Archive July 2019

Nursing Changing Health Care the Term Paper

Some of the most pressing problems in the world today are global health care needs. There are so many different health issues facing the world, from HIV / AIDS to tuberculosis and malaria in many third-world countries. We can wipe out these diseases in modern times, but because of living conditions and limited resources, they continue to reappear and take lives. Education is one way to eliminate some of these issues, but nursing is another way to address and improve global health care needs. For example, many children die of malnutrition and dysentery every year, even in these modern times. Nurses in the field could not only assess these children and help them get the care they need, when they need it, they could educate families and other health care workers, as well. They could even help countries develop programs to address these issues, as well. They could help countries develop health care reforms, as well, and develop immunization programs and other health care ideas that could help eliminate these diseases from the world.

We have to think about the global implications of the future of health care, because it is such an important issue as the global population continues to increase. More people are going to need health care than ever before, and that means we will need to educate more health care professionals than ever before, and many of them will need to have the desire to serve in health care arenas around the world. While I think Americans will live longer, healthier lives in the future, there are many other populations that will not enjoy this healthier lifestyle. I think health care professionals will begin to take more responsibility for the global condition in the future, and lead the way in training and organizing health care programs that can make a difference in many different countries of the world. There are many organizations that do that now, and I think they will proliferate in the future. At least, I hope they will, for the future of children and the eradication of diseases on the planet.

What qualities do you believe you possess that will enable you to perform student and later as a practicing Nurse?

I think that I am hard working, diligent, and extremely interested in my profession, which will all help me perform as a student and in my career as a nurse. I am also compassionate and empathetic, which will aid me in understanding my patient’s needs and concerns. I think I am a good communicator, and that is a necessity when entering the nursing profession. I also think that I pick up things quickly, and that I am alert and detail-oriented, which are also important factors in nursing.

I think one of the most important qualities a nurse should have is a quest for knowledge and a genuine interest in the health care field, and I possess those things, as well. I have always enjoyed learning new things, and I have always been fascinated with medicine and health care. I think I always knew I wanted to be a nurse, because I want to help people and make a difference in their lives. I know there are many downsides to nursing, such as losing patients you have come to care about, and seeing suffering day after day. However, I think I am strong enough to handle these stresses and still maintain a professional, but caring attitude toward my patients.

A also believe that there are many changes coming in health care, and I want to be there when they occur. I want to be part of those changes, help implement them, learn from them, and help patients and their families with them. I think this is a very exciting time to be pursuing a career in health care, because there are so many changes and opportunities coming in the future. I want to be there, learn from them, and take them to new levels. I hope someday to move into an administrative role in health care, and I look forward to helping others while I enjoy an interesting, varied, and service-oriented…

Prostitution With a Specific Focus on the Essay

prostitution with a specific focus on the Nevada prostitution situation. We mainly focus on the reasons as to why prostitution was illegalized, the public health concerns regarding prostitution, prostitution and STDs and STIs, the development of laws regarding prostitution, prostitutes and STD’s, why prostitution is legal in Nevada, the use of body for sex as well as whether Illegal prostitution lowers STD’s, AIDS, HIV. Also discussed is how illegalizing/legalizing prostitution helps in the creation of body integrity if incase such a thing is practical.

In the state of Nevada is noted by Levenkron (2007) to have developed during the 19th century during the period of Gold Rush. During this time, the population was disproportionately male. As a result of the dearth of women, the availability of prostitutes and engagement in prostitution was considered to be a vital commodity. The residents of the state soon developed a tolerant attitude to the engagement in prostitution. During the later half of the 19th century, several provisions were introduced in order to restrict the operations of the brothels. These restrictions included the minimum distance of the brothels from schools and churches for instance. The tolerant attitude is noted to have been caused by the fact that prostitution worked well with tourism and gambling, the two main economic basis of the region other than agriculture and querying.

It is worth noting that originally, the Casino owners in Nevada were opposed the presence and operation of the brothels. They argued that the brothels would give Nevada a bad reputation and even deter tourists. The casino owners even organized a lobby group to campaign for the ultimate closure of the brothels. The lobby Group then managed in 1971 to secure a legislation that ultimately prohibited the granting of licenses to brothels in various countries whose population of over 250,000 inhabitants (Levenkron,2007). The interpretation of this law was done inversely because it implicitly permitted smaller counties to operate brothels.

In 1978, Nevada’s Supreme Court confirmed this specific interpretation even thoughb it defined brothels as a form of nuisance

A telephone survey carried out later in 1986 indicated that 66% of the respondents in northern Nevada had a belief that the residents of each county should be at liberty to decide if they want or they don’t want brothels to be permitted. A referendum carried out in 2002 however revealed that only a single county favored the amendment of the existing legislation of prostitution and brothels

.At the moment, there are a total of thirty six legal brothels in Nevada

The background of legalization of brothels in Nevada

According to Levenkron (2007), the legalization of prostitution Nevada can be seen or regarded as a direct result of the prostitution that took place in the area when the first settlers arrived in that region. There was a perception that prostitution is an important element of the local history, an act that led to the development of more tolerant approaches to the issue. Brothels form part of the Nevada folklore. Legalization was viewed as a process that would enable the supervision and control of the industry and prevents organized criminals from gaining control of the industry.

Prostitution was illegalized for various reasons. The reasons are however mainly pegged on morality and public health concerns

.In this essay we discuss the issue of prostitution with a specific focus on the Nevada prostitution situation. We mainly focus on the reasons as to why prostitution was illegalized, the public health concerns regarding prostitution, prostitution and STDs and STIs, the development of laws regarding prostitution, prostitutes and STD’s, why prostitution is legal in Nevada, the use of body for sex as well as whether Illegal prostitution lowers STD’s, AIDS, HIV.Also discussed is how illegalizing/legalizing prostitution helps in the creation of body integrity if incase such a thing is practical.

