Archive May 2019

Working With the Aging Term Paper

Working With the Aging

Ladies and gentlemen, I stand here before you at a time in which the health care of older Americans has become a critical issue. Or should I say issues? We have more people needing more and more specialized care — this is critical. We have fewer and fewer people being asked to do more and more — that is critical. Current healthcare policy, especially for the aging, seems inadequate to address the challenges of what lies ahead. The situation seems very bleak at times. All signs seem to show that it will get bleaker. Well, I am here to tell you that I am the weatherman. I have weathered this storm with you. And I can tell you that the forecast looks good, if we can just keep our eyes on what is important and understand what tools we have to get through this, and overcome the challenges that the next years hold for us.

I like to think of myself, when I think of myself, as the captain of my own ship. And the ship that I am piloting through these new and changing times of healthcare is definitely weathering some storms. As we all know, the health status of our aging population is going to cause us to rethink many of our set beliefs about providing health care to older adults. I don’t just mean in the ways of policy, but also regarding our cultural values. We know that simply caring for disease and disease states of our older patients are no longer enough. We are caring for the patient, we are caring for the caregivers, and we are caring for the families and the extended families. Hopefully we are also caring for ourselves. And we know that in this fight, we are still on the uphill slope. To paraphrase Paul Revere, “The elderly are coming! The elderly are coming!”

By the year 2030, over seventy million United States citizens will be over age 65. By the same year, 8.5 million will be over 85. These are our patients, the ones who are the most likely to need polypharmacy, to have disabilities, even to require constant total care giving. These patients will be from ethnically diverse cultures. These patients will need specialized care. This is the perfect storm that you and I have to weather as we travel along, each in our own little boat.

But I am here to tell you. All of this is good news. You may look at me, and think that I am crazy, but I am telling you that this is all good news. Every single one of you here is here because you care for the elderly, or you care about the elderly, or you care about someone who cares. And I have good news for all of you.

What I have to say is very simple. Because no matter whatever the challenges are that we face, I want you to keep one thing uppermost in your minds and in your thoughts. And that is that God is present, in all that we say, in all that we do, in all the challenges that we face every day. No matter what, with God, all things are possible. As we pilot our boats through the storm, God is beside us and with us and guiding us. Let me give you some good news to help to demonstrate this. We are facing a larger elderly population but the good news is that more and more of the people we care for can expect to enjoy a healthy old age. This does not mean that the people we care for will not have challenges. Most of those elderly that we are expecting will be living with some sort of chronic condition, like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertension, etc. And we as caregivers know that these chronic problems will cause limitations in the patient’s daily lives and daily activities. The can cause hospitalization, or the necessity for extended stays in the hospital or transition into nursing homes. It is in situations like these where we need to remember, as caregivers that we are not only ministering to the body but also to the spirit. Educators and psychologists speak of the teenage years as a turbulent times, but I believe that the elderly have as much emotional upheaval and confusion as any teenager ever had, even after a lifetime of experience and knowledge. It is at this point where we can minister to the spirit. We can remind our patients who are going through rough patches, their own perfect storm, that no matter how badly they feel, no matter how lonely or isolated or displaced they may seem to be we need to let them know that they are not alone. God is always with them, as he is with us. We can provide this message in the most gentle of terms, with no evangelism intended. It can be given to any faith or creed. Basically we want to make sure that our patients, the people that we care for, know they are cared for physically and mentally and spiritually as well. Older adults need a variety of resources to help them, an active religious life can be the difference between isolation and depression and a healthy interaction. Especially when our elderly patients do not have family close by, or family members who are willing to help care for them, this is a time when spirituality is especially important.

Emotional support for the patient and the family itself will require the most basic change in the existing value system, which places greater emphasis on the medical treatment of chronic medical conditions and not on the emotional needs of the patients and the caregivers. We are treating heart conditions, but ignoring the heart.

These challenges are not ours and ours alone. It is our burden to understand that, in the coming storm, there will be fewer of us to go around. There will be fewer of us and we will be asked to do more and more. There is a well-documented nursing shortage. This will only get worse in the years to come and presents another wave in the storm. In addition, nurses have little or no preparation for the treatment of gerontological patients as part of their regular nursing education. This is an even greater problem when we speak about advanced practice nursing, physician assistants and physicians. It is my greatest hope that new policies in education will make the requirement for a greater number of educational credit hours for all medical disciplines on the care of the aging and elderly. New policies must be put in place for ongoing continuing medical education on the elderly as a condition of license renewal. This can be one of our strongest tactics to weather the storm. Preparation is the key.

The cost of care will also be another challenge for us to deal with. We know that older adults and their families face a significant burden in trying to get care and cover prescriptions. Families can see whole life savings funneled away in the care of an elderly person. We are not only talking about hospitalization, but also things like prescriptions, payment of mental health coverage and also the lost work time of unpaid family caregivers can cause a significant financial strain on the family and the patient him or herself. We all know that the coverage of prescriptions, usually not reimbursed by Medicare, is a hot button political issue. Recent legislation may or may not make a difference. But the cost of prescription medication can be devastating. I can give you the example that the average annual cost of medication for the treatment of diabetes is somewhere around $1,400. Most Medicare patients will pay out of pocket about $600 for their medications. It is not surprising that 20% of older adults have taken less medication than prescribed in the last two years, or have skipped doses to make medication last longer, or to spend less money on things like food or heat because it is the only way they feel they can afford the medication. Can you imagine how disheartening this can be?

As people get older they need help with the activities of daily living doing things like cleaning their houses, cooking meals, doing personal care work, the little things that will allow them to stay in their own homes. Remember that Medicare does not reimburse for this type of care and older folks will have to pay out of pocket or else ask for help from family members, many of whom are not going to be paid and have to add this on to the work of their already busy lives. I wonder how many of you have been in this same situation yourselves? There can be a lot of frustration — from family members who feel overwhelmed, from caregivers who feel overburdened, from the elderly who are frustrated that…

Rsd Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy AKA CRPS or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome CRPS Term Paper

History of RSD

The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of “burning pain” left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for “burning pain.” He wrote that, “Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl.” Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms associated with the disorder as feeling of heat in the afflicted area where the skin tone changed to a glossy, rash-like appearance. He also described, very accurately, the secondary, psychological symptoms of the disease.

World War I, army surgeon Rene Leriche first treated causalgia by administering numbing medication to the parasympathetic nerve endings associated with the region of pain. This was the first time the parasympathetic nervous system was implicated in the disorder. Later, William Livingstone, also working with the defense services described the symptoms of RSD with greater accuracy. He also identified, in injured soldiers, the spread of the symptoms — mirror pains on the opposite side of the body. This proved that there the origins of the disorder are at higher centers in the brain.

The history and the discovery of RSD can also be traced, parallelly to other countries. Sudeck and Keinbock found and confirmed the symptoms of RSD and also showed that disuse of parts of the body due to pain could cause osteoporosis. In France, in 1890, the physician Charcot, attributed the symptoms of RSD to psychosomatic origins. We know now that this is not true. Nonetheless, Charcot contributed a great deal to the school of thought in accurately describing the symptoms of RSD. In 1947, Steinbrocker named RSD, “shoulder-hand” syndrome. (PARC, 2004).

