Electromagnetics is a branch ofphysics that deals with the study of electric and magnetic phenomena. Ittackles the interactions between moving electric charges and those at rest. Thestudy of electromagnetics involves the fusion, examination, physicalinterpretation, and application of both electric and magnetic fields(Sadiku, 2005).
Electric charge is a fundamentalproperty to make electromagnetic interactions possible. Objects that areelectrically charged are accelerated by electric forces. Furthermore, electriccharge are observed to be quantized and obeys the law of conservation (Youngand Freedman, 2008). Electricity and magnetism are twoinstruments of electromagnetism.
Until 19th century, they were long thought tobe unrelated with each other. Electric charges at rest or in motion yieldelectric forces while magnetic forces are product solely of moving charges. Thetwo forces can be discern in areas called electric and magnetic fields,respectively. These fields can be present in regions far from the sources thatproduced them (McGrayne, Robinson, and Kashy, 2016). A changing electric field can give rise to a magneticfield and vice versa. It was discovered by Michael Faraday. While a changingmagnetic field produces electric field is exposed by James Clerk Maxwell.
Theseexchanges generate to electromagnetic waves. Unlike other waves such as sound,EM waves do not require a medium in order to propagate (Mirza, 2011). Summarization of the phenomena forelectromagnetics is can be observed in the four formulas in Maxwell’s equation.This discovery of Maxwell with the help of prior contributions from other greatscientists and physicists led to the understanding of the EM phenomena in whichfurther broadened by the famous Albert Einstein in his special relativitytheory (McGrayne,Robinson, and Kashy, 2016). The interaction between electricityand magnetism has paved the way to the massive advancements in the field ofscience and technology. The principles behind eletromagneticshas been applied in various aspects of our daily lives.
It can be seen at thekitchen area of most household which holds simple equipments like microwaves,electric cooker, ricecooker and etc. (Sadiku, 2005).EM principle paves the way for the improvement of telecommunications,technologies, and computers which are integral parts of the present generation.It finds application in designing and operating of every possible electronicequipments like antennas, satellite communications, bar-code reader, radio/TV,telephone, cellphone, display screen and laser (Ulaby, Michielssen, andRavaioli, 2010). Furthermore, the EM principle entails the development inphysical medicine such as the EM power which is used to alleviate particularpathological conditions. The device operates either in short or micro wavesform in heating deep tissues and stirring certain bodily responses of patients(Sadiku, 2005).
All applications stated above are made possible throughdeep understanding of the laws and principles of EM in order to design devicesthat will be used to perform specific tasks.