Legalization or the decriminalization of prostitution is noted to amount to the sanctioning of various aspects of the sex industry. The concept of legalizing/decriminalizing of the sex industry involves the conversion of brothels, massage parlors, sex clubs as well as other sites used in prostitution activities into completely legitimate venues in which commercial sexual acts are inherently allowed to legally flourish with minimal restraint. Individuals believe that in legalizing or decriminalizing prostitution, these individuals/governments are indeed dignifying as well as professionalizing the players in the prostitution industry. Raymond (2003) notes that in actual sense, the process or act of legalizing or decriminalizing prostitution does not dignity women. What is dignified is the sex industry as a whole.

The second reason as to why prostitution has not been legalized in Nevada is because it promotes sex trafficking. Decriminalized or legalized prostitution industry is noted to be one of the main causes of sex trafficking. One of the arguments that are advanced for the legalization of prostitution in places like Nevada and Netherlands is that it would help in ending the exploitation of the desperate illegal immigrant women who are often trafficked for use in prostitution. A report by Budapest Group (1999,p.11) indicated that 80% of all the women in the Netherland’s brothels are sourced or trafficked from other nations. Earlier on, a report by the International Organization of Migration (IOM) clearly indicated that in Netherlands, close to 70% of all of trafficked women were sourced from the Central and Eastern European Countries (IOM, 1995,p.4).Countries like Netherlands are noted to promote themselves as champions of the anti-trafficking policies and yet they are the same ones who remove various legal impediments to acts of pimping, prostitution as well as brothels.According to Bureau NRM (2002,p.75) within a year since the Netherlands government lifted a ban on brothels, there was an increase in the number of sex trafficking victims. The German government effectively recognized prostitution as a legitimate job in 2002. The promotion of prostitution, brothels as well as pimping is fully legal in Germany. However a study by an NGO indicated that as early as 1993, close to 75% of all the women in the Germany sex industry were from other countries like Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay as well as other South American countries as noted by Altink (1993,p.33).After the Berlin wall fell, most brothel owners reported that nine out of ten women in the German prostitution circuit were from Eastern Europe

Most non-governmental organizations reported that most of these foreign women could not have entered the German territory without some form of facilitation. It is therefore obvious that most of these prostitutes were trafficked from other nations since it is impossible for these por women to successfully facilitate their own journey/migration, underwrite their cost of travel as well as travel documents as well as set up their business without some form of external help.

The third reason as to why prostitution has been illegalized in Nevada is because legalization or decriminalization of prostitution does not in any way help in controlling the sex industry. It actually helps in expanding it. This argument was advanced by Raymond (2003) when she noted that contrary to the usual claims that legalization or decriminalization of prostitution would help in regulating the expansion of the vice and then subsequently bring in under control, prostitution in actual sense accounts for 5% of the Netherlands’ economy as noted in Daley (2001,p.4). In Nevada it is estimated that prostitution to have an impact of close to $400 million on Nevada’s economy (Ramirez,2008). Daley (2004,p.4) noted that over the years as pimping became completely legal and brothels became decriminalized in countries like Netherlands, the sex industry expanded by close to 25%. In these countries and states, women are displayed on windows while dressed scantily and then offered for sale as mere commodities for the meal consumption. It is worth noting that most of these women are from other nations and are most likely victims of human/sex trafficking as noted by Daley (2001,p.4).There are several officially recognized organization and associations of sex traders/brothel owners such as Nevada Brothel Owners’ Association who consult as well as collaborate with the various governments in order to further their interests as well as promote prostitutions within their areas of jurisdiction. In Netherlands and other destinations, there are other associations like the Cooperating Consultation of Operators of Window Prostitution, the Association of Operators of Relaxation Businesses as well as the Man/Woman and Prostitution Foundation which is a lobby group of men who frequently use women in the sex industry and whose main agenda is to make prostitution s well as the use of the prostitutes’ services a more acceptable and openly discussible phenomenon. Their main aim is however to protect the interest of the clients as noted by NRM Bureau (2002, p.115).Some countries such as Germany have noted the death of women who want to work in the legal prostitution sector. They have therefore come up with ways of marketing these women in order to allow them a legal and yet controlled access to their markets as noted by the Bureau NRM (2002,p.140).

The legalization of commercial sex in the State of Victoria…

History of the Fox Wars Term Paper

Louvigny returned to Quebec and was considered by Canadians to have ended the first Fox War. He returned to the area in 1717 to continue the policing of the Meskwaki forces, yet made little progress in making contact or forcing the provisions of the previous treaty. In later communication with the government, Meskwaki chiefs expressed their own desire for peace. During the period between 1714 and 1727, the French were able to reopen waterways and move freely throughout the areas previously hindered by the danger of Indian encounters. However, other communications between the French and the American Indians were failing. Among these, the greatest failure was the inability of the French to include the Indian groups in the agricultural settlements they had attempted, including the one at Detroit.

Though the city groups of Indians and white men did not last, the area remained secure enough for the French and Americans to successfully establish posts at all key portage and waterway routes. These routes included the paths connecting the Great Lakes with the Mississippi valley, the Maumee portage, the St. Joseph River portage, and the Illinois portage. Additionally the French post at Fort Howard was built and was maintained until the fall of the French in the Americas. A 1726 council at Lignery between the French and Meskwaki had concluded peace between the groups. Further, the French promised the Meskwaki a post and commandment. This never materialized, and the French’s expansion into the northwest was slowing.

However, by the mid-1720s the Meskwaki were causing difficulties for French expeditions again, hindering the fur trade and threatening French stability. French reports indicate that the Meskwaki were planning to expel the French entirely from their area of Wisconsin. Meskwaki chief Kiala rallied many groups of Native Americans together for this purpose, including tribes as far away as the Iroquois, the Oto and the Sioux. In 1727, Meskwaki forces killed a French lieutenant and seven other soldiers who were traveling up the Missouri River from Fort de Chartres. France considered the killings an act of war and began the second of the Fox Wars with the goal of eliminating all opposing Meskwaki forces.