Definition of RSD

While RSD Regional Sympathetic Dystrophy has been readily named after earlier attempts based on the symptoms of the condition, identifying a specific cause of the disease and treating it effectively has been very difficult. This is because the incidence of RSD is difficult to pinpoint. The symptoms vary in severity. The aftereffects are also largely varied. Though RSD is often caused by injuries from high velocity impact such as bullets and shrapnel, on occasion it arises from no known injury. Treatment is difficult because the symptoms are usually masked and misdiagnosis occurs often. (Schwartzman & McLellan, 1987).

RSD has been better defined by the acronym, CRPS (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome). There are two types of CRPS. CRPS Type 1 is also known as RSD. For the purpose of this, only CRPS Type 1 will be explored. CRPS Type 2 is known as causalgia. The two types should not be used interchangeably. Though the symptoms are most often the same within internal variations in severity and aftereffects, what distinguishes RSD (CRPS 1) from Causalgia or CRPS 2 is that the former is due to no identifiable nerve injury and the latter is due to a severe nerve injury as was identified in soldiers.

The precipitating causes of RSD are difficult to identify because even remote innervations to the sympathetic nervous system can cause symptoms. Causative factors are even more difficult to identify because the sympathetic nervous system coordinates and controls many of the involuntary functions necessary to sustain life. The most easily identifiable cause is trauma. The difficulty here is that a minor injury, which most patients ignore when the initial pain goes away, may also trigger symptoms of RSD. Heart disease and myocardial infarctions are other known causes, as are cervical spine- and other spinal cord disorders. Infections and trauma from surgery may also cause RSD. Cerebral lesions are difficult to identify externally, though they have been implicated. Repetitive motion disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome can also cause symptoms of RSD. (Bonica, 1988).

Both types of CRPS are associated with cardinal and secondary symptoms. Very often, psychological factors such as depression are directly attributed to the disorder. (Ciccone, Bandilla, & Wu, 1997). To date however, there has been no identifiable psychological symptom for RSD. Researchers have concluded that depression that arises from RSD is due to the cardinal symptoms like pain and inherent skin conditions.

The cardinal symptoms of CRPS Type 1 are led by pain. (Veldman et al., 1993). The pain felt is usually intense and burning. The area of affliction may also be at a higher temperature (or sometime at a lower temperature). The pain, with time, travels across the extremity. The pain occurs long after the wounds from the injury are healed. In case of minor injuries, the pain is often incommensurate with the severity of the injury. With RSD, hyperpathia and allodynia are found. The first is about pain felt long after the pain stimulus is removed. The second is pain at even the slightest touch. Pain from RSD increases with movement. It also increases in cold weather. Slight climatic changes in pressure can exacerbate the pain.

In addition to the pain, edema or swelling of afflicted area due to fluid retention also occurs. The skin takes on glossy tones and there is significant discoloration in hues ranging from red, blue, purple and gray. There is also muscle stiffness.

Due to the patient’s reticence to move, which worsens the pain, osteoporosis and atrophy often occurs. There is a breakdown of skin tissue. If RSD afflicts the hand, there is thickening in the palmar fascia. Reddening of the skin occurs due to the dilation of capillaries (erythema). One of the secondary characteristics of RSD is hyperhidrosis or excessive perspiration. This often results in dehydration. (Lankford & Thompson, 1977).

CRPS is unique and complex. It can affect the blood vessels, bones, muscles and nerves with varying severity. The complexity of the disorder points to the fact that it might be associated with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The mammalian nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The Central Nervous System consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system consists of nerves that run from the hypothalamus (sympathetic) and the medulla oblongata (parasympathetic) and the nether regions of the body. These are sensory and motor nerves. The motor nerves control muscle function. The pre-ganglion motor neurons of the sympathetic nervous system arise from the spinal chord. They pass into the ganglia that are on either side of the spinal chord. These pre-ganglion motor neurons then synapse with post-ganglion neurons. These then pass into the spinal nerves, which innervate the extremities up to the outer dermis of the skin. This is the mechanism that is most closely associated with RSD. It explains some of the symptoms.

Additionally, (but not of any specific relevance here), the sympathetic nervous system is also associated with the involuntary functions such as the raising of the heartbeat and blood pressure, dilation of pupils, controlling peristalsis in the gastro intestinal tract, dilating the trachea, stimulation of the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver (and vice versa). In a sense therefore, the sympathetic nervous system trains the body to react. (Bakewell, 1995).

The parasympathetic nervous system works in conjunction with the sympathetic nervous symptoms. Briefly described, the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to the normal state. For example, if the sympathetic nervous system raises the heart rate or dilates the pupils, the parasympathetic nervous system lowers the heart rate and constricts the pupils back to normal. RSD is thought to be a result of excitation of peripheral nerve elements with an abnormal and severe sympathetic response resulting in the pain and signs and symptoms of RSD. (Bakewell, 1995).

From a mechanistic standpoint, it is important to understand how the sympathetic nervous system plays a role the cause of RSDS. The sympathetic nervous system is often associated with the “fight or flight” aphorism. This means that it triggers an involuntary reaction mechanism to protect the body from violence or unwanted stimuli. Muscle vibrations cause shivering, which is a warming mechanism against cold. Or, firing of sympathetic nerves causes blood vessels in the skin to contract, forcing blood deep into muscle and enabling the victim to use his muscle to get up after an acute injury and escape from further danger. Also the decreased supply of blood to the skin reduces blood loss through superficial injuries that may occur on the surface of the body. The role of the sympathetic nervous system is therefore to function for a short period of time. The parasympathetic nervous system then takes over to bring the…

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Equal Opportunity Essay

Civil Rights Act of 1964 enforced the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution by ensuring a legislative act that would prevent discrimination and extend equal protection under the law. The bill in its entirety protects all Americans, regardless of race, ethnicity, religion, national background, and gender. It was and still is considered to be a landmark bill, in spite of the fact that the Fourteenth Amendment already technically guarantees equal protection to all citizens of the United States. However, practice and theory are different beasts. President Johnson understood this, and foresaw the need to push forward legislation that would create a more perfect union offering liberty and justice to all people.

The Civil Rights Act was surprisingly controversial, in a nation that prided itself on its values of equality and freedom. It took centuries for females and non-whites to have voting privileges in the United States. The battle for true equality was long and hard fought. Civil rights bills had been passed and ignored since the end of the Civil War; but Reconstruction had been thoroughly deconstructed by racist lawmakers. In 1943, an attempt at civil rights law was made in Congress but failed to pass in the Senate. Congress continued trying to pass a civil rights bill, but committee after committee shot them down. There were simply too many bigoted lawmakers in Washington, and equal protection remained a dream.

Finally, the election of John F. Kennedy to the office of Presidency coincided with the deep and radical changes taking place in American society. Values, norms, and beliefs shifted with the youth and counterculture movements throughout the United States and Western Europe. The hypocrisy of injustice in all its forms, including racism and sexism became less tolerated and less normative. By 1963, the American people and its lawmakers were finally ready for a real push forward and genuine social progress. Martin Luther King, Jr. And other African-American activists were aligned with the cause of women too.

