Archive July 2019

Conventions of Indian Cinema

Hollywood and Beyond Poster

Indian cinema is very diverse in the genres that it produces. Bollywood has given the world everything from comedies to romances to thrillers to action films and essentially everything in between. Indeed, Bollywood is only one aspect of Indian cinema: South India has its own cinema as do other regions in the country — and each is unmistakable in terms of production values, actors, styles, and visuals (Bowes, 2013). Bollywood by far represents the most up-to-date and top-of-the-line cinema in India and over the years it has produced a number of hits that have attracted fame throughout the world, such as Race, Jism, Blue and Murder. Even Hollywood has begun to take note: one star of Bollywood cinema is now working in Hollywood — Priyanka Chopra — who stars in her own television show in the U.S., Quantico. And famed director Danny Boyle’s Slumdog Millionaire was a film that served as a Western homage to Indian cinema in many ways — complete with dance number at the end of the film (a Bollywood staple — nearly every film in Indian cinema has a song and dance number).

The history of Indian cinema dramatically changed in recent years with the introduction and widespread appeal of the Indian sirens — beautiful, sexy actresses who began to be used in Indian cinema with more and more popularity in the 1990s. The India sirens — actresses like Chopra, Bipasha Basu, and Katrina Kaif, helped reshape Indian cinema away from its more prosaic and traditional origins towards a more modern, Hollywood-esque type of cinema, where skin was paraded with gusto (no nudity — not allowed in Bollywood as it is in Hollywood), and where cinematographers learned from the Michael Bay school of visualizations. In fact, many modern films in Indian cinema reflect current trends in Hollywood. Blue, starring Laura Dutta, was an Indian version of the Hollywood hit Into the Blue starring Jessica Alba. Murder, was an Indian version of the Hollywood hit Unfaithful, starring Diane Lane.

Songs are a conventional must-have in most Indian films, whether they are comedies, dramas, or action films. In this manner most of Indian cinema carries into the modern era the musical conventions of the earlier, traditional era. Some films have departed from this convention but for the most people, Indian audiences prefer their films to have dance numbers featuring the attractive stars of the…

Analyzing Letter to Stakeholders Term Paper

Evidence-Based Design in Healthcare Facility Planning

This Letter to Stakeholders aims to help the recipients appreciate the importance of evidence-based design in the planning of Healthcare Facilities.

Dear Sir / Madam

I feel happy to share with you the letter that explains about the upcoming healthcare renovation project. There are a lot of disruptive changes happening in the healthcare landscape and the application of evidence-based design (EBD) is prominent among them. It is essential that we understand the features of the model before taking a final decision. I have put my perspective on why adopting the EBD model for our renovation project is important.

History of Healthcare Facility Design

The original idea that Florence Nightingale had of a hospital was a place that would have abundant fresh air, view of nature and light. This idea sought to substitute deep plan hospitals that rose after World War II which were more concerned about efficiency than the healing of the patients and their comfort. The form of the hospital changed from the style of a pavilion to a totally different style. A configuration of an average hospital turned to a multi-floor block (or platform) that had the patient tower on top of it. This transformation was made possible by building technology that brought the ability to build long span buildings, ventilate the interior spaces through mechanical means, and introduction of elevators to move people between floors. According to estimates, nurses spent 40% of their time in transporting patients when this topology was at its peak (Burpee, 2008).

Current Approaches

Hospitals and Clinics in Canada and many countries in Europe do not offer private rooms to patients. The contrasts between a ward in a hospital and a private room have been described in a rather interesting manner on the website of The British National Health Services (NHS). Evidence shows many patients would prefer a private room. However, this is quite hard unless the patients pay for a private room. There are some obvious advantages of staying in a private room such as privacy, reduced noise, and a lower risk of contracting nosocomial infections. Interestingly, there are some notable disadvantages of a private room for a patient (Gormley, 2010). They include:

• The patient in private room has no social interaction with others;

• It is harder to catch a nurse’s attention and the patient has to use a buzzer; and • There is reduced likelihood of someone noticing if the patient falls while going to the bathroom.

Evidence-based Design in Healthcare Facility Planning

Physical environment, especially when it comes to health care can have a tangible impact on the well-being of human beings. Plausibly, Evidence-based design arises from this realization. According to the founding principal of Houston’s Watkins Hamilton Ross Architects, D. Kirk Hamilton, also an associate professor at the Center for Health Systems and Design in Texas A&M University, a well-designed environment is an important constituent of the patient care system. There is an increasing number of designers, facility executives and architects who are diligently analyzing how the facilities influence the outcome of patients under the concept of evidence-based design. Hamilton states that Evidence-based design is the result of an architect who is thinking critically, working closely with well-informed clients. Such an approach uses concrete evidence from studies to make interpretations on design.

Currently, experts are concentrating on the studies on the effects of the nature of facilities. These include issues such as the location of bathrooms and sinks, decor, as well as overhead pages. Statistical data, such as the rate at which patients acquire illnesses while they are admitted in hospitals, or the number of errors associated with medication, and the duration of patients stay in hospital are used to measure the effects. If these measures are improved, there will be an overall enhancement in the well-being of patients (Kroll, 2005).

Although “evidence-based design” equates with formal research generally, there are many other ways in which “evidence” occurs. These ways include in-house institutional research, professional experience, best practice, and informal benchmarking. The information acquired through the different means is then sieved by different people in different ways. These people are entrusted with the processes of planning, managing, funding, designing, and even those who…

Food Increasingly Popular a Leisure Activity. Background Essay

food increasingly popular a leisure activity. Background Information: Food people solely ‘food fuel’. Food,, aspects a leisure activity: shopping farmer’s markets, eating, cooking, reading, TV viewing, blogging .