Canada’s new governor-general, the Marquis de Beauharnois, replaced Vaudreuil in 1727. Inexperienced in Indian affairs, Beauharnois opposed the warnings of his advisors and sent a force of 400 French and 800 Indians into Wisconsin in August of 1728. The force was led by Lignery and was able to recruit 300 more men at Mackinac. Traveling across Green Bay and arriving at the French fort at night, Lignery’s plan was to surprise the Meskwaki. However, Lignery’s forces were too large to remain hidden and a Potawatomi chief who was acting as a double agent reported his whereabouts to the Meskwaki. Lignery traveled up the Fox River and found the area to be nearly deserted. From the few people left behind, Lignery learned that the Meskwaki had fled and assembled a fort further up river. Further, he learned that the women, children, and elderly were retreating by canoe while the men followed along the river by foot. Lignery followed along the Fox River until it met with the Wolf, but did not go farther. Lignery reportedly had many excuses for why he was unable to find and attack the Meskwaki, and instead burned the crops and cabins he found in an attempt to force starvation on the tribe.

The consequences of Lignery’s failure in 1728 were devastating to French interests in the area. French groups in area forts and trading posts felt threatened when they realized their position between the Meskwaki and their allies, the Sioux. Among these was a group of about twenty soldiers and twenty traders at Fort Beauharnois. Some traders refused to leave their goods and stayed in the fort, while the others attempted to canoe down the Mississippi toward safety. The group was intercepted near the mouth of the Wisconsin River by a group of Mascouten and Kickapoo Indians. The Mascouten and Kickapoo were Meskwaki allies and captured the party, most likely with the intent of turning them over to the Meskwaki. However, a faction of the group escaped and the others succeeded, after being kept over the winter of 1728-1729, in convincing the Indians to let them go. They further convinced the Indians to break their alliance with the Meskwaki and instead align themselves with the Illinois.

The loss of allied tribes to the enemy greatly affected the strength of the Meskwaki. Those who stayed behind in Fort Beauharnois were able to defend it. The Winnebago, who had previously been attacked by the French with considerable losses, did not seek revenge or have interest in attacking the French with the Meskwaki. Using the newfound peace with many of the tribes in the area, Governor Beauharnois called upon the allied forces to wipe out the Meskwaki completely. The call was made from Montreal in the summer of 1729. By October, attacks had begun on the Meskwaki by many tribes who were aided and supplied by the French. Nearly three hundred Meskwaki, more than half women and children, were killed by an Ottawa and Chippewa hunting party in October 1729. The Meskwaki appealed to the Sioux to assist them in traveling to Montreal to ask for a peace agreement. However, the Meskwaki and Sioux decided against this measure, fearing that it would be unwise to put themselves in the hands of their enemies.

Beauharnois chose Paul de la Marque Sieur Marin to lead an expedition to suppress the Meskwaki. Marin and his forces left Montreal in the summer of 1729 and wintered over in a deserted fort near the Menominee village. He first encountered Meskwaki people in the spring, near Little Lake Butte des Morts. After five days of fighting the Meskwaki were successful in escaping during the night and eluding capture or defeat by Marin. Having lost all of their allies and left with few resources in their home area, the Meskwaki took an offer from the Iroquois to seek refuge outside of Wisconsin. In the summer of 1730 they set off for Lake Ontario, traveling through southern Wisconsin and along the Illinois River. They had plans to meet with allies in the Ouiatanon tribe near Lafayette, Indiana. However, their travel was also reported to the French by the Meskwaki’s former allies, the Mascouten and the Kickapoo. The French threatened the Iroquois for offering refuge to the Meskwaki. Meanwhile, St. Ange of Peoria, Illinois gathered a force of French and Indian warriors and pursued the Meskwaki.

When the Meskwaki found that they were being pursued and surrounded they assembled a fort between the Illinois and the Wabash forces. St. Ange’s forces attacked first, followed by Villiers and then a force from Fort Vincennes. The Meskwaki defended their fort for twenty-three days despite the fact that they were outnumbered and blocked in. Tunnels from their fort to a nearby stream allowed them water from inside. Additionally, some of the attacking forces sympathized with them and secretly aided them with food and water. The siege came to an end on September 9, 1730 when the Meskwaki made an escape attempt. Due to stormy weather, the French and Indian forces did not have a guard watching, and the Meskwaki slipped out during the night. However, the crying of their children alerted the forces to their attempt and they were soon overtaken and slaughtered on the Illinois prairies. Four to six hundred Meskwaki were killed, with half of those being women or children. More than four hundred were captured and split up among the attacking parties. Thos that were not tortured and killed were likely transported as into Canada as slaves. Some Meskwaki also fled and so escaped back to Wisconsin.

The French declared victory against the Meskwaki after the 1730 killing on the Illinois plains. The remaining Meskwaki attempted to rebuild a small community on the Wisconsin River. However, they were victim to continual attacks from those tribes that still allied with the French. The few Meskwaki chiefs who remained had bargained for peace with France in Montreal. Though they had agreed on a peace settlement, Beauharnois did not believe that they would keep the peace and so opted to break it first. He designed for a war party of Indian forces to attack the Meskwaki village in the middle of winter 1730-1731. Though they put up great defenses, three hundred Meskwaki were killed or captured on the bank of the Wisconsin. Again, a small faction of the attacked Meskwaki escaped, this time to the Mississippi.

Small encounters continued, with remaining Meskwaki attacked by wither Indian or French forces wherever they were found in hiding. In the fall of 1752, fifty Meskwaki succeeded in defending themselves from a group of Hurons, Ottawa, and Potawatomi from Detroit. They succeeded by entrenching themselves in a fort near the Fox River in Illinois. By 1733, the continued attacks wore down on the Meskwaki so greatly that chief Kiala and three other…

Maggie and Race in Recitatif Essay

Memories are what define a person. They are the bits of past and time that stick even after the passing of several years. Twyla and Roberta share a memory of a racially ambiguous woman named Maggie. This memory explained through these encounters by Roberta, characterize Twyla as a shame-filled person who is slightly weak of character who tries to disassociate from Maggie by not identifying her as black.

