Childhood obesity and
overweight and factors associated with it.
“Childhood obesity isn’t some simple, discrete issue. There’s no one cause
we can pinpoint. There’s no one program we can fund to make it go away. Rather,
it’s an issue that touches on every aspect of how we live and how we work.”
In the last few decades of the twentieth century,
overweight and obesity have become a major threat for the higher income
has already reached the epidemic level in developed countries of America,
Europe with prevalence rate of 63 and 59 per 1000 respectively (WHO estimates
2016). Obesity has been found to be a strong predictor of several
well-established risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality. They are directly linked with the rise in
non-communicable diseases like diabetes, hypertension etc. The global
increase in overweight and obesity at the young age is directly linked with the
risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Worldwide, at least 2.8 million people die each year as a
result of being overweight or obese, and an estimated 35.8 million (2.3%) of
global DALYs are caused by overweight or obesity (WHO). Reversing
the obesity epidemic should be an urgent priority (Mokdad et al., 2003). On the
other hand, developing countries are now going under various transitions like
demographic, epidemiological, economic, as well as nutritional transition. Due
to this, for countries like India, the issue is more serious. Earlier
developing countries had high prevalence of under-nutrition but now there is a
double burden of under-nutrition as well as over-nutrition. In
developing countries, malnutrition is a medical as well as a social disorder
(Sidhu & Kaushal, 2005). This
double burden of over-nutrition and under-nutrition is now a public health
challenge in developing countries. Under-nutrition is still a significant cause
of deaths of children in less developed and developing countries. Although eradicating
hunger was a part of the first United Nation’s Millennium Development Goal and
was declared global priority, undernutrition continues to be prevalent in
low-income and middle-income countries throughout the world. Almost all the health and nutrition policies
in the developing countries is emphasising on undernutrition but at the same
time, rising prevalence of over-nutrition is now a serious health threat. Childhood
obesity is now a recent epidemic with high magnitude in India (Tanu Midha et
al., 2012). Due to rise in
overweight and obesity in the recent decades, it is now important for the
countries to focus on regular monitoring of prevalence of it in the population.
1.2 Existing studies on over-weight or obesity of children.
1.3 Need of the study: –
India is one of the most
populous countries with a population of about 121 million. In the recent past, we
have made considerable progress on social and economic fronts, as indicated by
improvements in indicators such as life expectancy, infant mortality ratio
(IMR) and maternal mortality ratio (MMR), under five mortality and literacy
rate. However, improvement in nutritional status of females and children is
found to be lagged behind. Subsequently, the country is facing the double
burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in which nutrition plays
an important. There are a lot of studies on under-nutrition in India for
children, but over-nutrition in children and factors associated with it are
currently ignored. Childhood obesity is a fast emerging problem for which
national representative data is scarce. Effective preventive of adult obesity
will require prevention and management of childhood obesity. So the
current paper will be an attempt to highlight the problem of obesity and
over-weight by showing its prevalence, trends, patterns and its association
with various factors. Also the association of mother’s weight with nutritional
status of child will be checked.
1.4 Objectives of the study: –
1) To assess the nutritional status of children and various factors
associated with it.
2) To examine the pattern of food consumption in children and its impact
on their nutritional status.
3) To study the impact of mother’s weight on obesity amongst their
1.5 Hypothesis: –
1) There is no significant difference in food consumption pattern in children.
2) There is no significant association in women’s BMI and reproduction.
3) There is no impact of mother’s weight on children.
4) There is no association between women’s nutritional status and