Food as a Leisure Activity

Conditions in the contemporary society have made it possible for people to change their perspective regarding some concepts and things as simple as food have come to represent a leisure activity. Individuals are no longer interested in eating with the purpose to satisfy this need, as many people presently regard cooking and eating as an art. Moreover, one needs to focus expansively on these concepts in order to harvest all the benefits associated with making and eating food. Food has reached a whole new level in first-world countries, considering that the financial condition that people in these countries have virtually enabled them to see food as being more than just a necessity. Numerous individuals are actively engaged in producing, buying, and selling food-related ideas with the purpose of exploiting this domain.

In spite of the fact that food is generally perceived as a means of sustenance, the social order has gradually turned its attention toward the leisure aspect of this particular concept. This influenced many individuals in perceiving it as being more than a necessity, as it came to be a way of life. People are practically making a statement through the food that they eat or cook. The food industry has presently reached a point that makes it one of the most important fields in society, especially considering the growing number of nutritionists that are apparently concerned about what the masses eat.

In spite of the fact that more and more individuals start to express interest in eating food that provides them with as many benefits as possible, “fast food, frozen food, restaurant food or simply skipping meals has replaced cooking” (Nazareth 2). People consider that they are constantly busy and perceive cooking as a leisure activity that they can only perform when they have a lot of free time. The idea of ‘Super Suppers’ has recently emerged as a solution to this issue, as a chain of stores spread across the world are intended to provide people with resources that they can use with the purpose of cooking food faster than they would normally do it. One of the most disturbing truths regarding prosperous communities is the fact that they have little to no time to spare for cooking, especially considering that “about half of food dollars spent in the United States are for food eaten outside the home: the restaurant industry is the biggest private-sector employer in the country” (Nazareth 21).

Food is no longer a product that needs to be consumed in large amounts in order to make people happy, as quality is more important than quantity today and as the masses have turned their attention toward the relaxation aspect of the concept. Food has been introduced to a series of domains and is an important factor in numerous groups, considering that people are currently identifying with particular types of food. “As the realm of social order (and disorder) becomes ever more constituted by and through processes that cross political and cultural boundaries, traverse staggering physical (and mental) distances, undermine established ways of doing things and create new forms of thought and practice” (Inglis & Gimlin 3), the food industry is severely affected and a lot of food-related ideas affect the process of globalization and the globalized world.

Most people regard globalization as a process that primarily affects economies. However, these respective individuals are inclined to ignore the fact that this progression is actually much more complex and that in order to determine the exact domains that are most affected by it they need to concentrate on understanding it completely. People are no longer interested in sustaining themselves by using traditional means and they focus on borrowing tips and tricks from a series of cultures that they interact with in an attempt to create the most effective living environment that they could possibly think of. This influences them in adopting enthusiastic attitudes in regard to foods that are reputed for the beneficial effects that they have on bodies and minds (Inglis & Gimlin 7).

Although it is difficult to determine exactly when the globalization of food started, it is only safe to assume that it began to be appreciated world-wide during the last decades of the twentieth century. In spite of the fact that food has travelled across the world for centuries, it is not until the recent decades that it actually came to be recognized for its potential to assist intercultural communication. Food has become very diverse and is presently available in most areas of the world in large quantities, even with the fact that there are also individuals who are unable to access it. Developing countries are especially at risk when considering the globalization of food. “Competition for a market share of food purchases tends to intensify with entry into the system of powerful new players such as large multinational fast food and supermarket chains” (Globalization of food systems in developing countries: impact on food security and nutrition 1). Traditional food markets are losing significant ground in the face of these agents and people start to have lesser access to established food sources. While one might perceive this as being detrimental for people living in these countries, matters are not necessarily critical. Corporate food industries bring along important improvements in food quality and are even likely to sell products much cheaper in comparison to domestic food producers. Consumers thus come to be more sophisticated and express less interest in products that they perceive as being less qualitative when compared to the standards brought forward by large food companies.

While people are generally more likely to experience positive changes as a result of having access to a wider and more qualitative range of foods, problems also occur as some have trouble understanding what products are safer for them to consume. This is especially disturbing, considering that “the lower socio-economic population groups drift towards poor-quality, energy dense but cheap and affordable foods” (Globalization of food systems in developing countries: impact on food security and nutrition 1). Even with the fact that these people also express interest in food as a leisure-related concept, their financial condition makes it difficult for them to actually experiences positive results as a result of being actively engaged in this process.

The masses are vulnerable to outside influences and the mass media is one of the strongest actors persuading them to put across certain attitudes in regard to food. The present-day social order has acknowledged the fact that it is essential for people to put across particular interest in regard to the effects that the food that they consume has on them in order for their experience with food to be pleasurable (both from a physical and from a mental point-of-view). Food television is one of the most important concepts in developed and developing countries and it is one of the reasons for which the masses take on particular positions in regard to some food assortments. From food programs to food channels that are entirely dedicated to providing food-related information, mass media devices are an active participant in shaping the way that people see food.

In addition to providing people with information concerning what are some of the best foods that they can possibly get their hands on, food television programs also promote social expectations. The mass media provides personalized programs for people to watch and individuals can thus view whatever they are interested in by watching their favorite programs. Consequent to watching a food-related program a person is likely to express interest in eating particular foods and in having them cooked in a certain fashion. Cooking shows started to appear in the media right after the Second World War as entrepreneurs were testing new methods of gathering large audiences. Numerous food-related television programs emerged during the second half of the twentieth century and viewers appeared to be especially interested in the concepts that they put across. American and English television operators issued food-related programs and promoted names like James Beard, and, respectively, Dionne Lucas. These people managed to draw a significant number of supporters and people started to comprehend the potential of combining food with television. Julia Child and Graham Kerr gathered numerous viewers in the 1960s and enabled individuals to learn that it was not dangerous for them to look at food as an international and intriguing affair (Adema).