At first Twyla remembers Maggie fell down and they (Roberta and Twlya) never tried to help her. However, when she recounts that memory, deep down she feels ashamed. Roberta and Twyla have different lives several years later. Roberta appears to take the ‘well-off’ route whereas Twyla takes the ‘lower-middle class’ route. Twyla is first a waitress and then she is married to a firefighter. This other encounter at the gourmet grocery store is where the Maggie memory comes up.

Essentially, Twyla remembered it wrong. Roberta mentions the big girls knocked her down. This jars Twyla and she feels uncomfortable by the mere mention of something different. The next encounter while Roberta is picketing reveals even more information about the Maggie memory. Roberta states Twyla is “the same little state kid who kicked a poor old black lady when she was down on the ground.” (Hubel and Brooks 218) Twyla denies doing such thing and even denies Maggie was black, referring to Maggie as a liar.

This event truly bothers Twyla. It was not so much because of the idea that she kicked her, but that she feels confused about the idea of Maggie being black. Roberta in their next encounter confirms that the whole ‘kicking Maggie’ memory was fake and that Roberta really thought Maggie was black. (Morrison) Roberta later admits she wanted to kick Maggie and that the desire to kick her to her, was the same as doing it. This revelation makes Roberta cry and Twyla appreciates the confession.

Overall, the various encounters feel like a puzzle waiting to be solved. Each encounter reveals parts missing from the memory. What Twyla felt is not so much as important as what Roberta feels and later confesses. This is where they begin to realize each other’s true personality and some mistakes that they may have kept hidden.

It is an odd occurrence that Roberta felt the desire to kick Maggie and Twyla felt uncomfortable with the whole event. At first…

Nature of Inequality Between the North and Term Paper

nature of inequality between the north and south, he has to understand the role of technology in the international system. Someone who would say such a thing overlooks the fact that it’s not the amount of technology that counts, but how you use it that matters. In the wealthiest western nations, the use of technology has been actively directed by well-regulated capital lending mechanisms. These financial instruments allow inventors, laborers, and merchants to borrow money at interest that can later be repaid within the context of a legal environment that protects property and contracts.

According to Weatherby, the tragedy of the third world has four culprits: dependence on the west, delayed modernization, increasing population, and the unequal distribution of wealth. He argues that even if all third world countries don’t possess these qualities; that each possesses two or three of them. If the lack of modernization is to serve as an example, these problems can be seen as symptomatic of third world poverty rather than as causes for it, although I would argue that the people in developing countries are dependent on the west. Most such people never see the west’s foreign aid dollars; they are spent instead on wasteful socialist economic schemes or at Harrods. Their governments wouldn’t exist without them. It’s also common knowledge that higher standards of living encourage lower population growth rates. What then of modernization?

In the 18th century, one of the most popular playthings of continental royalty in Europe was the automaton. These ingenious devices were essentially wind-up toys, and would use clockwork to mimic natural phenomena such as a butterfly, or a man playing chess. Such devices had existed in Europe since before the fall of Constantinople in 1453, when the emperor’s court featured an automatic tree populated by hydraulic-powered singing birds. Despite the presence of such examples of human ingenuity, the predominant portion of European society lived as it had for centuries; illiterate and impoverished. It was not until entrepreneurs were able to borrow money at interest to develop these technologies into mills and steam engines that their existence fomented the Industrial Revolution. In much the same way, the third world exists despite vast technological improvements, such as nuclear reactors in China or the Aswan Dam in Egypt. According to noted economic theorist Hernando De Soto, “when you step out the door of the Nile Hilton, what you are leaving behind is not the high-technology world of fax machines and ice makers, television and antibiotics. The people of Cairo have access to all those things. What you are really leaving behind is the world of legally enforceable transactions on property rights.” These property rights, De Soto argues, don’t stem from a democratically elected regime or even from the privatization of large government-run industries, but from the ability of farmers and merchants to borrow against what they already own.

In the United States and other western countries, the greatest asset owned by most people is their home. An American homeowner has a deed to his property and he can borrow against it if he wants to start a small business. In developing countries, crippling bureaucracies and the lack of an infrastructure to support the establishment of contracts renders this impossible. In addition, the establishment of a legal business calls for private citizens to go through innumerable measures in order to establish a small business.

Instead of encouraging the development of a lending infrastructure to support the lower class, the west has responded to these matters by issuing development loans and foreign direct investment. According to the late Lord Peter Bauer, issuing development loans is worse than doing nothing because it allows governments to engage in costly social programs that do little. For instance, in Africa price controls were introduced in order to make produce affordable to the consumers that lived in large cities. Farmers answered this by growing roses, which were sure to fetch a premium in the flower markets of the west with the advent of air shipping. As a result, the massive over-production of food lead to starvation conditions in many countries. Instead of being spent on, lent to, or given away to the poor people in these countries that had an arguable need for it, this money was squandered by political leaders. Again and again, Lord Bauer saw the mis-management of money lent by the west to developing nations, whether it was spent on villas in Spain by formerly communist Russian political cronies or on an international airport in the tiny home village of Zimbabwe’s late President Mobutu.

In Understanding Russians, by Matthew Maly, the laws of post-communist Russia are characteristic of undeveloped, non-contrarian nations:

1. all-encompassing, to regulate everything, so that a bureaucrat can squeeze a bribe from every inch of legal territory under his or her control;

2. vague, so that everything would depend on the interpretation and goodwill of the bureaucrat;

3. unpublished, so that one needs a bureaucrat just to find out what, if anything, one can do

4. very severe, so as to scare a citizen into giving more; not enforced, so that people could live.

