Design were contacted through phone or in-person interviews. They

Design principles for motivating students with rewards and digital BadgesOne of the main extrinsic motivators in design of virtual learning applications are various rewards and digital badges. Taking well-known motivational theories into consideration there are multiple ways how these badges can be implemented. ….. (2014) investigated 30 digital badge projects and extracted eleven design principles and practises which have influence on motivation. These projects are using Open Badges Infrastructure developed by Mozilla Foundation and range from after-school programs aligned with the Common Core State Standards (Pathways for Lifelong Learning) to teacher professional development programs (Who Built America?) and skill-based digital practice apps (BuzzMath). Practises which were used by system designers to motivate learning were identified by analyzing project proposals.In order to get more information about design decisions, project staff were contacted through phone or in-person interviews. They also indicated design decisions which probably were unintended but have motivational influence. Later on, eleven design principles were generated from these design practises and they were revised by people from analysed projects.Gathered design principles are:Recognizing identities – badges can indicate learner’s role inside the badging system. For example, S2R Medals assign learners badges for their journalism and live reporting skills. Engaging with communities – Involvement in physical or digital communities can earn badges to learners. For example, Planet Stewards awards learners badges for being science communicator and collaborator in their community, Display badges to the public – Some projects display badges automatically and some allow learners to display badges by themselves. For example, Mouse Wins! automatically displays learner’s badges on their website. Outside value of badges – In some projects, awarded badges can have real value outside the badging system. For example, Earners of 4H-USDA Robotics badges have the opportunity to earn internships with partner institutions such as NASA. Setting goals – badges can display goals which are already achieved and show pathway to reach further goals. For example, BuzzMath shows learners clear learning pathways and show the badges which they already earned.Collaboration – Group accomplishments can be awarded by groups badges or personal badges reflecting role in the group. Such as, Robotics and STEM Badges using NASA Content awards badges to groups of learners. Competition – In some projects there are only a few badges but additional pointing system provoke competition among badge earners. For example, there are limited amount of badges in  S2R Medals.Recognizing different outcomes – recognised learning type among student can have big impact on motivation. For instance, there are roles such as “peer mentor” and “project leader” recognised by badges in Design for America project.Utilizing different types of assessments – In some projects, there are different types of assessments like computer, peer, expert, or self assessment. As an example, peers can give badges in Sweet Water Aquapons.Providing privileges – Earning badges can give certain privileges such as prizes, new activities or internships. Learners are able to access internships by earning badges in Design Exchange.

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