While Child and Kerr are two of the most notable individuals to host a food-related television program during the early days of the industry, it was not until Martha Stewart entered the scene that these type of programs started to gather a lot of attention. This person was actively involved in the lives of her viewers by influencing them in changing their lifestyle completely. Not only was she interested in providing them with information regarding…

Meditation Study: Examination Term Paper

Ground-Breaking Meditation Research: A Comparison of Presentations

Holzel and colleagues performed the study “Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density” as a result of the fact that little is known about the neural mechanisms that are impacted by specific forms of mindfulness meditation and comparable interventions. While some interventions are known to be more effective than others, there aren’t a lot of details available about the precisely positive changes which can occur in the gray matter of one’s brain as a result of effective and critically acclaimed techniques like Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Holzel and colleagues were able to confirm that the changes occurred were ones which specifically were connected to the gray matter in areas of the brain where the bulk of the learning process, memory processes, emotional regulation and perspective taking manifested. For example, one area of the brain that the study examined was the hippocampus, an area of the brain that looks like seahorse and which is divided into left and right hemispheres. The hippocampus is the area of the brain which deals directly with the creation of long-term memories and even spatial navigation: thus when an individual has to deal with a disease as crippling as Alzheimer’s can be, the hippocampus is one of the primary areas of the brain which starts to deteriorate, leading to issues like memory loss or confusion. This is an area of the brain which can be very sensitive to oxygen loss. People who develop amnesia are often ones with damage to this area of the brain, preventing them from forming new memories.

The researchers looked at all areas of the brain and sought to determine how mindfulness meditation was impacting them. For example, the frontal lobes in the cerebral cortex were examined, as they are prime areas within the largest part of the brain’s structures and control higher cognitive structures such as attention and thought processing, along with decision-making skills. Issues in the frontal lobes such as damage or poor or incomplete development can often lead to a range of disorders such as ADHD or schizophrenia. Researchers also looked at the parietal cortex, the part of the brain which has a tremendous role in the integration of information from a range of the body’s five sense so that a coherent view of the world is able to be put together. Information is integrated from visual pathways, helping to assemble a picture of what and where things are allowing basic functions like spatial mapping and number representation to occur. When damage occurs to this region of the brain, issues like a loss of sensation in the body, along with issues in understanding speech. The temporal lobe is another massive part of the brain and which houses a range of substructures, including areas which are responsible for face recognition and memory acquisition along with understanding language. Damage to this area means that issues in understanding, learning and memory can manifest, as a result of certain cognitive disorders, including severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia. Another arena of the brain that this study looked at was the cerebellum which supervises motor behavior and automatic movements along with learning and attention: this is a small area of the brain, but is one which contains the most neurons. Many of the analyses in this study involve looking at the areas like the posterior cingular cortex, the temporo-parietal junction and the cerebellum

Other areas like the occipital cortex, which is the main visual area of the brain receives were not examined as closely or as targeted in this study. The brain stem is another area which is not as targeted in this study which contains structures that control homeostasis in the body by supervising automatic functions like breathing and certain automatic movements.

Methods and Performance of the Study

The participants of the study were all people who were taking part in MBSR courses at the University of Massachusetts; these classes were primarily marketed for stress reduction. Participants had to be both physically and psychologically healthy and not taking any medication. Other criteria for inclusion in the study were that they couldn’t have taken meditation in the last half of a year, and with no more than five classes in the past five years and no more than ten classes their entire lifetime (Holzel, 2011). Ultimately, the study consisted of 18 participants, 10 female, eight male with a mean age of 37.89 years. The control sample had 17 participants: 11 male and 6 female (Holzel, 2011).

The MBSR program consists of eight weekly group meetings which are a couple hours, along with one full day during the ae-makr of the course. The mindfulness training activities were designed to help develop the individual’s capacity for awareness in a compassionate non-judgmental manner as participants are taught how to investigate what feels appropriate for themselves with regard to the sensations in their body and their own body’s limitation. All participants received audio recording which contained 45-minute mindfulness exercises that they had to use at home and didactic instructions were also given regarding the use of mindfulness in coping with the stress of daily life (Holzel, 2011). Furthermore the five-facet-mindfulness-questionnaire was also used to measure the five factors of mindfulness (such as with regard to observing, describing, acting, non-judging, and non-reactivity) and was measured on a five-point Likert scale.

With all of these factors going on, the participants were scanned at a center for biomedical imaging in the two weeks before the program and the two weeks after the program. Participants in the control group were also scanned twice, two months apart.

The data images of the brain were gathered using the T1 weighted MPRAGE sequence and the image assessment was engaged in with the voxel-based morphoemtry along with neuroimaging statistical software. Researchers aligned the images collected by hand in accordance to the anterior commissure and then placed into gray and white matter in the space. For each person the gray matter portions were spatially co-registered with normalization parameters calculated for the pre- and post-images (Holzel, 2011). The normalization parameters were assessed for the pre-scan and then used for both the time points so that the regional differences among the images were not eliminated by the scan-specific normalization (Holzel, 2011). Once all these factors were engaged in, the researchers were able to put forth an exploratory whole brain analysis in addition to the region of interest analyses with bilateral hippocampi and bilateral insulae created using specialized software (Holzel, 2011). The ROI assessment has a spatial-concentration; the researchers selected multiple comparisons within the ROI. Thus, the researchers decided upon a cluster-wise method for the whole exploratory brain analysis as a means of correcting multiple comparisons around the entire brain; in order for this to work, clusters had to exceed the size of 250 voxels (Holzel, 2011). In this regard, follow-up tests were then engaged in to text for the significance when compared with the control group and with values taken from the identified clusters for each person were assessed using the Marsbar toolbox (Holzel, 2011). ANOVA was then engaged in for each cluster and with each group so that subjects could win within the factor. Groups were not identical in terms of their age and gender, and thus, these variables were controlled by deeming them as nuisance variables (Holzel, 2011).