In 1963, amid increasing pressure from the American people, President Kennedy helped to draft the Civil Rights Act. Even the changing tide of the times could not deter the bigots in Washington to embrace the constitutional rights of non-white citizens and females. It took nearly a year for Congress to concede, and unfortunately it also took the assassination of President Kennedy to encourage lawmakers to take the great leap forward that they did in 1964, when the Civil Rights Bill was finally passed on February 10.

One of the most important provisions of the Civil Rights Act is Title VII, which makes it unlawful for any employer to engage in discriminatory practices defined, in part, as follows:

1. To fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual, or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin;

2. To limit, segregate, or classify his employees or applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

(Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964)

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 covers employment agencies, labor unions, training programs, national security, and host of other potential applications of the law. Moreover, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 introduced the concepts of protected classes and unlawful employment practices in American business. Test scores cannot be used in any way that promotes discrimination. Both the private and the public sector are obliged to comply with Title VII, or risk breaking the law. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act ensures, among other things, a workplace environment that is free from sexual harassment and hostility based on gender or race. In general, the Civil Rights Act of 1964’s employment provisions cover a range of situations that might arise and that do arise to prevent the extension of Fourteenth Amendment rights to all citizens of the United States.

Another important accomplishment of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the creation of the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC). This body was created with a mandate to promote and enforce the provisions stated in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The EEOC is entrusted with the active outreach services required to encourage all private and public sector employees to transition from outmoded employee selection habits to more egalitarian human resources strategies. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 represented a radical change of pace, and demanded deep structural changes for businesses. The EEOC was in part created to provide any technical support needed to educate employees about their legal rights and responsibilities, as well as to offer consultation on how to go about implementing equal opportunity practices. The EEOC also serves as a liaison between the government and the American people, entrusted as a source of information about the rights of citizens with regards to their employers. For the first time, women and non-whites had the right to sue their employers for discrimination. And for the first time, women and non-whites had a chance of winning those suits.

The Effects of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on Today’s Society

The specificity of the act was remarkable, and brought to light the extent to which discrimination had become engrained in standard operating procedures throughout all social, cultural, political, and economic institutions. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act covered a gamut of scenarios that were familiar to more than half the American population, including sexual harassment in the workplace. Institutionalized racism and sexism existed to such a deep degree that it would take generations for the real effects of Civil Rights legislation to come to fruition. There are several reasons why Title VII of the Civil Rights Act is still needed, and used.

One reason why Title VII of the Civil Rights Act is still needed and used is that gender and racial parity have not yet been realized. Both women and non-whites have enjoyed equal protection under the law, but there are still lingering signs of institutionalized sexism and racism. For example, women continue to earn less for the same job as men. One of the main weaknesses of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act has been its failure to protect equal pay for equal work as a fundamental provision of the legislation. Wage discrimination, job segregation, and related issues are actually covered textually in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and more thoroughly by revisions to the act covered by the EEOC. Blumrosen (1978), for example, speaks about both the black-white and the male-female wage differentiation that plagues the country. For this reason, an amendment to the Civil Rights Act is necessary. Currently, the EEOC claims that equal pay is a mandate but this mandate has not come to fruition. Women remain systematically discriminated against with regards to pay and access to positions of power in the workplace.

With regards to race, having an African-American president does not negate the need for Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Act remains necessary because of the continued income disparities between whites and blacks in America, which is in part related to generations of unequal access to educational services and other paths by which to achieve social and economic parity. Until these issues have been resolved, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 remains necessary.

The plight of African-Americans had grown so grim by 1964 that many had given up on white institutions. Rhetoric from the African-American community shifted from submissive acceptance of inequity toward justifiably angry self-empowerment. Malcolm X provided an apt counterpart to the voice of Martin Luther King, Jr. The Black Power movement reclaimed black identity, and created new black public spheres of discourse that transcended the status quo. Black arts and culture revitalized itself, and black communities grew stronger internally, in opposition to the dominant culture. The result was that many African-Americans failed to take advantage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its provisions, such as Title VII. Having gone through generation after generation of rights deprivation, a sort of cultural fatigue set in, in which rebellion and resentment characterized the response to white culture. Integration had been achieved at the level of the law, but it was too late for some. Many African-Americans shunned integration, because it was viewed as submission to white culture rather than a true integration that would value black input and black ideas. African-American remained suppressed and oppressed in spite of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This does not mean that the Title VII provisions, or the Act in general, are no longer relevant. What it does mean is that American society has a long way to go before the Civil Rights Act becomes…

Meeting the Compliance and Computer Needs of the Adult Learner Term Paper

Computer Adult Learner

An employee is terminated after 23 years of service. Suddenly thrust into the work arena without the skills to make a smooth transition. In order to make a transition into the computerized workforce it will be necessary to get educational skills up to speed. (The employee has never had the need to learn the basics such as the use of a mouse, word, excel, power point or even basic e-mail.)

The employee now finds that in order to obtain a job it is necessary to get the skills that will get the job. This task will be completed through the use of Educational Interactive Technology. The employee will be able to learn from home how to use the basic software packages. Or even through an employment agency or with a new company there may be the possibility to take interactive classes in order to get the skills up to speed.

It is clear that in recent years programs have become available to the adult learner that were never offered before. The technological training one needs to develop even the most basic ability to use a computer system to function within a minimally computerized system has recently been updated to meet the needs of the adult learner, who through the isolation of a non-computerized vocation has previously avoided computer training.

There are many reasons, stated by individuals that computer skills might have been consciously avoided, not the least of which is simple fear of the unknown, yet to a large degree these individuals have simply slipped through the cracks, attending school at a time before these skills were considered basic and working in a non-computerized vocation for most of their working career. Due to the very rapid way in which technology has infiltrated the work environment these individuals have been left behind by it. They may have believed that their length of service or exemplary ability to function without computers would allow them to continue to be employable in their present, or another non-computerized job, until retirement.

Yet, sadly this is not the case any longer as the average length of service in one job continues to decline and the movement form one workplace to another becomes increasingly fluid. Additionally the accepted level of computer knowledge and functioning increases as younger workers, taught the basics in school take the place of older workers when computer dependency increases in almost every field and level of work.

Today even some of the very most basic entry level job roles require basic or even advanced computer skills and abilities. Though in most fields computerized systems are specialized, such as new computerized cash registers and transaction systems there is still a growing need for the simple ability to be able to communicate with superiors via email or access a computer, and go online to check daily sales statistics and goals. In a non-retail setting inventories and other such things are becoming exclusively electronic, rather than ledger-based hardcopies. The work environment is still changing and evolving as more and more technology infiltrates the workforce.

Educational Interactive Technology is self-guided software that helps and individual process new information about computer literacy. The use of this technology is widely accepted as one of the best possible solutions to the problem of employable-aged individuals who have gotten lost in the information technology boom. Most colleges, universities and community-based training systems employ some type of EIT in their training systems and some are more accessible and useful than others. EIT can take the form of a basic skills assessment and training tool, assuming no previous computer knowledge with a beginning point that requires very little guidance from an instructor, or it may take the form of a software specific tutorial that helps intermediate to skilled computer users both refresher and initial training on programs that are frequently used in their job role. Examples of software specific EIT can of coarse be found at, possibly a good choice for the individual learner, or the self-teaching learner as the level of need is addressed through free software that enables the learner to begin at the basic level and then advance through more specific programs that have a minimal cost.

