Dengue is one of the leading cause of hospitalization and death among children and adults in tropical and subtropical climates in the world, specifically in the Asian and Latin American countries (Ferguson et al., 2016). It is a viral infection transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti, which also transmits the yellow fever, Zika virus, and Chikungunya. Dengue causes an illness with flu-like symptoms that can develop into a more lethal complication, severe dengue (Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever) if not given proper attention.
Upon infection, the dengue virus has a week of incubation in the body before showing signs and symptoms on the affected person. In order to prevent further dengue infection development, early detection and proper medical treatment are needed to lower its fatality rate. There is no specific treatment for dengue or severe dengue, leading to several dengue vaccine research.
The first approved dengue vaccine is the live attenuated Sanofi-Pasteur vaccine or Dengvaxia, a recombinant vaccine that is processed by Sanofi-Pasteur Ltd. It was made by splicing the backbone of the yellow fever virus, with that of the four distinguishable strains of dengue, scientifically referred to as serotypes (Halstead, 2016; Liu et al., 2016).
A recent controversy, however, has surfaced in the Philippines regarding the said vaccine–Dengvaxia was administered onto people with no prior dengue history which could do more harm than good. If the said person had contracted his/her first dengue infection, the body will release antibodies that are more befitting with that of a second dengue infection. This is conclusive with an article made by Ferguson et al. (2016), which reveals that individuals who are positive in dengue virus or DENV at the time of vaccination, shows higher effectivity of Dengvaxia than who are negative in DENV at the time of vaccination.To prevent such event from happening once again, individuals who want Dengvaxia administration should undergo screening by having their enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay–based DENV IgG status determined, in order to be deemed eligible or ineligible from vaccine administration (Halstead, 2016).