Findings of the Study

The researchers found that the participants largely spent an average of 22.6 hours focuses on formal homework exercises over an eight-week course, with the average being 27 minutes each day. The ANOVA measurements largely found that the group-by-time interactions for the three of the five mindfulness subscales manifested as follows: (behaving with awareness: F (1,26) = 16.87, P < 0.001; observing: F (1,26) = 7.09, P = 0.013; non-judging: F (1,26) = 4.61, P = 0.041; describing: F (1,26) = 1.95, P = 0.175; non-reactivity: F (1,26) = 2.79, P = 0.107) (Holzel, 2011). The paired t-tests also validated that there were marked increases within the MBSR group but not within the control group: the MBSR group was able to markedly increase their levels of mindfulness according to the three set scales (Holzel, 2011). In addition to this finding, it was also discovered that there were marked changes in gray matter particularly in the regions of interest in the brain: a small cluster located in the left hippocampus had an increased concentration of gray matter: (the highest voxel MNI coordinates x, y, z: 36, ?34, ?8; t (15) = 6.89; voxel level P = 0.014, were adjusted for several comparisons with the cluster size being k= 30) (Holzel, 2011). Researchers then averaged the total gray matter concentration within the cluster, extracting it for each individual at each specific time point, using a Marsbar toolbox and continuing to analyze the numbers in SPSS:

The averaged gray matter concentration within this cluster was then extracted for each individual at each time-point using the Marsbar toolbox and further analyses were performed in SPSS. More ANOVA measurements were engaged…

The Manifestation and Treatment of Bacterial Meningitis in a Population Essay

Bacterial Meningitis)

Namani, S. A., Koci, R. A., Qehaja-BuAaj, E., Ajazaj-Berisha, L., & Mehmeti, M. (2014). The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Kosovo. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 8(07), 823-830.

The article aims to present bacterial meningitis epidemiologic features presented in Kosovo, a developing country. The epidemiological data in question was analyzed with patient observation and chart review at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo for two years. The methodology also applied active surveillance for ten years for those patients treated with the disease at the Infectious Diseases Clinic in Prishtina. Data analysis was by use of age distribution and the definition given to bacterial meningitis as per WHO’s criteria. The samples were forwarded to a laboratory for reference regarding processing, isolation and identification of pathogens. InStat 3 is the software used for statistical analysis. Qualitative variables were compared using Chi-square test and Fisher’s.

The first study period’s findings were that the cases between 2006 and 2010 decreased and the incidence was 3.0 cases per 100, 000 populations. Fatality rate cases decreased from 10% to 5%. Children also registered lower mortality rates and lower incidences of neurological complications compared to the adults. The pediatric population had bacterial meningitis prevalence and increased in the median age, from three years in 2000 and in 2010 seven years. The last decade registered a steady number of bacterial meningitis. The article provides evidence using case study, and this will be useful when comparing the information with other countries facing the same problem.

Fayyaz, J., Rehman, A., Hamid, A., Khursheed, M., Zia, N. & Feroze, A. (2014). Age-Related Clinical Manifestation of Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Children Presenting Emergency Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Pak Med Assoc., 64(3), 296-9.

The aim of the study is to determine acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) signs and symptoms in the different age groups of a pediatrics population. The patients admitted to Agha Khan University from September 2009 to September 2011 were the retrospective study since they had the relevant diagnosis. Data was collected using case records found in patient files and the variables used were gender, age, clinical signs, and symptoms, presenting complaints, computed tomography scan findings, and final patients’ outcomes. Data analysis used SPSS 19. The sample size was 192 patients out of which 165 presented complaints of fever, 93 vomiting and of this 49 were older than five years. Children with irritability were 54 and of these 27 were below one year. Forty-seven cases presented fits and from this 21 were below one year. Over fifty patients presented signs of stiff necks and meningeal irritation, 26 Kerning’s sign and 18 Brudzincski’s sign and these were common among children above five years. Children with a headache and above five years were 77, and 151 patients needed admission into the wards and yet 40 were in the High Dependency Unit. Six patients showed advanced outcomes of the disease.

The article provides statistics for the problem, and this gives readers a clear picture of the trend the disease is taking regarding spreading. Thereby, will be used by healthcare…

Mencius and Xunzi Both These Term Paper

Mencius thought that virtue was a matter to be developed while Xunzi felt that what was required was not development, but reshaping. The first is like a sprout coming out in a tree whereas the second is like a piece of wood being shaped into an object required by humans. (Chinese Philosophy)

Apart from the argument as to whether goodness comes to man from birth or the state, man should practice goodness according to both the philosophers. In those days, living in a state was for the benefit of the state, and this philosophy certainly benefited the state. The general acceptance among them was also that men could be good if they chose to and it did not matter from where this came – birth or inclination. The difference was in thoughts as to where this morality originated from – Mencius believed that it came from the heart and not through enforcement by the state. According to his beliefs, the inherent quality of any child is to be good and men have only got to carry that forward. On the other hand, Xunzi felt that the state has to control behavior of men and decide what principles needed to be enforced within the state. These are needed for the development and survival of the state, and certainly this viewpoint is more practical. His point can be put as saying that humans have to wait for a teacher before becoming correct in terms of behavior as also for observation of the principles of rituals. This is because of the nature of men being essentially evil. (Xunzi (Hsun Tzu) (310-220 BCE?))

This teacher will be thus a representative of the state, and his teachings are in common interest. The good instincts highlighted by Xunzi are of courtesy in relationships and the ability of controlling one’s own desires and instincts. This has to be pushed ahead by the state, as these are not natural. The knowledge of the rituals of behavior will lead to orderly behavior by men. When men do not understand needed principles, the behavior of individuals will continue to be wild and irresponsible. This happens as he feels that humans are essentially evil, unlike Mencius. At the same time, this explanation is quite close to generative anthropology. It is clear that desire is the main reason for evil nature in men. This is also the view of Xunzi, and when this desire becomes unlimited, and then the state will suffer. This will also act against morality. In the present days, such a person will end up being a criminal. (Plutschow, Xunzi and the Ancient Chinese Philosophical Debate on Human Nature)

At the same time, he believes that the lives of people should be on the basis of natural harmonies and regularities, and this is quite different from both Mencius and neo-Confucians. This behavior is also not against the workings of Heaven, and here should not be efforts to try that. When efforts like that are made, it upsets the balance of the triad and that will lead to trouble. This view can be seen as agreeing with the views of Confucius who agnostic about spirituality and concentrated on humans concentrating their efforts on human matters. (Xunzi and the Confucian answer to Titanism) Thus one can see agreements in the philosophy of the three as also disagreements.

