Describe corn. People began to branch together into tribes.

Describe the development of Native American civilizations in Central and North America until 1491.  What were the major forces of change for these populations?The Ice Age was a time where Native Americans came to the Americas from Asia.  They came via the Beringia, which was a land bridge that connected the Old World to the New World.  When the Ice Age came to an end, the Native Americans were forced to change their way of living due to that fact that a large population of Ice Age animals had gone extinct.  With this change in food sources, the Native Americans began to adapt and started to farm, hunt smaller animals that survived, and gather safe plants to eat.  The warmer weather made farming a significant source of food.  The main plant that was grown through farming was corn.  People began to branch together into tribes.  They built immaculate cities and traded with one another for things they could not grow or make on their own.  With these cities, civilizations were formed along with governments, where the people could choose their leaders.  Take a look at the pictures attached to this assignment (click on “Early Depictions” above), they are from a previous edition of American Spirit. Use the zoom to have a close look at each.  These were likely drawn by people who had not seen the Americas and they accompanied a letter published in Europe detailing experiences in the New World written by explorer Amerigo Vespucci (the continent of America was named for him).  Write a paragraph or two about how the Native Americans are depicted and why you think they might be depicted that way.The artist depicts a very biased view of Native Americans.  Much like the source written by David Muzzey in 1927, the Native Americans are portrayed as barbarians and savages.  The Native Americans are shown to be wearing no clothes, chopping up body parts, and are all unshaved.  They are depicted in this way due to the fact that the artist has probably never even been to the New World and never seen the Natives.  He was most likely basing the art off of letters and stories sent to Europe from the settlers.  The settlers were very biased towards the Native Americans, which resulted in their people back home feeling and thinking the same way.  After reading American Spiritchapter 1, section A, write a paragraph or two about the differing attitudes of the speakers in the two readings towards Native Americans. (Pages 1-5 of American Spirit.)Juan Gine?s de Sepu?lveda speaks of the Native Americans in an extremely negative manner.  He is very biased towards the Spanish.  He believed that the Spanish were deserving of the land in the New World and that they should have power over the Natives.   He writes, “The Spanish have a perfect right to rule these barbarians of the New World..” (Bailey and Kennedy 2016, 2) He then goes on to talk about how the Spanish are better than the Native Americans.  He says, “…are as inferior to the Spanish as children to adults, or women to men, for there exists between the two as great a difference..”  (Bailey and Kennedy 2016, 2)  Juan Gine?s de Sepu?lveda believes the Spanish are superior to the Native Americans.  It is very clear he had little respect for the Native Americans and their way of living.  Bartolome? de Las Casas speaks of the Natives in a much more positive way. He credits them for their skills and their way of life.  He also writes about how the Native Americans were able to establish a government even before the settlers showed up.  He talks about their tremendous artistic abilities.  He writes, “…so very beautiful in their skill and artistry are the things this people produces in the grace of its architecture, its painting, and its needlework.” (Bailey and Kennedy 2016, 5-6)  This quote really highlights the credit the author gives to the Native Americans for their unique abilities.  Juan Gine?s de Sepu?lveda and Bartolome? de Las Casas had two very different opinions on the Native Americans and what they were really like.  Sepu?lveda believes the Spanish should rule the Natives,  while Las Casas gives credit to the Natives for establishing a way of government.  


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