Concrete applied at the material constituent level, and captures

Concrete is the most widely used material and with
the continuous inventions of new things there is a need to update the
construction materials also. Conventional Concrete works great in compression
but when we talk about tension, it lacks there. Many inventors try to add steel
fibres but whenever there are cracks in concrete then corrosion of steel fibres
occur. So, the material scientists are moving towards the textile fibres which
will not corrode under environment conditions and helps to attain tensile
strength. High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) is
one of its kinds. Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) or Bendable Concrete also
comes under this category which was developed by Victor C. Li at University of
Michigan. Many failures that occur in concrete infrastructures are catastrophic
in nature without giving any type of warning but ECC as having tensile property
can give us a lot of time to act to deal with the infrastructure failures. ECC has
been optimized by using Micromechanics. 8Micromechanics is a
branch of mechanics applied at the material constituent level, and captures the
mechanical interaction between the fibres, mortar matrix and fibre/matrix
interface. The fibres used in making ECC have length in mm and diameter in
micrometre (µm) and they might have some surface coating at a nanometre scale,
hence can be deal in only micromechanics.


As coarse aggregates are not used in making ECC they
are very light in weight than the conventional concrete and can be used in
Skyscrapers. They also need fibres (2%) in less quantity than other Fiber
Reinforced Concretes.

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ECC or Bendable concrete have the initial cost three
times the conventional concrete because coarse aggregates are not used in
making ECC and place of them has to be taken by the cement itself. But when we
look at the long term cost then the ECC becomes economical than conventional
concrete as it needs less repair as the cracks developed in it are very small. 11To
deal with its initial cost fly ash can be used which is a waste produced in
coal power plants. With the fly ash other wastes have also been tested by Huang
et al. like fly ash cenosphere and iron ore tailings to produce a Green
Lightweight Engineered Cementitious Composite (GLECC). Fly ash cenosphere being
hollow from inside improve the thermal properties of concrete 4. 


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