References

Adler, Joseph a. Chinese Religious Traditions. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2002. Chapter 3. Retrieved at http://www2.kenyon.edu/Depts/Religion/Fac/Adler/Reln471/Xunzi.htm. Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Chinese Philosophy. Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568835/Chinese_Philosophy.html. Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Gier, Nicholas F. Xunzi and the Confucian answer to Titanism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy. Vol: 22:2 (1995.06) pp. 129-151. Retrieved at http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-JOCP/gier.htm. Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Mencius (c. 372-289 BCE). Retrieved at http://www.iep.utm.edu/m/mencius.htm. Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Plutschow, Herbert. Xunzi and the Ancient Chinese Philosophical Debate on Human Nature. Anthropoetics. Vol: 8; No. 1; Spring / Summer 2002. Retrieved at http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0801/xunzi.htm. Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Xunzi (Hsun Tzu) (310-220 BCE?). Retrieved at http://www.iep.utm.edu/x/xunzi.htm. Accessed on 10 June, 2005

The Cons of Transgender People Using the Bathroom Essay

Although discriminating against transgender people creates detrimental psychological and social outcomes, there are important reasons to disallow transgender people from using any bathroom they would like. For one, there are legal and ethical reasons why transgender people should use the bathroom that corresponds with their birth sex. Transgender people are no better than anyone else, and no more deserving of special rights and privileges. If a transgender person is allowed to use any bathroom, then every person would be entitled to the same right. Transgenders should not use the opposite sex bathroom as it would cause chaos and mass invasions of the privacy of ordinary people. For example, men would readily walk into the female washrooms and cause disturbances or even practice predatory behavior. Second, transgender people may be in transition. During the time of transition, the person’s gender will not be immediately apparent, and the person’s gender identity is too malleable to entitle the person to use any bathroom other than the one their birth biology dictated. Finally and most importantly, transgender people create unsafe bathroom environments. Not only can transgender people endanger others; they are also confused and might make the other people in the bathroom uncomfortable by their presence. The majority of people are not transgender, and there is no reason why the majority of people should be uncomfortable to accommodate for the minority. Therefore, transgender people should not be able to use whatever bathroom they prefer.

The first reason why transgender people should not use whatever bathroom they want is legal. If a bathroom is located on private property, the owner of that property has the right to say who can and cannot use the facility. When a bathroom is located on public property, the people using it are all considered equal under the law. The law does not protect transgender people any more than it protects anyone else. In the United States, the Department of Education and the Department of Justice both tried to use their federal powers to override the law. These government organizations invoked Title IX, which prevents gender discrimination in public schools. However, many states cleverly noted that applying Title IX to transgender people constituted “federal overreach that threatened the safety and privacy of non-transgender students,” (Karimi & Grinberg, 2017, p. 1). Christian groups like the Family Research Council may also have a stronger legal case to make versus groups that protect the rights of transgender individuals (Karimi & Grinberg, 2017). Transgender people are subject to the same laws as everyone else, and should not be allowed to use whatever bathroom they want unless everyone else is afforded the same right. Few people would want men to use the women’s restrooms or women to use the men’s restrooms. Therefore, transgender people should not be allowed to use whatever bathroom they want to use.

If transgender people used whatever bathroom they wanted, then it would create a slippery slope leading to gender normative people using any bathroom they wanted. Gender normative people would often claim that they are transgender and would use whatever bathroom they wanted, thus creating unsafe public bathrooms. It makes no difference that, as Grinberg & Stewart (2017) point out, transgender people are frequently assaulted in public washrooms that do not match the person’s gender identity. If transgender people do not want to be assaulted in the bathroom, they need to simply not be transgender. Being transgender is a choice, not a right. Besides, just because 70% of transgender people have been verbally or physically abused when using public washrooms does not mean that they have the right to abuse others with their presence (Grinberg & Stewart, 2017). Transgender people can be considered mentally ill, because the condition entails “dysphoria and depression,” (Schmidt, 2013, p. 158). Given this, transgender people need therapy and not the right to use any bathroom they want. In Doe v. Regional School Unit, the Maine Supreme Court held that “a transgender girl had a right to use the women’s restroom at school because her psychological wellbeing and educational success depended on her transition,” (LAMBDA Legal, 2017). Unfortunately, the law is incorrect. The psychological wellbeing of other people should take precedence over that of transgender people, who are in the minority.

Transgender people may be in transition, their genders too ambiguous to enable or entitle them to use whatever bathroom they want. Although many transgender people appear clearly masculine or feminine, many do not. Very few transgender people have gender reassignment surgeries, also known as gender-affirming surgery, “whether because of cost, personal beliefs, concern about surgical risks or the limitations of available procedures,” (LAMBDA Legal, 2017). Because…

Violence and Death in Slaughterhouse Term Paper

This idea appears repeatedly. When Billy proposes marriage to Valencia:

Billy didn’t want to marry ugly Valencia. She was one of the symptoms of his disease. He knew he was going crazy when he heard himself proposing marriage to her, when he begged her to take the diamond ring and be his companion for life, (ibid p.107).

However, he was trapped in his life, for better or worse, such as the fact that Billy knew when he would be killed, yet didn’t try to do anything about it. His death is compared with mankind’s fate.