According to Maly, Russian law reflects the Russian view of property: it is “suspended in air” by the conflicting claims that beset it on all sides. Only one with the power to repel all other claimants may retain real property for the sake of using it to generate a revenue. In Russia, this role is played by the countries oligarchs, which many claim were created by the west so that American businesses would have a finite and easily recognizable number of people to deal with. This explains Weatherby’s vast difference between the wealthy and the poor; as apparent on Tverskaya in Moscow as it is in Mexico City.

De Soto compares the experience of third world countries to that of the early experience of the United States, where a plot of land might be alternately owned by someone who bought it from the local Indian tribe, or another to whom it was presented by the king as a part of a sea-to-sea grant, neither of whom may not have even seen America. When the dust settled, this land was owned by the federal government, which was the first organization to allow settlers to own land legally. De Soto notes that the establishment of a system of recognized and transferable ownership was developed in order to protect ownership, which is why it is hard for many to grasp its significance in the world economy: it allows ordinary men and women to borrow money against collateral.

De Soto’s economic foundation conducted studies of several large developing nations, including Peru, the Phillippines, Haiti, and Egypt. They found that in Peru, 53% of city-dwellers lived in illegal dwellings, and 81% of people in the country lived and farmed as squatters. If capitalized, this property would be worth 74 billion dollars; 5 times the value of the Lima Stock Exchange before its 1998 crash, 11 times the value of government industries that could be privatized, and 14 times the value of all Foreign Direct Investment spent on Peru in its entire history. In the Phillippines this property, which 57% of urban dwellers and 67% of rural dwellers live in, would be worth 133 billion dollars; 4 times the value of the Phillippines Stock Exchange, or 14 times the total amount of Foreign Direct investment ever spent there. The total estimated value of all such property worldwide is estimated at being 9.3 trillion dollars; equal to twice the total supply of money in the United States, or the total market capitalization of the 20 largest stock exchanges in the world combined.

Free trade provides a comparative advantage to different economies because it encourages products to be developed in the economies that are best suited for developing them. The lack of free trade enhances the negative effects of shortages in raw materials, which is especially inherent in agriculture. Whereas a bad crop in a country that actively engages in trade results in little more than mortgage woes for indebted farmers and the profit of commodities brokers, in a country hampered by trade restrictions it can result in famine and mass starvation. Conversely, poor countries stand to lose from trade when the international organizations that arbitrate trade disputes call for the strict enforcement of intellectual property rights, especially with respect to the un-licensed reproduction of medicines that fight life-threatening diseases.

In order to develop a thorough understanding of free trade, we must look at its origins. David Ricardo, a member of Parliament and close friend of John Stewart Mill, developed the theory of comparative advantage in the early 19th century. Using the example of two nations (Portugal and England) and two commodities (wine and cloth), Ricardo mathematically demonstrated how trade would benefit both nations even if Portugal had an absolute cost advantage; that is, England would still do better even if Portugal could produce both wine and cloth cost effectively. Ricardo argued that there are…

Ghana and Its Alchohol Policies

Alcohol in Ghana and South Africa

The impact of the economic revival of Africa as a continent and some of the emerging economies, in particular, has created disposable income in the hands of a large section of people. This has enhanced the market and sale of alcohol products in a manner similar to other lifestyle or FMCG products. Despite a number of problems that include counterfeiting and smuggling, the alcoholic market beverages market in African is believed to be on track to clock the faster growth in the segment globally till 2017 (Evans, 2015).

In recent decades, Ghana has developed as an economy and its impact is evident in the industries in the country. One of the major industries that have developed with the advent of foreign brands slowing infiltrating the market tin Ghana is the burgeoning alcohol segment. Ghana has recently emerged as an economic power in the continent and the new found middle class has contributed to the development of a trend of consumption of foreign alcoholic beverages in a market that is still dominated by local alcoholic varieties (Welbeck J, 2015).

Helped by a stable socio-political environment, economic progress has been possible in Ghana. With more and more Ghanaians moving up to the middle-income bracket, the disposable income is increasing in the country. Hence the growth in the alcoholic beverage industry has been spurred by modernization and a newly created crave for alcoholic beverages for the average Ghanaian. This has led to the setting up of large and small companies as well as many international companies starting operations in the country (Evans, 2015).

Apart from disposable income at the hands of consumers, one of the factors that have helped in the development of the market is the non-government monopoly of the industry in terms of production and sale of alcohol. Moreover, the country has no set rules or regulations for advertisement and promotions of alcohol but is only self-regulated by the industry and the media. Even the proposed National Alcohol Policy of the country heavily relies on self-regulation by the industry. As such unlike in many other countries of the continent, alcohol sellers and manufacturers can openly and aggressively advertise to woo more consumers.

On the other hand, South Africa is a relatively advanced economy with an established consumer base. In recent decades the economic benefits in the country have even percolated down the society and the…

Instructional Design Assessments Are an Essay

Summative assessments are useful to determine a student’s level of mastery and can be an indicator of potential for success in subsequent courses or units. If a student does poorly on a summative assessment, for example, remedial instruction may be required. Summative assessments help teachers evaluate content and delivery and make adjustments as needed. Summative assessments are not always useful for informing instruction. When they are used at the end of a course, for example, the teacher may not have the opportunity to work further with that particular group of students.

Assessments can be misused when results are interpreted according to a certain agenda. For example, a school district may be facing a severe budget crisis and opt to reduce services to save money. Particularly when a test is evaluated subjectively, the results can be skewed to show that a child does not need a referral for special services.