The current state of this technology is dependant upon the growth of the computer dependency of the work place and is at a relatively high level of development. At least one example of such technology will be detailed in the body of this work. In the work there will be links to information for obtaining and costing such EIT material and also for the implementation of a training program using it.

Objectives and Scope of Proposed Change:

Taking into account how the adult learner operates this work will serve as a template for the development of a personal and possibly larger learning guide for the acquisition of basic computer skills that will serve as a starting point for the individual’s job skills upgrade. The work will examine possible software and hardware solutions and develop a cost benefits analysis with regard to an individual case and possibly a company wide strategy for the acquisition of updated and greater knowledge for the general employee. It will focus first on the strategy of basic skills acquisition and then develop an outlined plan for continued, annual learning of all employees.

With regards to adult learners the system will be individually driven so individuals at any skill level will be offered and entry point and continued growth within the skill set will be available for use by all employees and potential employees. Each step in the educational outline will take into consideration the level the individual brings to the educational setting and then build on this concept until individuals are able to develop advanced skills with individual software and hardware.

The work will offer concrete solutions to adult training needs, with special attention given to adults with absolutely no computer skills. The most basic use of a computer is foundational for placement in any firm and good loyal, hardworking employees are being squeezed out of the workforce long before it is necessary. This work will identify concrete solutions and demonstrate ways in which they can be implemented in order for this or any company to retain valuable employees without undermining their integrity.

Identified Solutions:

Within the quickly advancing job market in the United States there has been a distinguishable gap in the knowledge base of the adult population. Adults who are leaving work they have done for years, where no computer knowledge has been necessary to complete the job tasks are having a difficult time reentering an increasingly technologically driven work environment. Regardless of the reason why these jobs are disappearing the situation can be dire for the worker, as they attempt to go back to work, even at the same level of pay and supposedly skill level.

New workers entering the workforce are at a concrete advantage as they have even the most basic skills of computer operation, while those who did not attend school during the last twenty years are completely computer illiterate. These older adults are not yet at retirement age, and more importantly not in a financial position to retire but jobs they are qualified to do without computer skills are disappearing rapidly, as more and more skill levels of job classification become more and more dependant upon the use of computer technology. These people are capable of obtaining the necessary skill set to demonstrate proficiency in a job that requires computer skills but may be at a loss as to how to obtain the necessary non-traditional education.

Many colleges and universities, as well as job training programs and senior citizens programs provide very basic computer literacy programs so that individuals in this age group and in disadvantaged situations may gain enough knowledge to above all feel confident about their ability to learn to perform new job tasks that require computer basics.

This proposal will demonstrate the different options available for implementation and will also offer a summary of the most cost effective plans available. Within the scope of the project the issues of cost implementation will be made with regards to how each individual can most effectively access the needed information, be that through an already established educational system, outsourced to an employment or community-based system or through the purchase of hardware and software for the plan to be implemented within an already functioning corporate entity.

The recognition of this need has become much more wide spread, as those adults who have previously resisted such training become more and more dependant upon gaining it. There are many highly useful internet sites directed toward the learning of the most basic computer skills, one very comprehensive site can be found at this site an individual might learn through the guidance of another Internet proficient computer user the most basic skills through interactive tutorials and information sheets. Other sites that offers links to other organizations offering free and low cost tutorials…

Philosophy of Descartes and Its Essay

5. Kant’s “Copernican Revolution” in philosophy is in his genius use of the positive aspects of Rationalism (Descartes and so on) and Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). How can you argue this out with the help of the “Critique of Pure Reason”?

The human experience of negotiating the universe as it seems to be presented to us is one governed by a great many assumptions. Our education of this process, and in particular our capacity to become adept or even talented in various faculties thereto, is created by experience. In experience, we gain the evolving abilities to relate to objects which we can perceive in our world. However, in order to accomplish this, there are any number of beliefs which must be possessed in us that will create a framework wherein such relating can occur. These beliefs — and the practical, ideological and physiological experiences which are dependent upon them — are somehow instinctually incorporated into human thought as knowledge. Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason is concerned both with the process by which we have assumed such ‘knowledge’ and with the implications that such assumptions have on our approach to the mortal realm. In his discourse, he approaches space and time as two principles which occupy such a disposition in our shared consciousness and herein offers insight into the transcendental notion of human perception as a reflection of the self rather than of ‘reality.’

Immanuel Kant may perhaps be regarded as our most important metaphysical philosopher for the assimilation of a great breadth of scientific knowledge with an unparalleled insight into questions over existence, man’s relationship to the universe and the inherent nature of man to strive for answers to questions beyond his pale of understanding. Key works composed by and about Kant’s explorations of all of the above disciplines indicate that the thinker viewed scientific ingenuity as a natural extension man’s senses and as a manifestation of human impulse to challenge, create and comprehend. It was thus that he worked to elevate empiricism as a key element of his rationalist ideology.

Kant’s metaphysical perspective within the ‘Critique of Pure Reason,’ with its emphasis on human perception as an end to the means of scientific progress, espoused the idea that the tangible result of empirical science represented a high act of moral responsibility by its creator to the betterment of collective human living standards.

In his discussion on reason, Kant would find rationalizations for the continual probing of our capacity to understand and even harness the great forces of the universe, suggesting that for Kant, the relationship between spiritual and mortal concerns was in many ways based in this plane of scientific innovation. .

6. The self in world experiences “fear and trembling” in front of faith or God. This paradox of religious ideality and models is clearly seen in the figure of “Abraham.” Describe it out with Kierkegaard.

The existentialist considerations of Kierkegaard are particularly intriguing to our discussion as they reveal a mold for the consideration of God which pays due respect to the role which human emotion, perception and even social systems play into religiosity. Accordingly, he makes the challenging argument that as we develop our individual relationships with the physical and the spiritual, we come to achieve a relationship with God less based on rational presumption or empirical observation. Instead, he attributes this relationship to something more fundamentally psychological or emotional in the beholder.

To this point, he denotes that “religion is made meaningful and relevant by our passionate commitment to what we believe and what we want out of life, regardless of whether it can be rationally and mathematically described. For the religious person to say that such-and-such is ‘true,’ they are saying that it is ‘true for me’ because it is a truth that this person lives in an immediate and existential way rather than simply observes at a distance.” (Cline, 1)

Kierkegaard defends this position as having a basis in the scriptures, recounting Abraham’s horrible dilemma when God commanded him to sacrifice Isaac. Here, the biblical allegory is invoked for its demonstration of pure faith, separate from the empirical or rational considerations of human morality that might have prevented Abraham from agreeing to the act. Though the act is not carried out — a reward for Abraham’s faith to say the least — Kierkegaard views this as the type of impassioned commitment that one assumes with God based on personalized and individualized experiences. The nature of Abraham’s faith, to this point, would take him to the peak of a mountain with his son in a stark demonstration of the sense of this commitment.