At one point Billy discusses the problem of war with the Tralfamadorians (p.117). They tell him that war is inevitable and he is stupid to try to change it. Humanity is trapped in his human nature, to create war and wreak death. Some people want peace, but they are naive and are unaware of human nature. Humans are aware of their nature, but is helpless to do anything about it, being “stuck in amber.”

There are few characters in this story, and almost no dramatic confrontations, because most of the people in it are sick and the unwitting ploys of violent forces (Vonnegut 1969 p.164).

Vonnegut explains that there are no soldiers. There are only men, but never soldiers. A soldier is not a human being, whereas a man is. Vonnegut expresses this most obviously when he tells about the time Billy was imprisoned in Dresden:

When the three fools found the communal kitchen, whose main job was to make lunch for workers in the slaughterhouse, everybody had gone home but one woman who had been waiting for them impatiently. She was a war widow. So it goes. She had her hat and coat on. She wanted to go home, too, even though there wasn’t anybody there. Her white gloves were laid out side by side on the zinc counter top. She had two big cans of soup for the Americans. It was simmering over low fires on the gas range. She had stacks of loaves of black bread, too. She asked Gluck if he wasn’t awfully young to be in the army. He admitted that he was. She asked Edgar Derby if he wasn’t awfully old to be in the army. He said he was. She asked Billy Pilgrim what he was supposed to be. Billy said he didn’t know. He was just trying to keep warm.

All the real soldiers are dead,’ she said. It was true. So it goes, (Vonnegut 1969 p.159).

Vonnegut realizes that a soldier is not human and therefore he cannot exist. Humans have emotions and a soldier must not. Stanley Schatt explains in his review of Slaughterhouse Five: “Vonnegut opposes any institution, be it scientific, religious, or political, that dehumanizes man and considers him a mere number and not a human being,” (Riley 1973 p.348).

In the book, violent death is inevitable and that no matter who dies, life still goes on. The phrase “So it goes” recurs one hundred and six times. It memorializes the deaths and allows the book and Vonnegut’s narration to go on.

When a Tralfamadorian sees a corpse, all he thinks is that the dead person is in bad condition in the particular moment, but that the same person is just fine in plenty of other moments. Now, when I myself hear that somebody is dead, I simply shrug and say what the Tralfamadorians say about dead people, which is ‘So it goes,’ (ibid p.27).

Death and violence are those things in Vonnegut’s novel that must recur and recur in people’s lives, as long as there is war. His book keeps on repeating and repeating the theme of the stupidity and uselessness of violence, war and thus death:

And Lot’s wife, of course, was told not to look back where all those people and their homes had been. But she did look back, and I love her for that, because it was so human. So she was turned to a pillar of salt. So it goes, (Vonnegut 1969 p.21-22).

There is much absurd violence in this story, but it is scaled down to the size of an ordinary man’s world, making it more unbearable and more necessary to understand the Vonnegut’s explanation.

Works Cited

Brifonski and Mendelson (Eds). Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.8. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1978.

Riley, Carolyn (Editor); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.1. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1973.

Riley, Carolyn and Barbara Harte (Editors); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.2. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1974.

Vit, Marek. “The Themes of Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse Five.” Kurt Vonnegut Corner. http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/4953/themes.html.<

Vonnegut, Kurt Jr.; Slaughterhouse-Five; or Children’s Crusade, a Duty Dance with Death. New York: Dell Publishing. 1971

Operations Management in the United Arab Emirates Essay

Operations Management in the United Arab Emirates

The orchestration of resources, systems and processes across an enterprise to consistently deliver high-quality products that are profitable is the catalyst of Operations Management (OM). One of the most multi-disciplinary and multifaceted disciplines of management science, OM encompasses the new product development and introduction (NPDI) processes, supply chain systems and procedures and their orchestration to delivering profitable, high quality products (Fisher, 2007). When enterprises choose to orchestrate their demand, supply and product systems together, OM concepts, frameworks and taxonomies are used as the galvanizing these diverse systems together to a unified strategy. Orchestrating demand, supply and product systems together is what often differentiates market leaders in industries relative to competitors struggling to retain customers and market share. There are many factors why this is the case, yet at a very fundamental level, the market leading enterprises in each industry have learned how to use OM techniques to compensate for significant time differences between demand, supply and product systems (Holmstrom, Framling, Ala-Risku, 2010). This ability to manage the varying cost, time and resource requirements of the demand, and supply and product systems of a business over time becomes reflexive and part of the broader knowledgebase of an enterprise. OM and its contributions to long-term knowledge and reflexive memory of an enterprises’ assumption base and culture drive long-term change in performance over time (Banker, Khosla, 1995). Theorists argue that OM is then the basis of organizational learning and lasting process, productivity and profitability gains (Holmstrom, Framling, Ala-Risku, 2010). The role of OM was orchestrator is just the beginning of the long-term change that occurs in enterprises over time. The lasting change is in being able to accelerate supply chain coordination, collaboration and planning while managing the demand, supply and product systems of a business in the midst of economic and pricing turbulence and market uncertainty, all the while attaining a profit (Geoffrion, 2002). Enterprises who have the most effective OM systems and corresponding results have been able to closely orchestrate them to market demand as well, while having the ability to stay agile and able to quickly respond over time (Banker, Khosla, 1995). Agility is as much of an attribute of change management as is the ability to manage the widely varying time requirements of the demand, supply and product systems that in large part determine how effective a given enterprise will be in managing its production strategies to profit (Fisher, 2007). The intent of this essay is to introduce and define the concept of OM, outlining the important of the OM function and defining the role of the OM manager. In addition, the role and value of OM in the United Arab Emirates is assessed. The UAE’s economy is dominated by industry and manufacturing, with 56% of GDP from this sector. The UAE faces a productivity paradox as it relates to industry or manufacturing however. With industry or manufacturing being the dominant source of GDP growth and only 15% of the workforce engaged in this sector of the economy, the need for extensive OM expertise is clear. These figures comes from the latest pages posted on the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Factbook website accessible at the following URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html. OM is a strategic skill set to the UAE, and must be continually improved to ensure national economic competitiveness and further contribute to GDP growth.