The discussion so far has focused on authentic assessments. “In a high-stakes approach to assessment, the test is the major tool; in an authentic approach, the teacher is the major tool” (Vacca, Vacca and Mraz, 2011, p. 94). The teacher is well positioned to observe students and provide feedback. Teachers use observational assessments all the time, sometimes formally with the use of observation forms or anecdotal logs, but most often informally, as a matter of daily course. Many teachers believe, and it is difficult to argue with this, that they know their students better than any assessment tool could possibly reveal. Nevertheless, high-stakes testing is a fact of life in today’s education system. Teachers must be prepared to guide their students through the process. They must adhere to the highest ethical standards as they do so.

There are reports every year in Massachusetts of teachers or teachers’ aides helping students on the high-stakes Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) test. Passing the MCAS is a high school graduation requirement in the state. Colleges look at MCAS scores as part of the admission process. Teacher effectiveness is judged, in part, on students’ achievement and it may not be long before jobs and salaries are tied directly to students’ test scores. With all those pressures, it is no wonder educators are tempted to cheat. State Education Commissioner Mitchell Chester recently noted there are roughly ten incidents reported every year; each one, he insists, is taken seriously (Oakes, 2011). Massachusetts is not alone. Other states have reported incidents in which teachers helped students cheat. USA Today recently reported on over 1,600 cases of cheating in selected school districts in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Michigan, Ohio, and Washington, D.C. (When teachers cheat, 2011). One may expect students to try cheating, but it is surprising and disappointing when the perpetrators are teachers. Even in the case of high-stakes testing, it can never be condoned. Fortunately, schools are actively seeking ways to catch cheating and even prevent it from occurring in the first place. In Georgia, for example, independent monitors were placed at seventy-four schools that were considered a “severe concern” with respect to cheating. Results were extremely positive (When teachers cheat, 2011). Cheating is a problem that must be acknowledged. Leadership at the state, local and building levels can be an effective force is maintaining the integrity of high-stakes testing. Each individual teacher is also responsible for maintaining a personal commitment to honesty and integrity.

Conclusion

Assessments are an important part of instructional design. They provide information about what students have mastered and what further work needs to be done. When constructed correctly, assessments are an accurate reflection of the content in a unit or course of study. Students use assessments to demonstrate their level of mastery. Teachers use the information to provide feedback to students and adjust their own instruction as needed to facilitate student success.

References

Meyers, N.M., & Nulty, D.D. (2009). How to use five curriculum design principles to align authentic learning environments, assessment, studens’ approaches to thinking and learning outcomes. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 34(5), 565-577.

Oakes, B. (2011). Education Commissioner: MCAS cheating rare, taken seriously. WBUR.org.

Retrieved from http://www.wbur.org/2011/03/22/mcas-cheating

When teachers cheat, don’t blame the tests. (2011). USA Today 3/11/11. Retrieved from Master FILE Premier database.

Vacca, R.T., Vacca, J.L., and Mraz, M. (2011). Content area reading:…

Leading Effective Public Policy Implementation Term Paper

Change

Leading Effective Public Policy Implementation

How can I increase my own sense of meaning and task alignment?

At the Department of Housing and Urban Development, I am always acutely aware of the fact that the decisions leaders make will have a material impact upon ordinary people’s lives. However, it is very easy to let bureaucracy stymie even the best of intentions. When frustrated, leaders must remember the long and short-term goals of the Department: to improve the lives of individuals and communities through the provision of safe and affordable housing and other forms of development. Every task must be connected to the higher mission and purpose of the Department. Intensive soul-searching is required, given the vital role of HUD. As said by leadership guru David Quinn in his book Deep Change, “figuring out where you are and where you need to go and then launching an effort to get there” is required for an organization to move forward with mindfulness and purpose (Quinn 1996: 166). This requires continual reevaluation of HUD’s core processes, since the housing needs of the population served are likewise always changing.

A strong sense of meaning and task alignment required to summon up the powerful motivation demanded to fight against the natural, unfortunate tendencies to resist change. Both organizations and human beings have an innate desire to ‘not rock the boat.’ Change is scary. However, change is also fundamentally necessary for improvement. When approaching the leadership of a new project, I must remember this: it will require change (on my part and the part of others) and it may make me uncomfortable. But a clear sense of how the project should finish and its intended purpose will enable me to weather the change and also to alter the tasks needed to reach my final goal without fundamentally losing sight of the endpoint.

In general, there are two approaches to creating meaning and task alignment by management: to give clear top-down directives to employees to inspire workers to meet goals or to inspire employees to set their own goals and to have personal, creative responses to organizational needs (Quinn 19996: 222). I do believe that there needs to be a holistic vision for an organization, particularly one as large and sprawling as a government agency. But having employees provide input about how to meet those goals can be an important source of creative ferment. Employees often have more knowledge of the real needs of the population the organization is serving. Excessive rigidity on the part of a leader can cause task misalignment. A good leader listens to others and engages in constant environmental scanning to be able to change when needed.

As a leader, I believe I have a responsibility to listen to my fellow workers — subordinates included — and use their ideas and experiences to shape how I delegate my authority. Task alignment also requires knowledge of the human dimension of how the organization functions, not just its physical demands. Simply being right is not enough. A leader must motivate others to believe he or she is right and make them want to do what they need to do.

For an organization to fulfill critical tasks it must be able to engage in effective planning and have a clear timetable about how to meet its goals. Time is money and unexpected delays and a poor understanding of how the different components of the projects fit together increase the chance a project will go over-budget and over-time. However, within a structured environment of clearly-delineated tasks there must also be freedom to change with circumstances, particularly when a shift in plans can lead to better value and improved service. Thus, fundamentally I believe self-scrutiny and scrutiny of others are both necessary to achieve desired objectives and achieve the goal of task alignment. The leader must be critical of him or herself as well as critical of others to make this happen.

Q2. How can I increase my own sense of impact, influence, and power?

The greatest danger in any organization is a sense of powerlessness: the feeling that an employee is powerless to generate change for him or herself and others. Rather than feeling buffeted by events, a good leader views him or herself as capable of enacting change. This does not mean that the leader ignores external circumstances — far from it, a good leader is acutely aware of the fact that ‘no man is an island’ and that he or she does not have autocratic sway over the views of others and externalities. But through constant environmental scanning and an openness to seeing different possibilities within existing constraints, a leader may gain a sense of mastery and view his or her position of power in a more positive light.