7. Marcel’s contribution to “Inter-subjectivity” is unique and important. How and why?

The importance of Marcel’s contributions to the field of philosophy revolves on that which he offers us on the subject of human relationships. The notion of inter-subjectivity is a crucial element of what Marcel describes in the capacity of one individual to relate properly to another. The concept is important for helping to define the civility, conscientiousness and compassion which are derived from this experience of understanding the world and its encounters as they are likely to be understood through the eyes of another individual. The concept of intersubjectivity serves an important function here, denoting that as part of the social experience of being human, the way that we relate to others is underscored by our ability to define morality and rightness within the practical confines of the relationship.

This points to what Marcel refers to as spiritual availability. He defines this as “entering into one another’s lives through different disposabilities. Disposability is the condition for the possibility of an openness to the other. Not only can we permeate one another but also there is a sympathetic resonance that moves beyond those involved.” (Kidd, 1) This is to say that Marcel’s ideas are of particular importance for their simultaneous nuance and universality. Namely, Marcel changes a discourse of morality almost always driven by behavioral codes or theological prescriptions. Here, instead, he leaves these moral decisions where other individuals are concerned to the ‘intersubjectivity’ which might allow us not just to do right by those whom we know but to use these interactions and experiences as a way to project a proper template for behavior and moral orientation in all of one’s dealings. Particularly for its emphasis on human systems as a way to define moral behavior, Marcel draws the nature of this discourse somewhat closer to our pedestrian experiences, making it valuable and easily applicable.

8. Jean Paul Sartre and his atheistic philosophy

The school of thought supporting existentialism is distinguished in the attention which it devotes to questioning the rift between the individual’s instinctual experience of the universe and the frequently obscuring impingement of the collective. With the ideology emerging from an essentially negativist understanding of this rift, Sartre’s would speak on this point with a distinctive bent toward rejection of collectively driven theological impulses. An article from the New York Times, speaking on the subject of Sartre’s dramatic rejection of the Nobel Laureate honorin 1964, reinforces the appropriateness of the author’s decision, describing the existential movement according to an atheistic precept distinguishing it from institutionalization of any kind. As the article explains, “for the existentialist God does not exist and the world is just a phenomenon without any meaning other than what man may attach to it.” (Special, 1). Thus, fundamental to this ideology is the belief that institutions designed by man to convey their own distinct and self-motivated conceptions of truth are diametrically opposed to the liberty of the existentialist. This is a notion that applies to academic institutions, governments and, indeed, to award committees. It is quickly detectable that, in spite of what we might perceive as an extremely reputable organization, the Nobel group is ideology distinct from the existentialist thinker whom it sought to honor in 1964. In response to Sartre’s refusal, in fact, the academy’s secretary, Karl Ragnar Gierow is reported to have contended that thought it had been forewarned of his intended refusal, the organization chose Sartre because of his work’s “vast influence on our times, mainly through its spirit of liberty and quest for truth.” (1) The explanation here points to a contradiction likely suffered by Sartre, whose very philosophy rejects the merit of institutional recognition of universal truths or collectively pertinent values.

According to existentialist ideology, the cause for rejection of such universal truths is the frequency with which these tend to force a conflation between individual desire and the pressures imposed by larger systems such as societies and governments. This conflation will tend to eliminate free-will in the individual who is unaware that such a phenomenon has taken place. It is understandable, therefore, that Sartre approached the notion of accepting the award as the dangerous prospect of endorsing a single vision of truth as defined according to an elite academic organization’s determination or to an…

SWOT Analysis of Personal Behavior Term Paper

SWOT analysis of self

After the training and acquisition of skills within the institution, there will be the other life outside the college where the skills and knowledge acquired will have to be pout into practical use. This is an eventuality that every graduate faces and hence there is need to know oneself properly and understand your emotional intelligence and behavioral pattern as well as disposition of the personality so that one is adequately prepared for the job market out there. It is on the basis of these facts that the below SWOT analysis on myself was conducted with the ultimate aim of affirming my presumptions about my personality using a professionally proven metrics like the one presented herein. The self SWOT analysis will delve into the personal Strengths that are displayed by my daily approaches and conduct, the Weaknesses that emerge from the perspectives I hold and the decisions I often make, the Opportunities that come up for me to utilize my strengths in a gainful manner and lastly the Threats that come up against my daily plans to achieve the goals that are set before me.


In the emotional intelligence section, it emerged that I have ‘other awareness’ which often helps me in the work that I do. In order to understand the position of clients who walk into the showroom or you meet in the marketing sessions, which is what I am prepared to start my career off with, it is important to be in a position where you can accurately tell what they are feeling. This is also appositive attribute in effectively dealing with colleagues at the future work place and even classmates in the college. Without showing empathy to others, it ca take you so long to understand what they are going through hence you could be around them but still be of very little help. The test also showed that I am a highly introspective person under the section of ‘introspection’. This shows that I take deep consideration for inner self before making decisions and the decisions that I make are motivated by strong values that I believe in. Being introspective also allows one to have high levels of self-awareness, hence knows how to deal with their inner emotional turmoil that if not checked, may end up ruining their careers.


It is also important to know the weaknesses that an individual has and the matrix presented helps in effectively gauging the weaknesses. One of the weaknesses that emerge from the test is that I come out as a ‘performance avoid-orientation’ which means I often fear taking up tasks that may reveal my inner inabilities that I had kept to self. On the contrary, I would rather take up assignments in the group or at home that I am confident I will prove by prowess in outperforming others. I am risk averse generally in life and the test has brought that to the fore. These are weaknesses that may hinder my future career since I will tend to choose which job to take up and which one to avoid, yet it is possible that the one I will be avoiding is what will work out better for me. Another weakness showed up in the presentation of my Type A personality, where I recognize and worry about stress in my life. This is an indicator that I can easily get depressed by a stressful situation and it may hinder me from accomplishing my duties.


There are various opportunities that present themselves in the study of the personality that I ma. For instance in the evaluation of the level of helpfulness to others, it emerged that I scored highly on the helping behavior. This means I value team approach to issues and assignments which is a good opportunity to exploit such in building up my career in the future and become a good leader. If I exploit this team approach, it is an opportunity for me to significantly rise and become the head of a department within a short time of commencing my work. The other opportunity is seen in the effective commitment section where the scores indicated that I have a strong sense of commitment to my employer or the person I work for. This is an opportunity that can easily make me the favorable candidate for any higher post that may fall vacant or internal promotion as compared to those who may not have the organizational vision and culture instilled within them. Under the core job characteristics again, the scores turned out to be similar to this above since it showed the tasks I am assigned tend to be enjoyable and satisfying. This is from the constant strive I make to enjoy whatever I do and even the team assignments and the class work given. This is a great opportunity for me progress and build my career in the future in whichever field I may fall into since it shows I am not choosy on the work that I am given.


