) and Ibrahim Elbeltagi (De Montfort University, UK)
Source Title: Issues of Human Computer Interaction
Copyright: © 2004Pages: 20
ISBN13: 9781591401919ISBN10: 1591401917EISBN13: 9781591402367
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-191-9.ch001

3. Human–computer interaction issues for mobile computing in a variable work context
Author links open overlay panel Judy York aParag CP endharkarb
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4.Fern, X., Komireddy, C., Grigoreanu, V. and Burnett, M., 2010. Mining problem-solving strategies from HCI data. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 17(1), p.3.

5. Examples of using technology in teaching Human—Computer Interaction according to the Bologna process
IEE EXplore Digital Library
Saudi Digital Library

Debevc, M., Kosec, P. and Holzinger, A., 2008, June. Examples of using technology in teaching Human—Computer Interaction according to the Bologna process. In Information Technology Interfaces, 2008. ITI 2008. 30th International Conference on (pp. 489-494). IEEE.


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