Defining Operations Management

Requiring the close coordination and synchronization of each functional area of an enterprises’ value chain, OM galvanizes the diverse functions of fulfillment, production, supply chain, sourcing and procurement to deliver profitable and high quality products. OM is predicated on management science techniques that are used for quantifying the performance of processes and continually improving them over time. Implicit in the definition of OM is the reliance on advanced management science techniques to continually streamline and improve business operations while at the same time ensuring the core process areas of the company stay customer-focused (Geoffrion, 2002).

The reliance on management techniques is also predicated on the need to oversee each aspect of management, surpassing the traditional planning, organizing, leading and controlling framework to encompass more agility and responsiveness to market requirements than traditional, hierarchical management structures require (Fuller, Mansour, 2003).

Moving beyond OM as a tactical framework to a strategic taxonomy and foundation for enterprise growth, the highest performing enterprises in their specific industries have successfully used OM techniques to change their cultures as well. The reliance on metrics and the intuitive, often unquantifiable aspects of organizational performance seen in aggregate over time in cultures is what differentiates OM-based strategies that deliver long-term results (Holmstrom, Framling, Ala-Risku, 2010). Analytics and metrics provide a foundation for measuring the performance of value chains, yet the continual fine-turning and development of effective e, agile strategies for staying aligned to customer requirements needs to be predicated on OM techniques if they are going to succeed (Fisher, 2007). Efficiencies and measures of performance define tactics, yet the overarching strategic plan of a business, especially in manufacturing, must be architected to allow for process, product and supply chain resiliency over time (Banker, Khosla, 1995). Only then can an organization get the most value possible out of an OM-based strategy. Over time these aspects of performance and reactions to market conditions become part of the organizational memory and reflex of a culture, and often processes, systems and programs get defined and implemented in response to market threats and opportunities. It is estimated that a minority of manufacturers today have attained a level of enterprise integration that ensures agility to external threats and opportunities while at the same time serving as a catalyst of organizational learning. This dichotomy is evident in the relative level of maturity manufacturing companies have globally in their adoption of OM. The top 10% of firms have the ability orchestrate demand responses, starting from their supply chains and proceeding through sourcing, logistics, manufacturing, and fulfillment and in high value, rapid production businesses, postponement as a supply chain strategy (Geoffrion, 2002). Examples of this include high tech electronics and the production of microprocessors and highly integrated electronics. The top manufacturing firms concentrate on creating demand driven value networks that seek to orchestrate the three potentially conflicting systems of demand, supply and product, all aligned to unique customer requirements (Holmstrom, Framling, Ala-Risku, 2010). All of these factors taken together are what differentiate the level of maturity in one enterprise relative to another, and underscore how critical the integration of tactical factors including development, production, factory manufacturing, maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) and continual production control are (Banker, Khosla, 1995).

Engraining the advantages of OM into a corporation also requires the most elusive and challenging aspect of any strategic change in how a business operates, and that is change management. Getting those most affected by the change in operations, processes will make or break any OM initiative (Fisher, 2007). It is often the relationships and trust people have with each other and their willingness to share information across the demand, supply and product systems, all running at different speeds, that determines the success or failure of an OM initiative. The challenge is to create a culture of trust and clarity of roles and responsibilities to further reduce resistance to change, mistrust and fear (Fisher, 2007). Change management is not a science, it defies quantification and categorization, and cannot be summarized into an equation. Instead, change management of OM initiatives and programs must begin with a transformational leader (Geoffrion, 2002). This is the single biggest criterion for success of any OM program and has continually proven to be the catalyst that ensures OM programs success. Change management strategies need to take into account the unique process, product and system requirements of an enterprise while orchestrating demand, supply and product systems to a strategic vision or goal. OM acts as the orchestration point of these strategies, ensuring manufacturing, production and operations systems all are unified to a common series of analytics and metrics (Fuller, Mansour, 2003). What is most critical about OM is that it must unify the shop floor to the top floor of an organization’s management reporting and ongoing strategic initiatives (Geoffrion, 2002). Change management is what creates the catalyst for cultural change that OM-based initiatives and programs make possible based on programs aimed at continual improvement (Geoffrion, 2002). Studies indicate that transformational leaders are most effective in leading significant, vision-driven change, while transactional leaders typically are better at incremental, continual shifts in strategy over time that are short-term in nature (Banker, Khosla, 1995). For OM-based initiatives and programs to succeed including those that are exceptionally difficult that include creating demand driven value networks, the CEO as transformational leader becomes a necessity (Fisher, 2007) (Fuller, Mansour, 2003). Not all CEOs have transformational leadership skill sets however which makes the attainment of complex OM-based initiatives even more difficult. It is the orchestration of the myriad of systems, processes and procedures of the demand, supply and product systems areas of a business that yield the…

Social Cognition Term Paper

Rationality

Humans are lousy at thinking.

Except, of course, that we’re not. But it is true that humans are relatively bad at purely rational thinking. This should not perhaps be surprising to us: We are not, after all, computers, which are far better than are humans at making rational decisions and providing rational calculations about situations. This is not entirely a bad thing: Humans have apparently (though the process of evolution) sacrificed the ability to make perfectly rational calculations for the ability to excel at what those who are trying to teach computers to think like humans call fuzzy thinking. We are good, for example, at being able to read another person’s internal emotional state by the tilt of their eyebrows but we are relatively bad at calculating the odds of whether to take another card in blackjack – to the unending enrichment of the Las Vegas casinos.