One example cited by Quinn of an executive who initially did not have a sense of his ability to have a personal impact was a man who was ordered to lay off a number of workers as a requirement of his position. The man was not given the discretion to decide whether to fire or to retain the workers: he was forced to act in what he considered an unfair and arbitrary manner, causing him internal tremendous stress, even more so than the political pressures he may have felt by other employees in the organization (Quinn 1996: 7). This action threatened his own sense of self and his own view of his marketability as a worker. In from my perspective of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, I have witnessed similar stresses amongst workers. HUD experienced tremendous turmoil during the housing boom and the ‘burst’ of the bubble. The hard work of many employees to help find homes for people in need seemed circumvented by external political and financial events beyond the agency’s control yet HUD was still blamed for not being able to meet all of these challenges or to have anticipated the crisis.

Retaining a sense of one’s ability to impact events requires an awareness of what one can and cannot change. It is impossible for a single leader to completely change the housing market, for example, but a leader within HUD can do all he or she can to offer alternative solutions to the ones being proposed. For the highly stressed executive in the example, the solution came from working better with the workers whom the company had retained: asking his employees questions about improvement and creating a vital partnership between upper and lower-level echelons of the company that boosted morale and increased the man’s perceived personal impact as a leader. Through a willingness to share power with others he was able to make a greater impact upon the company and gain a sense of power and competence.

Similarly, HUD’s response to the housing crisis demanded a more sensitive and nuanced understanding of the environment: instead of feeling powerless about the inability to impact the wider external environment, developing proactive solutions regarding affordable housing and keeping people in their homes was promoted to the forefront of its agenda. Being able to exert influence requires dwelling in what is realistically possible, versus what one would like to be possible. It also means reaching out, both to colleagues and also for additional information that can help the leader make better decisions. With confidence borne of knowledge comes a more secure sense of power. Being able to justify one’s decisions, having a pragmatic attitude, yet showing a willingness to take risks even when the outcome is uncertain, all make subordinates more willing to trust their leaders.

Q3. How can I increase my own sense of competence and confidence?

When a leader makes a positive change based upon intense self-examination, “because it is in touch with the core of the system the organization embraces the vision” (Quinn 1996: 210). A leader must be constantly re-educating him or herself about the different dimensions of leadership and staying current regarding the professional knowledge available to persons in his or her field. This might include going to classes to earn one’s MBA, reading trade publications, keeping abreast of the most newsworthy events likely to impact the leader’s organization. By improving him or herself and his or her own skill set, the leader can gain in confidence. Learning is a continual process and there is no endpoint.

As noted by Quinn, there is an essential paradox to leadership: organizations must be systematized to some extent to be functional, yet formalization is the enemy of positive dynamic change. Leaders with true confidence are able to shift their paradigms and expectations when needed. To be truly competent as an individual is to be adaptable, otherwise it is very easy to have an obsolete point-of-view when faced with a major shift. “Usually, the organization can only be renewed, energized, or made effective only if some leader is willing to take big risks by stepping aside the well-defined boundaries” (Quinn 1996: 5). To be able to ‘color outside of the lines’…

The Importance of a Traditional Christian Marriage Essay

Christian marriage is one of the most important Biblical principles. Since God created the first man and woman, He intended us to create strong relationships with our nuptial partners, procreate, and participate in community life in this way. Marriage is the foundation of not only strong families, but also of strong individuals and strong societies. Therefore, Christians should continue to advocate strongly for the institution of marriage in spite of secular norms and trends that lead away from the marriage tradition.

The current trends that include a high rate of divorce, or domestic partnerships that do not result in marriage, do not correspond to Christian lifestyles. Moreover, these trends are relatively new and certainly do not reflect the millennia of tradition established by Christianity. The divorce rate has only been high within the past century, whereas marriage is an age-old institution. Domestic partnerships that result in children but not in the exchange of wedding vows is also a trend so new, that it remains unacceptable in many traditional Christian communities around the world. Christians need to return to our roots and remember that trends are less important than the eternal truths of God outlined in the Bible.

Christianity is also fundamentally opposed to violence in relationships. Unfortunately violence in marriages is not a new phenomenon. The Bible does advocate a patriarchal family structure, but the Bible does not in any way advocate violence towards women. Instead, the Bible teaches that marriages are built on mutual respect and on understanding our God-given roles in the family. A Christian marriage does not restrict the freedom of women or men. On the contrary, Christian marriages liberate the man and woman to pursue their spiritual and intellectual passions both within and outside of the family.

The Christian model of marriage is based on theology. When God advised us to “be fruitful and multiply,” He did so within the framework of the traditional Christian marriage. Adam and Eve, the original Man and Wife, established the role models for all future marriages. When God created man and woman, He specifically did so to distinguish us from the animals. God did not intend for people to procreate with anyone at any time, outside of the bonds of marriage, like animals do. The goal of human life is to serve God, not to create the maximum number of children possible. Marriage is a spiritual institution.