There are some characters and behaviors that may act as threats to achieving the full potentials that we have. For instance in my filling out of the matrix, it came out that in the Big Five section, I fell under the personality of agreeableness. This can be said to be the person who does not want to rock the boat and cars much about the emotional state of others. In as much as it may be a good attribute, it can also be catastrophic to the decision and opinions that the individual holds. This means I often have to give in to the…

Business in 2009, Heartland Payment SystemsHpsEssay


In 2009, Heartland Payment Systems (HPS) reported a security breach in one of its main databases. What happened is the online credit and debit card processor, reported significant portions of customer files were stolen over the course of one year. They contained all the Visa and MasterCard numbers for 175 thousand of the 250 thousand retailers the company was working with. This is potentially exposing tens millions of individual credit and debit card numbers to criminals. Commenting about the incident the President and Chief Financial Officer (Robert Baldwin) said, “We found evidence of an intrusion last week and immediately notified federal law enforcement officials as well as the card brands. We understand that this incident may be the result of a widespread global cyber fraud operation, and we are cooperating closely with the United States Secret Service and Department of Justice.” (Haskins, 2009)

This is significant in showing how the company was completely blind sided by this attack. To prevent these kinds of incidents in the future, they need to create a strategy that will identify and deal with potential threats early. This will be achieved by: evaluating the corporation’s web site, studying the firm’s marketing strategy, analyzing their privacy / security policy and providing recommendations to address these issues. Together, these different elements will offer the greatest insights as to how the firm should address all security threats in the future. This is the point that they will be able to build confidence with their customers and avoid these kinds of embarrassing incidents in the future.

Describe and evaluate Heartland Payment’s web site in these four areas: (1) product information, (2) the corporation’s contact information, (3) customization of products for customers and (4) customer information at purchase.

When you evaluate HPS’ web site it is clear that it is similar and different from others inside the industry. As far as product information is concerned, the web site provides an array of services. To include: credit card processing, payroll services, lending services, check management, gift marketing and micropayments. This is providing the businesses with detailed information of how these services can benefit merchants. The corporation’s contract information is in the top right had corner with: the 800 numbers and email addresses for customer service. Moreover, at the bottom of the home page there are disclosures about other financial institutions the company owns and the symbol of the common stock. The way these products can be customized for customers is to identify what their needs are and then address them. This allows HPS to provide clients with an array of services that will address the needs of businesses ranging from: credit card to payroll processing. At purchase, the company will need information about the merchant such as: their bank account, address and telephone number. Furthermore, merchants can log into the web site and monitor the specific products they are using. When these systems are evaluated, it is clear that the combination of them is providing customers with: information about the company, its products and it collects vital information about the client. From a security perspective, this data automatically makes the company a target of hackers. As a result, executives should have been aware of potential breaches (given the products they deliver and the data they have access to). (“Heartland Payment Systems,” 2012)

Describe and evaluate three (3) of Heartland Payments Internet marketing strategies and the competitive advantages its website provides.

Three of the Internet marketing strategies that are being utilized by the HPS include: public relations, attracting customers with search engines and collecting email addresses. In the case of public relations, this is when the company will show how they are a reputable firm that can address the customer’s safety concerns. The web site will play an important role, by highlighting how: the company handles 44 thousand transactions per day and the large contracts that were signed. This is designed to serve as a form of social proof.

Search engine marketing is when the company will use a series of keyword strategies to increase their ranking on search engine pages. The effectiveness of this strategy is that the firm can use this as a way to attract potential customers (who are interested in their products and services). The web site will serve as a tool that will educate possible customers about HPS and what they have to offer. This will help them to have a sense of confidence by going someplace to learn about the firm.

Collecting email addresses is when executives will receive specific information regarding parties that want to learn more about HPS. This provides the sales force with potential leads they can directly call or email about specific services that are provided. The web site plays a critical role in collecting all data about the customer. (Fox, 2009) (“Heartland Payment Systems,” 2012)

Analyze and evaluate the corporation’s privacy/security policy and the corporation’s response to the security breach.

The current privacy policy discusses a number of different areas to include: how the information is used, email / opting out and the use of cookies. These elements are designed to provide customers with the satisfaction that will the firm will only use this information for specific purposes. Moreover, executives want to show how they will always protect the data that is vital to their customers’ businesses. The privacy policy is helping clients to understand how and when this kind of information will be used in the future. (“Privacy Policy,” 2012)

The biggest weakness for the company is their response to an attack is poor. The reason why is because, the firm does not have a set strategy of having customers contact them about these issues. Instead, they simply tell everyone that they are working with public officials who are handling the situation. This kind of response is hurting the image of the company and it makes them appear to be hiding something. (Haskins, 2009)

Recommend and provide rationale for two (2) methods and/or tools to ensure greater security for customers.

To improve security for customers, HPS needs to focus on two areas to include: having a layered security system and to continually evaluate the firm’s security policies on a regular basis. Having a layered security system is important, because it will make it difficult for hackers to be able to breach sensitive areas. The reason why is due to the fact that there are firewalls (which are all interconnected). If one were to fail, the others will be able to serve as a secondary and triple layer of protection. This will make it difficult for hackers to upload malware programs. (Haskins, 2009)

At least once a year, IT personnel need to evaluate the security procedures of the firm. The main reason is because the nature of the threat is continually changing. This means that the strategies which worked in the past may no longer be effective in dealing with the threat. When this happens, the odds increase that hackers will be able to upload a program that can steal information without anyone knowing until it is too late. In the case with HPS, this is exactly what happened with criminals able to upload a malware application and quietly steel the majority of firms’ files.

Evidence of this can be seen with comments from Avivah Litan (an IT analyst with the Gartner Group) who said, “I don’t have the specifics, but I imagine the criminals used under-the-radar malware that was not detected by the controls Heartland had in place. Also, I am left to wonder how the crooks got the data out of their system — a firewall policy should preclude such data transfers to unrecognized servers. There should be a minimum of an annual evaluation for most organizations. The depth of the evaluation and effort placed into…

Definition of Science Fiction Term Paper

Science Fiction

A Definition of Science Fiction — a Frightening realistic glimpse into a probable future

“Oh Brave New World! O. Wonder! That Has Such People in it!” This is the poetic exclamation that John the Savage of Aldous Huxley’s novel Brave New World utters, upon seeing individuals from ‘the future’ (really, the present day) in his so-called primitive, native society. When the future individuals seem bemused by John’s highfalutin poetic utterance, John explains that he is merely quoting Shakespeare’s “The Tempest,” a fantastic play about wizards and enchanted islands and airy spirits. Yet while Brave New World is conventionally defined as a science fiction novel, “The Tempest” is never defined as a science fiction play, merely a poetic fantasy. When attempting to come to a convincing definition of the novelistic genre science fiction, it is perhaps thought proving to first look at this striking comparison between these two fictions and two apparently similar genres — the fantastic and the scientific.

While both fantastic and scientific fictions can show the reader the distinction between different types of human moral behaviors, through the use of fictionally contrived plot devices and artfully created strange situations, wondrous settings, and author-constructed rules of law (such as making magic govern an island, rather than the police, for instance, or genetically programmed happiness rather than judges), science fiction, unlike any other form of fantastical fiction attempts to give human beings a vision of the future that is probable, rather than merely imaginative. The genre of science fiction hopes to not simply hold up a distorted mirror to the present day, by which present day people can better see their true selves. It instead hopes to show a vision of what the technical future may really be like — unless people act differently today, towards the technological capacities they do possess. Thus, while Shakespeare’s fantastic island might have been a cautionary tale about human behavior and wonderment, it was not a warning that someday wizards might govern all of humanity. But Huxley’s vision of a eugenically governed future, where people seek nothing but pleasure, not truth, and soma rather than lasting satisfaction in hard work, was meant to scare his readers into looking more critically at their attitudes and technology. Science fiction often takes the tone of moral imperative and a call to action for human morality to act more responsibility in the present day, not simply a reflection upon human morality in strange situations.