However, while there do seem to be trade-offs for not being as skilled at rational thought as we might like to think that we are, this does not mean that we should not attempt to understand in a systematic way how it is that humans tend to make mistakes in their rational calculations so that (if we choose) we can act more naturally than is typical (or arguably natural) of humans. This paper examines two of the systematic mistakes that humans tend to make when they make decisions that they are likely to consider to be rational: The mistakes (or inclinations) toward both pessimistic and optimistic biases.

Although one might suspect that humans would be inclined to err in one direction or the other in a systematic way (i.e. To guess on a regular basis that their chances are better than they actually are or to guess on a regular basis that their chances are worse than they actually are), individuals are in fact likely to make faulty decisions in both directions, although in different circumstances. For example, humans are far more likely than is justified by reality to believe that they are likely to be affected by misfortune.

This is in part because people are likely to overestimate the likelihood of events that are in fact quite rare. If you were to take a survey of people walking down the sidewalk on a typical New York street, for example, a number of those people would be likely to report that they are afraid of dying in a terrorist attack. This is, of course, not irrational per se, but even in our post 9/11 world an individual is far more likely to die of cancer or heart disease than they are in a terrorist attack. And yet while heart disease is relatively avoidable (one can certainly significantly reduce one’s chance of heart disease by eating well, exercising sensibly, lowering the fat in one’s diet, etc.) most individuals do not act to do so – in some part at least because they are too busy worrying about the rare likelihood of a terrorist attack rather than getting their cholesterol checked.

This phenomenon is summarized below:

People overestimate the frequency of infrequent events and underestimate frequent ones.

Many people are more afraid of dying in an act of terrorism than they are of dying in an auto accident, despite the fact that they are MUCH more likely to die in an auto accident (http://www.math.byu.edu/~jarvis/gambling/gambling-fallacies.html).

This can be seen to be a mistake (in terms of purely rational assessment of a situation along the lines of mathematical probability) that includes bias both toward the positive and the negative. Even as people are more inclined than they should be to believe that something terrible and rare will happen to them they are at the same time inclined to a sort of irrational optimism in which they believe that they are likely to escape unfortunate (and even lethal) occurrences that are in fact quite common.

Another way of summarizing this is suggested in the following example (or perhaps we might better see it as a parable):

If you were told that you have a one in fourteen million chance of getting cancer in the next seven days people will say ‘oh well it is obviously not going to happen to me it is so infinitesimal’ but the fact that there is a one in fourteen million chance of winning the lottery people think ‘yes, it’s got to be someone why can’t it be me'” (http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/sci_tech/features/figure_it_out/lottery.shtml).

Humans are also inclined to commit what logicians and mathematicians refer to as the “availability error” (this is especially true in gambling). This is the tendency “to focus only on good, unusual, or easily remembered experiences” rather than remembering more common, but less interesting or fortunate events (http://www.math.byu.edu/~jarvis/gambling/gambling-fallacies.html).In other words, we are likely to remember (in a fit of optimistic irrationality) that someone bought a winning lottery ticket at the very same grocery store where we ourselves buy the odd ticket than to acknowledge that thousands of people have bought losing tickets at this same store.

Part of the irrationality in the kinds of assessments that we have been discussing may well reflect a simple lack of mathematical skills. In other words, no small part of the reason that people tend to make irrational decisions arises from their mathematical shortcomings. (This is not to say that it does not reflect a tendency toward the irrational in human thought; it might well be argued that people’s essential lack of skill in mathematical ability is either the cause of or in fact the same as our inability to excel at rational decision-making processes.

In a recent survey 21% of people thought that if they put the same numbers on to the lottery for the rest of their lives that they would have a chance of winning. The reality is they would have to put the same numbers on 135-000 years before they would have an evens chance of winning.

People really don’t understand what it means to have a one-in-a-14-million chance. People have no idea how big 14 million is.” (http://www.math.byu.edu/~jarvis/gambling/gambling-fallacies.html).

A tendency to drastically underestimate the frequency of coincidences is a prime characteristic of what researchers call innumerates, who generally accord great significance to correspondences of all sorts while attributing too little significance to quite a conclusive but less flashy statistical evidence (Paulos, 2001, p. 35).

Another way of saying this is that coincidence is far more common than we tend to think that it is, and while it is perfectly acceptable for us to find amusement or pleasure in such coincidences, we should not read into them any mystical or grand meaning. (In the same way we may be enchanted by the color and fragrance of an apple blossom while crediting both hue and scent to the mechanistic demands of evolution rather than the whim of the gods. There is no reason at all that rationality and an appreciation of pleasure cannot go hand in hand.)

Much of the tendency either to overestimate bad possible outcomes (i.e. To have a bias toward a negative irrationality) or the tendency to overestimate good possible outcomes (i.e. To have a bias toward a positive irrationality) arises in large measure from people’s inability to understand (or to create for themselves) a fair sample of a larger population. One of the strengths of human intelligence (an in many ways this serves us very well) is our ability to generalize from a few examples of an entire class to the entire class.

This ability has clear evolutionary advantages. Say, for example, that an early human has seen one or two bear attacks on other humans. Shortly after the second attack, that human sees a bear ambling toward her from some distance away. Basing her reaction on only two previous encounters with bears, this human decides to run as fast as possible in the opposite direction. This is a choice with a number of clear evolutionary advantages (not being eaten is a good way to pass on your genes to the next generation).

It might well be, of course, in this particular case, that our proto-human has made an error: This bear might not in fact be hungry at all, having already recently dined on someone from the next set of caves. Thus the human in this case would in fact be guilty of making an irrational calculation weighted toward the negative. But how many of us in the same situation would not also make this same calculation – given the possible outcome if we were to assume otherwise?

Here is a summary of this human (pragmatic if not strictly rational) tendency to generalize:

While we sometimes learn general principles by being told about them, it is certainly an essential part of human learning for us to form generalizations by observing what goes on around us. We don’t have to be told peaches have pits if we have eaten a lot of them and found a pit in every one. The basketball coach evaluating a new player can decide…