At the same time, Christian couples should be counseled on the joys of parenthood, so that they do not put off having children until it is too late. A marriage without children is unheard of in the Christian tradition because God sanctioned marriage specifically so that procreation could take place within the sacred bonds of the institution. Couples who are uncertain of their future together should also receive counseling within the Christian tradition, to prevent emotional, psychological, and social problems that result when…

Cultural and Social History Term Paper

Illusion is central to both Abselon’s description of the “pantomime of gentility,” and Cook’s description of what he calls “artful deception.” As described by Abselon and Cook, what role does illusion play in Barnum’s museum exhibits and in late 19th century department stores? Does illusion operate similarly or differently in these two contexts? Why is illusion so compelling to nineteenth-century, middle -class audience. For this question use the following two texts: Cook, Arts of Deception) and Abselon, When Ladies Go — A Thieving

Both Elaine S. Abselon and James Cook focus in their respective texts upon the intersection of race, gender, and class that occurred in the twin modern temples of illusion, the department store and the circus, of the 19th century middle class. For Abelson, the popularity of the newly-created department store enabled merchants to display the supposed bounty of the middle class’ new largess, combined with the illusion that everyone could purchase the consumer trappings of gentility, if they only worked hard enough to do so. However, although women were part of the rising middle class in the second half of the nineteenth century unlike their male counterparts, they were not permitted to work. (Abselon 1)

Many women who were taken in by the illusion of ready access to gentility, but without means resorted to stealing. Because 19th century moral stereotypes could not admit the moral folly of women and the department store managers were “loath to accuse” their middle-class customers, as these consumers represented the very group that they were trying to encourage to look and buy. (Abselon 149) Instead, to conceal this shady side of the ideology of consumerism that propped up Victorian capitalism, women of the middle class, but not those of the working class, were allowed to shoplift and plead an incapacitating mental illness, kleptomania. This fiction allowed the illusion of society to continue.

James W. Cook presents the example of P.T. Barnum, the “Prince of Humbug,” as doing the opposite of the detectives and owners of the department stores — rather than to hide crimes through the use of medicinal terms, Barnum made medical follies and his own crimes a spectacle. Barnum took individuals with medical maladies, such as dwarves or bearded ladies and made them into spectacles of ‘them.’ In the circus, ordinary individuals who were different to the eyes of the middle class audiences, or as in the case of Joice Heath, by race, became entertainment. By making these different individuals freaks rather than ordinary people, the supposedly ‘normal’ middle class position was reaffirmed, through making so-called freaks conspicuous rather than hiding them with medical terms.

One false entertainment was a 161-year-old former slave of George Washington’s father. Even when Heath’s death resulted in fiction being uncovered, Barnum made money by charging admission to the man’s public autopsy. Again, this division, where the spectacle of a Black man was not allowed middle class privacy even in death, affirmed the break between ‘us’ of the middle class, and ‘them’ in the spectacle, just as treating middle class women as ‘sick’ covered up the crimes that the working class were prosecuted for, so that the illusion and societal spectacle of consumption could continue.

Question 2

Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl is an abolitionist work, but to what extent is Harriet Jacobs arguing for racial equality? And, to the extent that she is, what is the basis of her argument? Your answer should draw specific examples from the text. For this question use the following text: Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

Despite the abolitionist nature of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, the author Harriet Jacobs does not argue for racial equality in modern terms. Jacobs, after all, was writing to a white, Northern, abolitionist audience and using her life’s narrative as political propaganda as well as laying her heart bare. Thus she does not demonize white people, nor attempt to alienate them. Jacobs describes her first white mistress as kind. Slavery is shown as corrupting the moral nature of whites, as in the sexual behavior of Dr. Flint towards her, as well as blacks, in addition to curtailing human freedom.

Jacobs argues for the moral integrity of all human beings in a way that her audience would likely respond to as middle-class Christians rather than as fellow and equal sufferers with Black slaves. She affirms the middle-class ideology of the necessity of young individuals to live with two parents, and for spouses in a moral fashion, not in sin with an owner. Jacobs does not write about this moral equality in social or intellectual terms. Significantly, Jacobs hides in a garret in her grandmother’s home, returning to her family abode.

Jacobs is also helped by whites, and finally set free by the efforts of a white mentor, Mrs. Bruce. The text of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl claims of its white audience the moral authority of Jacob’s suffering, but it is also written a cry for help and compassion from a woman who is presenting herself as oppressed, despite her incredible fortitude in weathering her circumstances. To live in an attic and to escape slavery is hardly an accomplishment to be ‘sneezed’ at, and one in which few of her white readers would have been able to match. To call upon the compassion of her readers, however, Jacobs narrates her tale along the lines of a story of a Christian forced into sin, forced to suffer things no human being should have to suffer, who was saved by Mrs. Bruce’s sense of injustice. Jacobs thus creates her construction of equality in moral terms, rather than in terms of her not inconsiderable accomplishments.

Question 3

Imagine you are Thomas Jefferson reading George Thompson’s, City Crimes. Is City Crimes compatible with the ideals of Jeffersonian Republicanism? Would Jefferson see the book as poisonous to republican virtue? Or, would he see it as a useful social critique that contributed to creating a more democratic and egalitarian society? For this question use the following text: George Thompson’s, City Crimes

Thomas Jefferson upheld the ideal of agrarian democracy, whereby wealthy and intelligent landholders took time off from their busy farming lives to administer a generally hands-off government that governed best by governing least. However, by the 19th century, urban rather than rural locations formed the nexus of American life. Jeffersonian Republicanism belonged not only to another age and century, but also to another economic system that was soon to meet its demise. Although Jefferson did many things as a man and a politician that would be seen as abhorrent even to 19th century virtues, such as engaging in sexual relations with his slaves, prohibiting all but landholders the right to vote, and allowing for slavery to continue, Jefferson did allow for change in the form of amendments to the constitution and bracketed the problems of race and class as something future American generations would have to sort out, as they did in the reconfiguration of the modern class structure of city crimes.

Thus, Jefferson allowed for the necessity of all republics to change, and he would not necessarily oppose the construction of society into more democratic terms as depicted in City Crimes. But he would deplore the more formidable role of government in the nation, given that he founded America as a land that would lack a bureaucratic and hierarchical form of governance, as existed in Great Britain. For Jefferson, politicians should never be a class of people, nor should politics be a profession. Politics was supposed to be every ‘man’s business, although every man in Jefferson’s era was every wealthy landowner. However, the burgeoning city population and the complexity of administering large, sprawling metropolises proved to be too unwieldy for the Jeffersonian ideal.

Question 4…