Yet despite this sober use of science fiction, even perhaps more so than other forms of fiction, science fiction often has a humorous, even satirical tone to it. This may be seen in Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse Five, which, although set in the present, portrays an absurd view of modern, mechanized conflict. In Vonnegut’s parallel universe his characters frequently have ridiculous names and rationales for their behavior in a dehumanized, technical environment of war. However, this is not because the setting is not realistic but because Vonnegut’s novel acts as a kind of parody of present-day reality and wartime rhetoric. It people do not behave differently towards wartime conflict, he suggests, then the absurd reality of World War II’s incarnation of Slaughterhouse Five will become a true reality of the next World War.

Thus, rather than creating a purely alternative world, like a fantasy, with no connection to modern life, a science fiction novel usually creates a kind of parody or exaggerated ‘take’ on modern life, usually of dehumanizing or technical elements, using satire and exaggeration to drive its point home. The surreal atmosphere of Slaughterhouse Five is further created by the novel’s methodology of storytelling, as it moves backwards and forwards in time. The main character is Billy Pilgrim, a World War II veteran who was captured by the Germans in the Ardennes offensive in 1944. Although this is a real-life event, the absurd attitudes of the commanding officers and soldiers towards heroism makes the supposedly ‘true’ world of these sections of the novel seem just as strange as Huxley’s. Conflict and the dehumanized, mechanical nature of conflict, suggests Vonnegut, is the end product of modern, distanced warfare where bombs rather than people matter most.

This coolness of tone is one reason why readers seldom feel…

Marketing Welcome to This Presentation About the Essay


Welcome to this presentation about the fundamentals of marketing. The presentation is going to cover a number of different subjects, including promotion, buyer behaviour, personal selling, the promotional mix and customer relationship marketing.

We’ll start with promotion. Promotion is defined as “Communicating with the public in an attempt to influence them toward buying your product” (Ward, 2012). Promotion is a broad concept, encompassing advertising, public relations management and any events such as trade show appearances, demonstrations, contests or sponsorships, for example.

A promotional activity can have a number of different objectives. Some of the more common objectives of promotional activities are to establish the corporate image in the community, to build brand awareness, to build customer loyalty, to capitalize on new market opportunities, to dispel negative press and to announce changes (Moore, 2012). Basically, promotion is a way of getting a message across, whether that messages is “Hey, look at me!” Or something more sophisticated like “Hey, we’re really good people at XYZ Corp.”

Slide Four: The next subject to consider is buyer behaviour. Buyers go through a five-stage decision-making process. The first two steps are needs recognition and problem awareness. This is where the buyer figures out that he or she needs something. The second stage is information search. If you’re already figuring out what your job here is, you’re starting to understand.

Slide Five: The third step is evaluation of alternatives, the fourth step is purchase and then the fifth step is post-purchase evaluation (No author, 2012). Now clearly, the sales staff needs to guide the buyer through this process, all the while pointing the buyer in the direction of our product. It is important to think about the post-purchase evaluation because during the selling process you need to convince the buyer not to expend much energy on post-purchase evaluation. Convince the buyer so thoroughly about the rightness of the decision that the buyer is disinclined to revisit that decision at any point in the future.

Slide Six: While you are supposed to affect the decision-making process, there are other factors as well that come into play. The first is the influence of competition — there are a lot of companies that are trying to do the same thing you are, and they will all influence the buyer. Another influence is that of substitute products. This basically expands what you are competing against. Think about movies for a minute – you can spend money on a movie, but anything you do during that time for entertainment is part of that decision. So it’s not just a choice of what movie to see, but maybe that choice also involves television, surfing the web or going down the pub.

Slide Seven: Another influencer over the buyer decision process is friends and family. Any voice that can influence a buyer’s decision needs to be taken into consideration. We often turn to our peers to help us make decisions, or afterwards to reinforce those decisions. There are a whole range of other factors that we use in target marketing — each of which affecting the peer group. So where a person is from, what their culture is, how much schooling them have and from where, how old they are…all of these are contributors to the buyer’s decision-making process. And of course, sales people play an important role in the buying decision.

Slide Eight: Personal selling is part of promotion — it is “oral communication with potential buyers of a product with the intention of making a sale.” You can use either a push strategy or a pull strategy, but in some way you must entice the customer to buy. There are six roles of a sale force: prospecting, communicating, selling, servicing, information gathering and allocating (No author, 2012, 2).

Slide Nine: Personal selling is important for a few reasons. Customers get a lot of attention from sales people, and that allows them to gather more information and build trust. As a salesperson, you can convey far more information than any indirect medium, so this is a great technique for selling complex things. Also, you have the ability to respond directly to the customer’s verbal and non-verbal feedback. This means you have the chance to constantly direct the customer towards the sale. In addition, your presence limits the effectiveness of outside influencers on the decision (No author, 2012, 2).

Slide Ten: The product we are going to begin using personal selling to market is our new automated widget. There are a few reasons why we are switching to personal selling of the automated widget, not just poor sales. The first is that this is a highly technical product. The feedback we are receiving is that customers simply do not understand it. The automated widget is expensive as well. Our research indicates that customers are especially cautious with purchases in excess of ?500, and the automated widget costs ?829.

Slide Eleven: The automated widget, we feel, is a product that can help us to gain access to new accounts. This is by design, because once you have one of these we have a whole lineup of products that are integrated with the automated widget. So this product is actually a wedge that we are using to gain more customers. Not only does this make it more important to sell them, but we also want to build a long-term relationship with our customers. The final reason for using personal selling is simple — the automated widget competes directly with products that are sold this way. We have to give a high level of personal service in order to compete.

Slide Twelve: Why personal selling? Can’t we just use the other elements of the promotional mix? Well, I can tell you that personal selling is the most expensive thing we can do. We would not utilize it if we did not feel that it was the best possible way to win this business. Personal selling allows us to properly explain our product and pricing strategies to the customers. Right now, they do not understand the value of the product, so they aren’t interested. But it is a great product, so clearly we need to communicate that better. We are also going to promote it at trade shows around the country. We are going to do demonstrations that will highlight just how useful the automated widget really is. So that will pique interest, but we need to move beyond that.

Slide Thirteen: When we talk to customers and potential customers about this, they really never move past the first or second stage of the buyer decision making process. They either do not realize that they have a problem, or their information search leads them somewhere else. The rest of the promotion process will hopefully focus on these first two steps, but the personal selling will then be required to get us through the next two steps to reach purchase. Then, of course, personal selling allows us to build a relationship with the customer, something we cannot do otherwise.

Slide Fourteen: I want to introduce another concept, customer relationship marketing. This means building a strong relationship with the customer, so that they feel loyal to you, and that you can have a two-way flow of information with the customer. We want to build relationships with our customers so that we can sell them more products, of course. This is because repeat customers are cheaper to sell to than new customers. Repeat customers that are satisfied create positive word-of-mouth. And they spend more with us, because we have built that trust and forged that relationship (Lake, 2012).

Slide Fifteen: I’m going to give you a quick example of the personal selling process we want you to use. Basically, your role is going to be to move the customer…

Nursing Leadership the Task That Awaits a Term Paper

Nursing Leadership

The task that awaits a newly hired nurse unit manager in this particular care facility is going to be challenging. With nurses complaining out loud about assignments, and with nurses calling in sick, being late to work and not being productive, the new unit manager has her hands full. This paper uses scholarly literature to propose steps to be taken to get the care facility back to operating the way it should be operating. The two most important components of her plan to get the unit back to being fully productive are conflict resolution and problem-solving.

Conflict Management Should Come Into Play

Before any major overhaul of the policies in the care unit can be completed, the new unit manager must deal with the conflict that exists. And so, because there is a great deal of literature on managing conflict, and because the manager has had experience in resolving conflicts in other venues, the new manager decides to go in that direction first.

An article in the peer-reviewed journal Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing points out that when there is conflict in a nursing environment, along with that conflict the leadership will encounter “negative feelings” (Kelly, 2006, 22). Negative feelings in turn generate hostility and discomfort, Kelly explains, and these conditions have a way of “…draining energy and reducing focus,” and hence, it is obvious that quality nursing care is not likely when these conditions exist in a care unit.

After being on the job for a day or two, the manager realizes that some of the more experienced nurses among the thirty-seven nurses she is responsible for have been using the tactic of “avoidance,” as a way to attempt to stay out of the tensions that sometimes boil over in the unit. But as Kelly points out, and as the manager well knows from past experience, avoidance as a way to reduce conflict will not be successful because it only postpones the implementation of a solution. In addition, Kelly maintains that taking a “passive role” is a “recipe for low morale” and so in order to improve the morale of this unit the recommendation is to “confront conflict openly and respectfully” using “assertive behavior” (23). Advocating the use of assertive behavior doesn’t mean nurses snipe at each other or become bullies; it means for example that nurses should be provided with “…emotional intelligence training” so they can bring a sense of “rational thought” rather than anger and tension into a conflict-ridden situation.

Transformational Leadership rather than Transactional Leadership

The manager in this instance, being fully aware of the conflict that exists, should avoid using transactional leadership as a strategy and instead she should engage in transformational leadership, according to Kelly (26). Transactional managers tend to “honor stability” and they insist that nurses must concentrate on their patients and their tasks and therefore tensions are ignored in many cases (Kelly, 26). However, the transformational nurse leader utilizes tactics like “inspirational motivation,” “idealized influence,” intellectual incentives and she uses creative assertiveness when it comes to conflict resolution.

In The New York Times-owned publication, journalist Kendra Cherry explains that transformational leaders are “…energetic, enthusiastic and passionate.” Transformational leaders challenge the status quo — which in this case is vitally important — and they encourage their staff professionals to “…explore new ways of doing things” (Cherry, 2013). Moreover, transformational leaders gain respect through the following behaviors: a) they make sure to keep “lines of communication open” and they welcome contributions from staff; b) they have a “clear vision” and they articulate that vision often and with credibility; c) they serve as a role model for their followers; and d) through their dynamic approach to nursing, they inspire others to “change expectations, perceptions and motivations” so that the unit can function more productively (Cherry).

How to Solve Problems — Create a Healthy Work Environment

While the new nurse manager is providing the leadership that addresses conflict in the unit, she must also be focusing on creating a healthy work environment. She can do this by setting a course that will lead to problem solving (Wiggins, et al., 2011, 1). One could argue that providing leadership vis-a-vis conflict management is a way of solving problems, but there is a bigger picture that goes beyond just putting out fires and getting nurses to confront issues (rather than avoiding issues). Wiggins and colleague assert that in order to create a healthy work environment, the manager must seek to help bring about the following dynamics: a) employees must be treated with respect and fairness; b) trust must be established between management and employees; c) good communication and collaboration must be present; and d) nurses on the floor must have a sense of physical and emotional safety (Wiggins, 1).

If the new unit manager is to be successful in bringing about stability and productivity, Wiggins insists that she must engage in the following five management practices, which may overlap with some of the previously mentioned goals, but which go along with the concept of transformational leadership. The five are as follows: a) she must balance the tension between “production and efficiency”; b) she must work hard to create an atmosphere of trust and this atmosphere must be sustained through any tensions or crises that may arise; c) the process of change must be managed on a daily and hourly basis; d) staff must be included in decisions that affect the quality — and the flow — of services provided to patients; and e) the unit must become a place of learning through “knowledge management” strategies (Wiggins, 2).

Gaining the Support of Staff

Clearly the situation that the new unit manager walked into requires, above all, a sense of change, big change, in the way problems are resolved. Indeed, solving problems and curtailing conflict in a unit presents challenges to a nurse manager that test the leader’s competencies, experience, and creativity. Angela May and Jayne Norbury present ways in which major steps can be taken regarding the way in which change can be implement and tensions can be eased in this unit. One of the suggestions May puts forward is to listen to all perspectives from the nurses working in this unit, and by doing so the new manager will “…seek mutually agreed ways to deliver change” (May, 2007).

The listening part of the new manager’s duty in terms of welcoming change is a key to successful leadership; but there are things that the new manager should avoid. Those include: a) making “long lists”; b) creating strict schedules; c) spending time detailing specific new project plans; and d) engaging in “traditional time management techniques” (May). What should be happening (rather than the a-d list above) is the new manager should be focusing on her own “interactions” with people and she must “…invest time and energy into…relationships.” How will the new manager establish trust that she has the capability to bring positive change to the unit unless she establishes that she can be a good listener and can be transformational in the sense of being down-to-earth and showing charisma and humor as well?

Before the new manager can approach the nurse’s complaints about inadequate compensation for the amount of work that is expected of them, the manager must help staff “…gain insights into their own behaviors” (May). By using the previously-mentioned transformational strategies, and by training nurses to find more effective ways to communicate with one another, nurses will have more realistic approaches to their own attitudes and work ethics. The nurse manager should be conducting leadership sessions during which: a) honest communication is encouraged and rewarded; b) nurses more fully understand how their behaviors impact others in the unit; c) the manager’s enthusiasm and positive vision for the future becomes contagious; d) nurses come to understand the roles and responsibilities of others in the unit; and e) networks are established among nurses for a smooth resolution of problems rather than a festering of old issues which leads to conflict (May).

Evidence-Based Practices and Mentoring

As part of the problem-solving efforts of the new unit manager, she should be open to using progressive policies (which comes with the territory when embracing a transformational style of management), and among those polices she should include is mentoring as a best practice tactic (Lusardi, 2012). The idea of mentoring doesn’t always mean that “experts” are brought into the unit to teach new tricks to nurses (although that is a workable tactic). Mentoring in this context means that more experienced nurses in the unit — nurses that have been given paid time to study and adopted the newest innovative techniques for patient care — spend time in small groups with newer nurses to share those helpful innovations and techniques.

Moreover, the new manager should select a group of experienced nurses in the unit to serve as a planning committee to determine (through regularly scheduled sessions) what problems are “real” and what problems simply result from a lack of communication or from a…